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Transylvania (Twilight of a New Era)

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Transylvania
(Stat) Transilvania
— State Austria-Hungary
Timeline: Twilight of a New Era
Flag of Transylvania before 1918 Coat of arms of Transylvania
Civil State Flag Coat of Arms of Principality of Transylvania
Location Transylvania A-H (TNE)
Location Transylvania

Motto
Toţi în unu (Romanian)
("All in one")

Anthem "Cântecul Transilvaniei (State Anthem)"
Capital
(and largest city)
Cluj
Other cities Timișoara, Brașov, Sibiu, Satu Mare, and Baia Mare
Language
  official
 
Romanian
  others Hungarian (co-offical), German (co-official), Ukrainian, and Romani
Religion
  main
 
Secular state
  others Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Protestant
Ethnic groups
  main
 
Romanian
  others Germans, Hungarians, Saxons, Ukrainian, Romani (Gypsies)
Demonym Transylvanian
Government Parliamentary democratic State
  legislature Transylvanian Diet
Representative King-Emperor Guvernator
State government Minister-President and Council of Ministers
Area aprox. 86200 km²
Population aprox. 5,300,000 
Established 1920
Currency coroană
Time zone Central European Time (UTC+01:00)
  summer Central European Summer Time (UTC+02:00)

Transylvania (Romanian: Ardeal or Transilvania, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Latin: Transsilvania. Esperanto: Transilvanio) is a federal state of Austria-Hungary. It is bordered by Romania and the states Szeklerland, Illyria, Hungary and East Galicia.

Government

Transylvania is parliamentary representative democratic state, with a Minister-President (ministru-prezident) as the head of government, and a State Governor (Guvernator) as head of state. Executive power is exercised by the governments, both local and state level. State legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Transylvanian Diet (Dieta Transilvaniei).

Transylvania is parliamentary representative democratic state, with a Minister-President (ministru-prezident) as the head of government, and a State Governor (Guvernator). According to the Constitution the State is organized as follows:

  • The State Governor (Guvernator), who is the head of the state and imperial representative, is appointed for a six year term by the Emperor-King, on advice and consultation of the Minister-President. The Governor promulgates all laws approved by National Assembly before they can come into effect; can veto or ask for reconsideration of a bill (a veto can be overrun by two thirds majority vote of the Diet), promulgating laws by decree, which are proposed by the government alone, can dissolve and call for immediate elections of the Diet on a proposal of the Minister-President, appoints all high functionaries, judges and chiefs of police force, as stated by law, and grants pardons and commutations.
  • The State Government consists of the Minister-President (ministru-prezident) and the Council of Ministers. The Minister-President is appointed by the State Governor, from the leader of the party or coalition with majority in the Diet. The rest of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the Governor on recommendation of the Minister-President.
  • The bicameral Transylvanian Diet (Dieta Transilvaniei) is the supreme legislative and constituent body of the State. The Senate and Chamber of Deputiesy are elected by universal suffrage using a proportional representation system for a five-year term, unless previously dissolved by the Governor. As any parliamentary state the Chamber of Deputies can censure and remove the Minister-President and Council of Ministers.
  • The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme State Court and Constitutional Court are nominated by the State Governor, on a list proposed by the Diet.

Politics

The main historical political parties in Transylvanian until the second election of the Diet were the following:

  • Romanian National Party in Transylvania and Banat (Partidul Național Român din Transilvania și Banat, PNRTB), was the main and historical national-liberal party and also the first governing party of Transylvania
  • People’s Democratic Party of Transylvania (Partidul Popular Democrat din Transilvania, PPDT), a liberal split of the PNRTB
  • Social Democratic Party of Transylvania and Banat (Partidul Social Democrat din Transilvania şi Banat, PSDTB)
  • Communist Party of Transylvania (Partidul Comunist din Transilvania, PCT)

During the first state government a divergence of interests lead to the collapse and split of the PNRTB and the formation of new parties according to differences between autonomy and pan-nationalism, left and right politics, representation of minorities and land reform. The parties that were formed by the second general election are the following:

