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Timeline of 323 BC - 311 BC (Mind the Spear, Cleitus)

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This page, set between 323 BC and 311 BC (270 PC - 258 PC), chronicles the events of Alexander the Great's life following his stay in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II in Babylon. It ends upon his death in 311 BC. This period of time had a profound effect on the western and eastern worlds. These years saw Alexander's Macedon, already a mighty empire stretching from the Balkan Peninsula in Eastern Europe to Kashmiri lands in Northern India. During this time, he invaded both Arabia and Europe, sparking changes that would affect the course of western religion and democracy for the rest of human history. These years also saw Alexander the Great slowing down to a point, almost retiring in Pella in 317 BC.

323 BC (270 PC

Summer

  • July: Alexander III's forces, on the way back to Pella, stop at the Palace of Nebuchadnezzar II in former Babylon. There is much partying and celebration among the Macedonian forces. Alexander and Hephastion are noted to have drank quite a lot during this time.
  • August: Alexander chooses to remain in Babylon until the end of this year with his wife due to her late-stage pregnancy and, later on, the birth of Alexander III's son. The child is named Alexander IV. The naming of the child was controversial amongst the generals of Alexander's army since they believed that it dishonored the legacy of Philip of Macedon. Their complaints are largely ignored by Alexander III. While at Babylon, Alexander allows a number of troops to go home while ordering a few more troops to be sent to Babylon from Pella or from the Persian satraps. This is considered to be one of the few times in Alexander's rule where he showed signs of 'slowing down,' which arguably inspired his troops to fight well so the various skirmishes in the East can finally end. At Babylon, he also plans for his invasion of the Persian Peninsula.

Unknown Date

  • The philosopher Diogenes of Sinope passes away. The cause of his death is open to interpretation. One popular account suggests that the philosopher died after a dog bite inflicted upon him became infected. Others claim that his death was caused by his consumption of raw octopus. The philosopher was famous for his cynicism. His opinions caused him to be notably more 'free from the shackles of society.' He was noted for frequent obscenity and for personally criticizing Alexander III.

322 BC (269 PC)

Spring

  • March: Alexander III leaves Babylon to invade the Arabian Peninsula. With him marched an army of 32,000 men. This invasion force was notably Persian and employed a mixture of Persian tactics, most notably in the form of cavalry. Persian horse archers were used and mercenaries were employed. The army made heavy use of horses in order to quickly traverse the largely arid peninsula without suffering from attrition. In the meantime, the city-state of Corinth sees its chance once again to rebel from Macedonian rule. The forces in Pella quickly march on Corinth, though, without Alexander III to head the charge, the battle does not go as well as hoped for the Macedonians. While they win, crops in the area are destroyed and a number of troops perish in the rebellion. In other news, Aristotle passes away of old age this year.

Summer

  • July: The forces of Alexander III arrive at Gerrha, a trading city on the eastern coast of Persia. They are quick to resist and, using quick thinking and good tactics, they prevent the Macedonians from breaching the walls for quite some time.

Autumn

  • October: The walls of Gerrha topple and Macedonian troops pour in, taking the city. An assessment of the battle leads Alexander to believe that a navy may be required in order to effectively take the coastal cities of Arabia. He orders several formerly Persian ships to be renovated and launched in the Persian Gulf. These new ships are to regroup at Gerrha and provide naval support for Alexander's forces.

321 BC (268 PC)

Winter

  • January: It is assumed that most ships ordered by Alexander III have arrived in Gerrha by now. With the naval support in the Persian Gulf having arrived along the east Arabian coast, Alexander leaves Gerrha for his next target in Arabia. The fleet is ordered to keep up with the ground forces as Alexander marches on Mascati territory. Such an order is hard to follow and Alexander's forces use smoke signals and other methods of interaction with the fleet. While this allows for effective communication between the ground forces and the seaborne forces, these signal leave Macedonian forces open to attack. Several ambushes by hostile forces occur while Alexander marches.
  • March: Around this point, Alexander's forces are assumed to have entered Mascati territory.

