In 1864, with the war turning into a stalemate, General Robert E. Lee, hoping to end the war with Confederate independence and Union recognition. By the end of May, the two opposing armies had locked into a siege of the Confederacy's capital, Richmond. Unfortunately, the Union was unable to break into the city, while the Confederacy could not break the Union siege. The Confederacy's government had fled south to Atlanta, Georgia a month before the start of the siege.
On June 9th, 1864, after sending a messenger to the new capital and receiving a reply, send out a flag of truce to General Ulysses S. Grant, and requested to negotiate at a neutral location. After telegramming Washington, D.C., Grant replied that the Union would only accept a surrender in the North. Lee, wanting to avoid that humiliation, and the fact the war was a stalemate, requested a more neutral location. After some back and forth negotiations, the two military leaders agreed to meet in Alexandria, Virginia, as it use to be part of the District of Columbia, but was in Confederate territory.
It was agreed that there would be a two day cessation of hostilities to allow for negotiations. Due to the Union refusing to recognizing the Confederacy as a nation, it was agreed that the two generals would agree on terms, but with advice from a group of diplomats that came from both sides. It was also agreed that once they signed the treaty, each nation's respective president would sign it as well.
After four days of negotiations, they finally came to an agreement.
- Both the United States of America and the Confederate States of America shall cease hostilities from the signing of this treaty.
- Indemnities shall not be paid by either side, except the cost of returning slaves from the United States to the Confederate States.
- All armies currently residing in the other's nation shall be withdrawn within one month of the signing of this treaty, unless if unable to. If that is the case, they shall inform the local commander of the enemy.
- The state of Kentucky shall be ceded to the Confederacy, as shall lower Missouri south of the city of Saint Louis, all land south of the 36.5 Parallel, excluding California, and the Indian Territory. The Confederacy shall drop all claims to northern Missouri, the Oklahoma Territory, and West Virginia.
- Both nations capitals shall be relocated to a city at least 200 miles from the current border of the Confederate States and the United States. Each nation is required to approve the move.
- All former United States armories, forts, fortifications, prisons, magazines, shipyards, and other military facilities located in the Confederate States shall become property of the Confederacy.
- The United States and Confederate States shall not impose tariffs on each other, except in times of war, or economic distress.
- The United States shall not hinder the Confederate States ability to conduct foreign relations.
- The United States shall end the blockade of the Confederate States, and the Confederate States shall end privateering against the United States Merchant fleet.
- The Confederate States shall have access to the port of Los Angeles for a period of 100 years.
- Both the United States and the Confederate States shall have full access to the Mississippi River.
- The United States shall have access to the port of New Orleans for a period of 100 years.
- Both nations shall exchange prisoners by January 1st, 1865.
- Robert E. Lee, Confederate States of America
- Ulysses S. Grant, United States of America
- Jefferson Davis, Confederate States of America
- George B. McClellan, United States of America