  • Party for the Independence of Transylvania (Partidul pentru Independența Transilvania, PpIT) is the main irredentist and pan-nationalist party. Advocates independence and union with Romania. One major difference to all other parties is that its membership is open only to Romanians. Founded by the nationalist wing of the PNRTB
  • Transylvanian Party (Romanian: Partidul Transilvaniei; Hungarian: Erdélyi párt; German: Siebenbürger-Partei, PT) is the main national-liberal and autonomist party. The PT was formed from the national-liberal and autonomist wing of the PNRTB. The PT promotes and embraces party membership of all nationalities, mainly Hungarians-Székelys, Germans and Romanians. The PT seeks to maintain the autonomy of Transylvania within the Austro-Hungarian Federal State in what it calls Transylvanism. The party ideology of Transylvanism (Hungarian: erdélyiség) is mainly regarded as a democratic idea, accepting the equality and friendly coexistence of the three historical Transylvanian nations. Transylvanism promotes a supposedly united community without social differences, organized according to an organic perception of the nation.
  • Liberal and Radical Party of Transylvania (Partidul Liberal și Radical din Transilvania, PLRT) is a merge of the PPDT and radical and liberal wings of the PNRTB. It represent liberal, radical and progressive traditions and its electorate strongholds and constituencies.
  • German-Saxon parties, mainly the Saxon Party (Partidul Sas, PS), and National Saxon Party (Partidul Național Săsesc, PNS)
  • Hungarians-Székelys parties, mainly the National Democratic Magyar-Székely Party (Partidul Naţional Democrat Maghiar-Secuiesc, PNDM-S) Later democratic political circles and the PNDM-S decided to create another party, called the Magyar People's Party (Partidul Poporului Maghiar, PPM).
  • Transylvanian Peasant Party (Partidul Țărănesc din Transilvania, PTT) is the main agrarian party that was formed from existing agrarian political groups and the agrarian wing of the PNRTB. The party platform of the PTT calls for a land reform and protection of rural interests;
  • Socialist Party of Transylvania (Partidul Socialist din Transilvania, PST), the former social democrats of Transylvania and Banat.
  • Communist Party of Transylvania (Partidul Comunist din Transilvania, PCT)

Administrative division

Transylvania is subdivided administratively into counties (Romanian: județe). Each county is divided into districs (plasă). containing cities (municipii), towns (orașe) and communes (comune). Each județ has a capital or county town where local and national institutions are headquartered. The central government is represented by one prefect in every județ. Cities, towns, and communes are the local elected government.

The 21 counties are:

  1. Alba (Alba Iulia)
  2. Arad (Arad)
  3. Bihor (Beiuș)
  4. Brașov (Brașov)
  5. Câmpulung (Câmpulung Moldovenesc)
  6. Caraș-Severin (Lugoj)
  7. Cluj (Cluj)
  8. Făgăraș (Făgăraș)
  9. Hunedoara (Deva)
  10. Maramureș (Sighet)
  11. Năsăud (Bistrița)
  12. Rădăuți (Rădăuți)
  13. Sălaj (Zalău)
  14. Satu Mare (Satu Mare)
  15. Sibiu (Sibiu)
  16. Someș (Dej)
  17. Suceava (Suceava)
  18. Târnava Mare (Sighișoara)
  19. Târnava Mică (Diciosânmartin)
  20. Timiș-Torontal (Timișoara)
  21. Turda (Turda)

Note: Some border counties gained or lost territory due to the new frontiers with bordering sates.

Economy

Transylvania, receives good precipitations, but has poorer soils and more rugged terrain that restricts large-scale mechanized farming. Livestock raising predominates in the mountains, and potatoes and grains are the principal crops in the central basin. The main crops are wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, flax, hemp and tobacco grown in large quantities.

Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, tin, zinc, salt and sulfur. There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries. Stock raising, food processing, wine production and fruit growing are important occupations. Timber is another valuable resource.


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