Date Unknown

  • General Apax of the Macedonian army is quoted as describing Alexander III's bloodthirstiness. "They were hardly worthy of our time. Their soldiers fled like children, their kings wailed like infants. Why he intended to waste our time slaughtering these people is not known to me. Yet he butchers them like sport. His true spear arm strikes at these men, if they can be called such a thing, his face ringing of glee at times. I find myself worried by his zeal. I consider how many other people this man has slain for sport. Surely my own people were met with a dignified end?"

320 BC (267 PC)

Alexander's Empire 311 BC Erembi Anatolia

Erembi Anatolia highlighted in green.

Summer

  • July: The Mascati people have largely surrendered by this point to Alexander III. The satrapy of Erembi Anatolia is established with its capital in Gerrha. General Kelos is placed in command of the satrapy. Erembi Anatolia, meaning East Arabia, becomes the first of two satrapies created by Alexander III in Arabia. It lays the groundwork for subsequent Arabian civilizations and is responsible, at least in part, for the consolidation of the Mascati people later on.
  • August: Alexander III marches on Western Arabia

Winter

  • November: The Kingdom of Saba is invaded by Macedonian forces. This event signifies the latter portions of Alexander's invasion of Arabia. This invasion is responsible for the introduction of both Greek and Persian cultures into the Yemenese area.

Unknown Date

  • Theophrastus begins the systematic study of botany.
  • By this year, Alexandria has become the largest city in the world.

319 BC (266 PC)

Alexander's Empire 311 BC Erembi Eoperioz

Erembi Eoperioz highlighted in green.

Winter

  • February: The Battle of Saba takes place. Macedonian forces attack the city of Saba and win in a sweeping victory. The city is temporarily handed over to Erembi Anatolia as Alexander hugs the coastline, claiming the area in the name of Macedon.

Autumn

  • September: The satrapy of Erembi Eoperioz is established in Western Arabia. The establishment of this satrapy results in Saba becoming the provincial capital of the satrapy, but Alexander makes it clear that he intends the city of Petra to be the capital of this satrapy. As he marches, he spreads Greek and Persian cultures to the area even farther, influencing events to come for centuries.

318 BC (265 PC)

Spring

  • April: By now, Alexander's forces have largely captured most strategic choke points in Arabia. The troops celebrate victory and the generals prepare to return home. One obstacle remains, however; Nabatea. The Nabateans resisted the Macedonian invasion during their invasion of the Levant years ago. In April of 318 BC (265 PC), Alexander III invades Nabatean territory, forcing them into a full retreat.

Summer

  • June: The Battle of Petra occurs, with Macedon invading the ancient Nabatean city. This battle is one of the closest battles the Macedonians faced during their time with Alexander III. The Nabateans, led by King Ammoxiopho, prepared a careful defense strategy and wore Macedonian troops down through attrition and ambushes. The Macedonian lines were scattered during the final push on Petra and Alexander III sustained an injured shoulder after falling from a dead horse. At this battle, Alexander acquired his second legendary horse, Ferruskelos. While riding this horse, Alexander III struck down Ammoxiopho. Shortly thereafter, the Nabateans surrendered.
  • August: Alexander III relocates the provincial capital of Erembi Eoperioz to Petra. Later this month, Alexander leaves for Pella.

317 BC (264 PC)

Spring

  • May: Alexander III returns from Arabia, arriving in Pella this month. The forces he was with have since returned to their respective satraps or disbanded. Alexander III's troops took heavy losses in Arabia and many swore never to fight alongside Alexander III again. Alexander declares an era of peace to have begun for the Macedonians. Upon arriving in Pella, he announces that he intents to tour the empire once every four years. He is reunited with his wife and his son for the first time in several years.

Summer

  • July: Alexander III announces Alexander IV to be his sole heir to all titles worldly and divine.

Unknown Date

  • The play Dyskolos is first performed by Menander.

