Treaty of Peace between the Central and Associated Powers and Russia
Signed December 25, 1916
Location Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin, Germany
Effective January 10, 1917


  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Bulgaria
  • Russia
Languages German, Russian, Italian


European Land

  • The nations of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia are established as independent republics under German influence, and Russia recognizes the independence of all three.
  • Russia accepts Finland's independence
  • Russia agrees to end its influence in the Balkans, and is restricted from entering into an alliance with Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece, and Romania.
  • Germany gains control of Poland and Belarus from Russia.
  • Austria-Hungary gains control of a small section of Ukraine.
  • Ukraine is formed as an independent Republic, which gains control of the Crimean peninsula, and Russia recognizes the independence of Ukraine.
  • The Ottoman Empire gains land in the Caucasus south of the Kuban and Terek Rivers.

Middle East and Asia

  • Russia would renounce all claims to Persia.
  • The Ottoman Empire would gain a section of Russian Persian, including Tabriz.
  • Russia gives Germany all of its land on Sakhalin Island (this was mainly to be used as a bargaining chip with Japan).
  • Russia gave up all treaty ports in China to Germany. For all concessions in China that Germany already had access to, Italy replaced Russia. For all concessions in China that Germany and Italy already had access to, Austria-Hungary replaced Russia. If Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Italy all had access to the same concession in China, then Russia would be allowed to keep that concession.

Access to Sea

  • All signatories agrees to not block access to sea for any body of water, not including rivers within a country. This also did not restict taxing Russian ships hoping to use the Suez Canal.


  • Russia payed £2 billion in reparations to Germany.
  • Russia payed £1 billion in reparations to Austria-Hungary.
  • Russia payed £.5 billion in reparations to the Ottoman Empire.

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