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Timeline of the United States (Cast of Candidates)

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The collective timeline of United States events in Cast of Candidates

George Clinton Presidency (1789-1797)

The Electoral College elected Clinton as the first president in 1788, and again in 1792 after a close race with John Adams. His opponent in the 1788 presidential election, Samuel Huntington, was elected as Clinton's vice president. Adams was later elected as Clinton's vice-president in after the results of the 1792 election. On April 30, 1789, Clinton was inaugurated, taking the first presidential oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City. The oath, as follows, was administered by Chancellor Robert R. Livingston: "I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States." Historian John R. Alden indicates that Clinton added the words "So help me God."

The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Clinton a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789, valued at about $340,000 in 2015 dollars. Clinton took the salary, but would continuously donate three-fourths of his salary to charities, the public, and into government programs. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment in full, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary. The president, aware that everything he did set a precedent, attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts. To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names proposed by the Senate.

Domestic Issues

Clinton although being a member of the Anti-Federalist faction, believed that his advisors and members of his cabinet should be given to those most qualified to run in that position. Clinton's cabinet consisted of: Thomas Jefferson as the Secretary of State, Alexander Hamilton as his Secretary of Treasury, Henry Knox as his Secretary of War, and Charles Lee as his Attorney General. Clinton had been balanced in his choices, but was decried by Federalists for choosing three Anti-Federalists in his parties, being accused of favoritism for his own party. Along with the creation of the presidential cabinet, was also the foundation of the judiciary branch in 1789.

One of the biggest bills that was actually turned down by Clinton was the Residence Act of 1790. The plan called for a ten year construction plan of a federal city meant to house the government buildings and politicians. The would be locations was to be settled on the Potomac River, on the border between Maryland and Virginia. A compromise between the states as it would be located in the center of the nation. Though when the bill came to Clinton he vetoed the bill and it was eventually shot down in Congress. Many more choices for the nation's capital were suggested; New York City, Boston, and Charlottesville were all suggested. Clinton settled on keeping the capital in Philadelphia in honor of those men who spent hours in the city of that hosted the Constitutional Convention.

Foreign Affairs

One of the most prominent points in Clinton's presidency, was the relations with both France and the United States' former government of the United Kingdom. Clinton being an Anti-Federalist was much more of the opinion that the United States should align themselves both economically and opinion wise. As Clinton thought that the United States should align themselves out of gratitude and in an attempt to hinder British power in North America. Clinton and US foreign policy became even more controversial due to the successful French Revolution, and the replacement of the French monarchy with a republican government. Federalist wanted to further wanted to improve relations with the British first, in fear of the French Revolutionaries and the horrific news of what had occurred during the bloody revolution. Clinton however stood by the revolution stating: "A government can only work and be strong, feel that they know their government and can see who collects their taxes and spends that money to build their roads. The people are France are just now doing that, creating a united government under the principles of democracy. Just as we did." His statement to congress at the beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars, sealed US relations with France for the rest of his term, creating a strong tie with the burgeoning and growing young republic.

Road to FallenTimbers

The Legion of the United States at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794.

One of the biggest international issues George Clinton was faced during his time as president was the Northwest Indian War (1785-1795). The events of the conflict increased tensions between the already tenuous relationship between the American and Great Britain. Clinton and the United States had to deal with the rapid expansion of settlers into the unclaimed region of the Northwest territories. In the territories the only amount of protection the common settler could find were on the settlements close to the current states inside the young republic, or with settlements that had armed themselves with weaponry. The most common threat to these settlements was the consistent threat of Indian raids by those tribes in the Western Confederacy. In order to counter act these Indian raids, and help the settlers. Clinton enacted the Northwest Militia Act. The act called for each of the thirteen states to raise a total of 500 militia men from across their states to help protect United States citizens. Initially the United States could only garner 3,500 militiamen to protect their settlers. Though when the discovery of British soldiers still occupying their forts in the Northwest territories was discovered, the states were swamped with men willing to enlist. Clinton heard reports he could raise an army of 10,000 militiamen if he wanted to. But decided on the 500 men per state plan he had enacted, leaving the Northwest with 6,500 soldiers to protect the region. With the mass amount soldiers pushing into the region, with advanced weaponry, strategies, and shorter supply chains the Western Confederacy was eventually pushed back from raiding settlements, and those British forts within the Western Confederacy were quickly abandoned as US forces marched further into the territory.

To stop another war breaking out between the United States and Great Britain, Clinton called for John Jay to lead treaty signings with Great Britain to discuss the situation and future of the region. Later dubbed the Treat of Jay, it was a signed non-aggression pact between the two countries/ The treaty detailed how British forces in the Northwest territory would abandon their forts within the region, and it would turnover control of the territory completely to the United States. The treat even had an economic section as well, as the treaty helped stabilize trade relations between the two countries. The treat called for trade between the countries through Canada and the States, and across the seas. The treaty had stopped an eventual second war between the United States and Great Britain, and began a slow unintentional improvement of relations.