316 BC (263 PC)

Winter

  • March: Phocion, a statesman and strategos in Athens, begins urging the city-state of Athens to break free from Macedon now that Alexander III has ceased his campaigns. His actions and lessons began to convert Athenians into his way of thinking. While secessionist sentiment grows strong in Athens, other city-states refuse his influence in some form or another. This includes the city of Corinth, which had rebelled a few short years ago and, now that Alexander III was back in Pella, was more afraid of the Macedonian king than ever. Fear kept them in check during this period of intrigue.

Spring

  • April: Athens revolts from Macedon during the latter portions of this month. They are led by Phocion, who assumes control over all Macedonian troops led by Alexander III march to Athens to put down the rebellion.
  • May: Alexander III arrives in Athens and storms the city. A disgruntled gatekeeper, not wanting to suffer from Alexander's wrath during his famously long sieges, opens the gates to the city. Macedonian troops take the city and execute Phocion.

Summer

  • June: Alexander III returns to Pella after Phocion's revolt. He begins plotting an invasion of Illyria.

315 BC (262 PC)

Spring

  • April: Alexander III leaves Pella with 35,000 men on his way to Illyria. This army is largely Macedonian and Greek, though there are some Asian soldiers and a large number of Epirote soldiers. He takes new generals, including Attaltus and Leonnander. Menander also accompanies Alexander III among other seasoned men.
  • May: Alexander and his forces arrive in Illyria. Their first campaigns are centered around the Prespes Lakes. Many instantly surrender. Most notably, the city-state of Dassaretis allows Macedon entrance to their city in order to mount an invasion of Pelion and multiple other city-states. When Macedon makes a temporary retreat, Dassaretis betrays Macedon.
  • June: Macedon invades Dassaretis with Macedonian and Epirote troops. The city is almost completely demolished.

Summer

  • July: Battle of Pelion. The tremendous show of Macedonian strength lead many cities in the area to throw down their arms and swear fealty to Alexander, save for Demastion, which is invaded later this month.

Autumn

  • September: The Illyrian League is formed by multiple regional states, most notably Epidamnos.

Winter

  • December: Battle of Appolonia. The Illyrian League is betrayed by Epidamnos, which offers peace to Madecon in exchange for gold and aid in another war.

314 BC (261 PC)

Winter

  • March: The Illyrian League and Macedon invade the Bryges.

Spring

  • April: The satrapies in India begin to grow weary and the people revolt. The Brief War of the Satraps begins.

Summer

  • August: Most wars involving the Indian satraps end.

313 BC (260 PC)

Spring

  • May: Alexander crushes the Delmate and marches on Adriatic Veneti territory. They flee to the island of OTL Venice. Not unlike the siege of Tyre, Alexander seiges the encampment by building a massive bridge to take out the encampment. He renames the city Alexandria on the Adriatic.

Summer

  • June: While in Alexander on the Adriatic, Alexander declares himself King of Italia.
  • July: Macedonians invade the Italian peninsula at the Battle of Spica. Picentus retaliates, but are quickly defeated by Macedon. These defeats scare the Italians. The Etruscans, while intimidated, do not fight back with other Italian tribes.
  • August: Beginning of the Umbrian Campaigns.

312 BC (259 PC)

Spring

  • March: End of the Umbrian Campaigns. With the Umbrians having sworn fealty or otherwise surrendered, Macedon prepares to invade the Etruscans, who quickly surrender to the Macedonians. The Roman Republic is offered the same deal, but they refuse. Rome is invaded.

Summer

  • June: A massive invasion force invades Rome from the north and the east. The Siege of Rome begins.

Winter

  • December: A wall is built over the Servian Walls of Rome. Macedon and the Etruscans pour into Rome and take the city by storm.

311 BC (258 PC)

Alexander's Empire 311 BC Names

Alexander's Empire during the time of his death.

Winter

  • January: Alexander meets Tatiana of Rome, a merchant from the city. He begins an affair with her.

Spring

  • April: Alexander III marries Tatiana of Rome but falls ill during his wedding ceremony. His illness grows worse throughout the day before, finally, he dies later that night. The throne passes to Alexander IV.

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