The Treaty of Adana is a peace treaty written and signed in Adana, Cicilia, in 1427, which ended the Ottoman-Mesopotamian War.
In general, the Treaty secured Ottoman dominance over the Turkomen regions to the north of Mesopotamia, and also expanded Georgia's territories while Mesopotamia and the Mamluks lost some claims but gained recognition of other claims.
Tensions in the Middle East
The Middle East had been in a tight balance of power since the emergence of the Ottomans, Mamluks, and Timurids on the regional scene. All three nations wanted to be the dominant regional power, as demonstrated by the conquests of Timur in Mamluk Syria.
However, as the Timurids and Mamluks grew much closer, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire decided he would check Mamluk growth prior to any possibility of a joint strike by the Timurids and the Mamluks.
In 1420, the Ottoman Sultan declared war on Mesopotamia in order to secure his hegemony over the Turkomen states. Since Mesopotamia was under a personal union with the Mamluk Sultanate, the Mamluks quickly involved themselves.
As Christian protests began in Assyria, the Georgians, and their affiliated state of the Armenians declared war on the Mesopotamians in 1422. This was the war's turning point, and after that the Mamluk Burji states began to lose battles. As the war dragged into Mesopotamia, peace talks began in Adana, Cicilia starting in 1425.
- The Ottoman Empire
- The Duchy of Serbia
- The Mamluk Sultanate
- The Emirate of Nubia
- The Emirate of Socotra
- The Emirate of Yemen
- The Amirate of Oman
- The Emirate of Cicilia
- The Sultanate of Mesopotamia
- The Emirate of Basra
- The Kingdom of Georgia
- The Kingdom of Armenia
- The disputed lands of Dulkadir and the Black Sheep Turkomen will be recognized by the Mamluks as solely Ottoman lands. There will be no outstanding claims to the states, or any states that will encompass the future lands.
- The Mamluks will refute any and all claims formerly possessed on Erzincan, recognizing it as an Ottoman vassal.
- The unorganized states of the Leks and Avars, as well as the minor Kingdoms at Dido and Ossetia will become Georgian vassals.
- Azerbaijan will be reserved for future vassalizaton by the Georgians. All efforts will be backed by the Mesopotamians and Ottomans.
- All lands held by the Mamluk and Mesopotamian Sultanates will be recognized. The map shows all recognized lands.
- The Mamluks will cede 50% of its economic profits for the next 30 years. These resources will be divided 33% to the Georgians, 33% to the Armenians, and 34% to the Ottomans.
Cessation of Lands
- The Mesopotamians will cede the lands between the east bank of the Tigris, the north bank of the Little Zab, and Mesopotamia's borders with the Timurid and Ottoman Empires to the Georgians for the purpose of creating an Assyrian homeland. These lands, called the Principalities of Gordyene and Adiabene, shall be held exclusively as vassals of the Kingdoms of Georgia and Armenia, and shall contain roughly 70,000 Christians and 140,000 Muslims at the time of its creation. Any Muslims who wish to migrate to another state within the next 15 years shall be permitted to do so without reprisal.
- The Mesopotamians will cede control of the land between the south bank of the Little Zab, the east side of the Samarran Hills, and the Timurid border to the Georgians as collateral for the repayment of Mesopotamia's war reparations. This land, called the Principality of Ardalan, shall be held as a puppet state for 15 years, until such time as the war reparations are complete. Once this period expires, Georgia will return this territory to the Mesopotamians, and any inhabitants wishing to remain under Georgian rule shall be required to depart.
End of War
- The Mamluks and Mesopotamians will cease any and all hostile military and economic attacks upon Georgia, Armenia, or the Ottomans.
- The Ottomans will cease any and all hostile military and economic attacks upon the Mamluks or Mesopotamians.
- The Georgians and Armenians will cease any and all hostile military and economic attacks upon the Mamluks or Mesopotamians.
- The Mamluks, Mesopotamians, Georgians, Armenians, and Ottomans shall not enter into any wars against each other for a minimum of 30 years. This NAP will be automatically renewed every 30 years.
- All parties to this treaty shall have an obligation to defend each other for a period no less than 5 years.
- The Mesopotamians and, at option, the Mamluks will have an obligatory period of 30 years wherein they must send military aid to any war in which the Georgians, Armenians, or Ottomans are being attacked.
- Grand Vizier and Royal Advisor to the Sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate; on Behalf of the Grand Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Most Holy Sultan of Mesopotamia and Iraq, Defender of the Caliph and the True Muslims of Arabia, and Heir of the Burji and Jalayirid Dynasties, al-Mansur Mostafa Hazem; Hatim Ruh Zuman.
- Sultan, His Imperial Majesty, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Protector of Islam, King of the Turks; on behalf of the Ottoman Empire, as well as its vassals of Serbia, Erzincan, Dulkadir, and the Black Sheeps; Murad II
- King of Georgia and of All Georgians, Protector of the Georgian Orthodox Church, Savior of the Assyrian People, Prince of Adiabene, and Defender of Christ's Light in the East, Giorgi VII Bagratuni; co-signed by King of Armenia and the Armenians, Prince of Gordyene, Vice-Gerent of the Armenian Apostolic Church, and Rightful Heir to the Kingdom of Colchis, Smbat IV Bagratuni.
DiscussionRex - I actually just had an idea regarding the division of Assyria. (Apologies for not thinking of it earlier - was too fixated re: getting it all). Basically, what this entails is that instead of the joint vassalage (which I suspect will be unworkable and lead to more conflict), we just split Assyria - you get Mosul and the land west of the Tigris (along with a narrow corridor east of the river, which is small enough that I can't adequately display it on the map), I get Dahuk, Arbil, and the land east of the Tigris. The population for that splits 250K for you (probably something like 15K Assyrian, which I'll be happy to take off your hands), 200K for me (probably around 60K Assyrian, with the rest being split between Kurds and Arabs). I also get the Kirkuk-Sulemaniyah area as a Kurdish Muslim homeland; I'm not planning on keeping it, but I figure the negotiations have drawn on enough as-is without adding another set of bargains to it.
Anyway, let me know what you think - I apologize for the last-minute change to the terms, but I literally only thought of it on my way home from work, and want to see if that would be acceptable. -- TankOfMidgets (talk) 02:15, February 28, 2014 (UTC)
Also, for reference: the small teal territory next to the three orange ones is Mosul (yours to annex or vassalize as you please under this plan); the top two orange states are the two halves of Assyria (which I'd like to split between my two nations); the bottom-right orange state is Kurdistan, which I will trade ASAP. Other than that change to the territory-cessation, I've no problems with the remaining terms, so I'll sign if you accept this modification. -- TankOfMidgets (talk) 02:19, February 28, 2014 (UTC)