Samuel Johnston Presidency (1797-1801)

Samuel Johnston was the Federalist candidate for the election of 1796, his opponent was the ever famous and to some infamous Aaron Burr. While the battles were intense, Samuel Johnston was able to squeak out a narrow victory over the defeated Burr. Johnston in his State of the Union address he made sure he would open up trade to more than just those who helped the young republic during its revolution. Many viewed it as a noble and grand idea to do so. His execution however, would live in infamy.

Johnston's entire presidency was plagued by a Democratic-Republican controlled Congress. But, one notorious thing that also plagued his presidential career was his hatred and intolerance to this not of the Christian faith. Such as Jews, Mahometans, and pagans. He even went as far as undermining those of such faith during his time as governor and made numerous attempts as president to have laws passed to "protect the Christian nation of the United States." Johnston's plans also entailed many bills that would allow the federal government more power in both state economics and personal business economics. None of his bills were considered unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, but all of his bills and laws were vetoed and shot down in congress.

New Orleans Affair

One of Johnston's biggest blunders was his foreign policy. While George Clinton was able to avoid conflict with the British during the Northwest Indian War, Johnston's policies to improve relations with the British came at the cost of hampering relations with the newly founded French Republic. One of his biggest blunders would come during trade talks with the French Governor of Louisiana. On their trade negotiations with the French, several British trade ships, armed heavily with cannons began making their pass by the city of New Orleans. It immediately sounded as the alarm of the city of New Orleans, believing that the British were attacking. The French Governor of Louisiana believing the American Ambassadors were a mere distraction, had them arrested and placed under guard. Though the British ships never fired upon the city of New Orleans. Johnston's favoritism to the British wasn't a secret upon many of the world leaders, and deals between the Americans and French were only made when absolutely necessary.

For an entire week the British Fleet and city of New Orleans were at a stand still, it was not until the British trade fleet captain had came ashore and asking when they could make port. The French Governor confused, asked why the enemy would ask to dock. After moments of confusion both sides had come to an understanding of both sides paranoia and confusion. When the ambassadors returned they had lost a considerable amount of weight and publicly shamed Johnston's incompetence and poor ability to schedule for their week long imprisonment.

Thomas Jefferson Presidency (1801-1809)

Aaron Burr Conspiracy

James Monroe (1809-1813)

Monroe Doctrine

Louisiana War

John Marshall (1813-1821)

Foreign Trips

Henry Clay (1821-1825)

American System

Andrew Jackson (1825-1833)

Rise of the Democratic Party

Indian Homeland Act

Henry Clay (1833-1838)

Assassination

William H. Harrison (1838-1845)

Mexican-American War

James K. Polk (1845-1853)

American-Indian Wars

Sam Houston (1853-1861)

Stephen Douglas (1861-1865)

The election of 1860, was one of the most tumultuous times the US had ever experienced. The ideas of the abolition of slavery, the need for the states' to maintain their rights, and individual freedoms were all tested during the election. Stephen Douglas was chosen as the representative for the Democratic party. A famed orator a representative from Illinois, his work and speaking abilities made him a prime choice as the Democratic nominee. Alongside Joseph Lane who was a man of the frontier and representative from Oregon, and was similar in ideologies such as former president Sam Houston. Both Democratic and Nationalist parties were threatened by the vastly popular, at least in the north, party of the Freedom Party. With their candidate Benjamin Wade and vice-presidential candidate Simon Cameron.

The results of the 1860 presidential election were one of the most controversial in United States history. Benjamin Wade had almost garnered twice the votes of Douglas and Nationalist candidate William A. Graham combined. Graham and Douglas though garnered more state votes than Wade. Wade was not able to achieve the necessary electoral votes needed to secure a victory and win the election. The vote was thrown into the House of Representative for the Presidency and Senate for the Vice-presidency. John J. Crittenden was chosen by the Senate as the vice-presidential choice, and Douglas by the House as the presidential choice.

The results of election could be heard around the nation with many different reactions, with many from the central, southern, and western states who breathed a sigh of relief. Whilst in the north cries of foul play and corruption were heard. Such reaction resulted in the state of Massachusetts to secede from the United States. The state that housed the original seeds of secession and revolution had once again reared its head, but now the United States was on the receiving end. In a mere two months the states of; Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio would also join Massachusetts in seceding from the United States. The ten states would soon form their own country, the Federal States of America.

American Civil War

Ohio Theater

New England Theater

Tri-State Theater

Abraham Lincoln (1865-1873)

Ending the War

Reconstruction

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