These are desciptions of titles that appear in the Great Empires timeline.

Ranks and titles


  • Grand Emperor or Grand Empress is a very rare title which is a rank higher than an emperor/empress. The territory ruled by one is called a Greater Empire or Grand Empire. In the past the Emperors of the Mughal Empire and some Chinese Emperors used it. Currently ony the Emperor and Empress of India use it.
  • Chakravartin (Sanskrit for "king of the world") was a title used by many Indian rulers and currently by the Emperor of the Khmer Empire.


  • Emperor or Empress ​is a title which denotes a ruler of an empire. Emperor consort or Empress consort is used to denote the spouse of a reigning emperor of empress.
    • Sapa Inca is the imperial title of the Inca Emperor
    • Caesar is the current and historical title of Roman Emperors. It was derived from Julius Caesar, who was dictator of the Roman Empire
    • Tsar or Tsarina, derived from Caesar, is used as the title of Russian Emperors and formerly in Bulgaria and Serbia
    • Basileus or Basileia, was a title used by the Byzantine Emperors
    • Samraat or Samrajni is an ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as Emperor
    • Pharaoh, was the title used by Egyptian monarchs and currently claimed by the Egyptian ruler Ramesses XII.
    • Khagan, Great Khan or Great Khatun is a title of Imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages. Currently used by the Mongol Emperors.

High royal

  • King of Kings or Queen of Queens, mostly used in Christian contexts to denote Jesus Christ or the Christian Roman emperors of the Late Empire and Byzantine periods.
    • Shahanshah, literally "King of Kings" a corruption of the Middle Persian šāhān šāh, meaning"King's King." Currently used in Persia by the Empress.
    • Maharaja, Sanskrit for "Great King" or "High King"
  • High King or High Queen, a king or queen who rules over lesser kings or queens, officially used by the kings and queens of Korea


  • King or Queen is the title of a ruler of a Kingdom. Their realm is called a Kingdom. King consort or Queen consort denotes a spouse of a reigning King or Queen.
    • Shah or Shahbanu, Persian title for king and queen. Their real is called a Shahdom.
    • Ajaw, in Maya meaning "lord", "ruler, "king" or "leader". Currently used by the King of the Maya Kingdom.
    • Tlaotani, native title of the Aztec Emperos, used by them presently
    • Khan or Khatun, originally a military rank, later used to denote a ruler of a Khanate.
    • Raja or Rani, Indian for ruler

Princely, ducal and other titles

  • Prince or Princess, title used by sons and daughters of kings, queens, emperors and emperors. Also used to denote a ruler of a principality. Prince consort or Princess consort is sometimes used to denote the spouse of a king or queen.
    • Crown prince of Crown princess, title of the person currently expected to inherit the throne, the heir apparent or heiress apparent
  • Archduke or Archduchess, ruler of an archduchy, historically used by large European states
  • Grand duke of Grand duchess, ruler of a grand duchy
  • Duke or Duchess, ruler of a duchy
  • Baron or Baroness, ruler of a barony
  • Sheikh or Sheikha, Arabic honorific meaning elder, sometimes ruler of a Sheikhdom
  • Emir or Emira, is a title of high office, used throughout the Muslim world.


  • Pope or Popess, Bishop of Rome, Head of the Roman Catholic Church and Christendom
  • Caliph or Calipha, ruler of a caliphate, Commander of the Faithful and leader of Islam, used by the Abbasid and Kenopian Caliphates.
  • High Priest or High Priestess, a high ranking priest or priestess that sometimes is also a state leader


  • President, democratically elected person that is the head of a nation, organization, company, university, union or something else
  • Chancellor, a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
  • Prime minister, a prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system.
  • Chairperson, also simply known as the chair, is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board committee, or deliberative assembly.


  • Dictator, someone who rules with absolute power over a country

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