|Dates of operation||1912 (as Imperial Railway Corporation)|
|Predecessor||Imperial Transportation Corporation|
Transwan (TS) is the partially government-owned corporation responsible for the Cygnian national public transportation system. The government entity charged with administrating government authority over Transwan is the Department for Public Transportation, a junior ministry of the Imperial Secretariat for Transportation. The various state and territorial public transport authorities also hold responsibility for the numerous regional branches of Transwan.
Transwan is divided into several sections which service the various regions and major cities of Cygnia. The largest of these is Transwan National, which comprises the heart of Cygnia's railway network, operating all interstate passenger rail services.
Transwan is the sole body legally permitted to operate Cygnia's railway systems; the formation of "private railways" in Cygnia is prohibited by the Imperial Transportation Corporation Act of 1963.
Transwan consists of fifteen operating Sections and two other divisions that do not provide transportation services. The operating Sections are organised into one national passenger operator, one national freight operator and thirteen regional passenger operators.
The thirteen non-national passenger operators of Transwan are organised according to region and municipality; all their services are restricted to prescribed geographic areas, with Transwan National covering all interstate passenger services, and Transwan Freight covering nationwide freight services. Transwan Swanstone, Theodora, Carnarvon and Adelaide service only their respective cities, with their regional counterparts taking over for intercity services. The "metropolitan Sections" are also responsible for bus and ferry services in the cities; Transwan Theodora in addition operates the largest tram network in the world. In the case of Cygnia's other, smaller cities, the regional operators also take on responsibility for their transportation networks.
In addition, Transwan includes two non-operating sections. These are the Transwan Technical Research Centre and Transwan Information Systems Pty. Ltd.
|Operation||Section||Logo||Region(s) of operation|
|Passenger||Transwan National (TS National)||National|
|Transwan Swanstone (TS Swanstone)||Swanstone City and State|
|Transwan Theodora (TS Theodora)||Theodora|
|Transwan Carnarvon (TS Carnarvon)||Carnarvon|
|Transwan Adelaide (TS Adelaide)||Port Adelaide|
|Transwan Augusta (TS Augusta)||The Capes|
|Transwan Auralia (TS Auralia)||Auralia|
|Transwan Campbell (TS Campbell)||Campbell|
|Transwan Gascoyne (TS Gascoyne)||Gascoyne|
|Transwan Java (TS Java)||East Java, South Java, West Java, Jayakarta, Yogyakarta and Solonia|
|Transwan Samudra (TS Samudra)||Samudra and Singapore|
|Transwan East (TS East)||Kaleep|
|Transwan Pilbara (TS Pilbara)||Pilbara|
|Transwan Territorial (TS Territorial)||Flores, Moluccas, Sumbawa, Sunda and Sunda-Bali|
|Freight||Transwan Freight (TS Freight)||Nationwide|
|Research organisation||Transwan Technical Research Centre (TSTRC)|
|IT Services||Transwan Information Systems (TS InfoSys)|
Transwan maintains a nationwide transportation network, including rail, bus, ferry and tram services. In 2007 the Department for Public Transportation introduced into the system the SmartRider, a standardised nationwide electronic ticketing system. In addition, Transwan International Passes are also available for use by foreigners.
At its establishment in 1947, Transwan (then known as the Imperial Transportation Corporation) was a wholly government-owned entity, and the Department for Public Transportation held full responsibility for the corporation's activities. However, in 1984, the Cygnian government took steps to partially privatise Transwan. Privatisation of some of Transwan's divisions, including Freight National and the Technical Research Centre, began in the 1980s. Today, the government holds approximately 48% of the stakes in the company.
The first Cygnian railways were constructed and opened in the early- to mid-19th century in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. Cygnia's first intercity route began service in 1841, connecting the cities of Swanstone and Augusta. In 1844, the second major railroad running from Augusta and Alexandria was opened. It wasn't until the 1850s, however, when railroads offered long distance services at reasonable rates.
The years between 1850 and 1890 saw phenomenal growth in the Cygnian railroad system, which at its peak constituted one fifth of the world's total mileage. Major developments include the first elevated railway built in Swanstone in 1867. The first trams in Cygnia began operating in Theodora and Broome in 1873.
In 1895, the Cygnian government under Chancellor Richard R. Renault formed the Imperial Secretariat for Railways, intended to regulate the rapidly growing rail system. Nationalisation of railway companies began in 1900 when the government acquired the Swanstone Railway Company. Full nationalisation was completed in 1912, when the numerous companies were combined to form the Imperial Railway Corporation. When trams and bus services were also nationalised in the period from 1920 to 1930, the Imperial Railway Corporation was reorganised into the Imperial Transit Corporation; the Imperial Secretariat responsible became the modern Imperial Secretariat for Transportation.
All public transportation networks and services by 1930 had been placed under state ownership, and remained so throughout the Hellerist era; in 1934 the Corporation was liquidated and its assets were placed under the direct control of the Central Commissariat for Transportation. World War III caused major damage to railways as many were dismantled and melted down for steel to be recycled for military use, or destroyed by opposing Australien armies and bombing raids.
After the war, the newly restored Imperial government began post-war reconstruction, and the railways were rebuilt; the first intercity service between Theodora and Broome was reopened in 1947, and reconstruction of the public transportation network was complete by 1954. Notably, the first transcontinental railway was built between Swanstone and New Assen, begun just before the end of Cygnian occupation of Australie in 1950 and completed in 1956.
In 1962, the first Cygnian high-speed rail services were developed, inspired by the Japanese Shinkansen. Plans for the High Speed Rail Transportation System (later to be known as HiRail) was unveiled in June 1960, and in 1964 the first HiRail service between Swanstone and Port Adelaide opened. The Imperial Transportation Corporation was rebranded as Transwan in 1968.
The demise of the fully government-owned system came after charges of serious management inefficiencies, profit losses, and fraud, infamously brought before the Cygnian Supreme Court in 1981. By the early 1980s, passenger and freight business had declined, and fare increases had failed to keep up with higher labour costs. The explosion of prices in public transportation was one of several issues that contributed to the downfall of the government of Chancellor Martin O. Scott in the 1982 election.
In 1984, Scott's successor Joanne Seinfeld began reforms to the public transportation network, passing legislation to partially privatise Transwan. Privatisation began in 1985, when Transwan Freight National was put on the market. By the 1990s about 46% of Transwan's shares had been listed on the stock market. In 2002 Transwan's partial privatisation was complete with the government still holding 48% of all shares.
The SmartRider was developed and introduced in 2007, allowing more accessibility and convenience for regular users of the Transwan network.
Various unions represent Transwan workers, such as the National Railway Workers' Union, Cygnia General Transport Workers' Union, and the Cygnian Confederation of Railway Workers' Unions.