From this time on I'll comment with emoticons both historical and AH facts, according to my personal ideas, obviously ... no offense intended.
Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
Simeon of Bulgaria conquers and devastates rebel Raška/Kosovo, then dies, leaving an empire stretching through the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) from the Adriatic coast to the Black Sea: his son Michael, a dangerous pretender to the Byzantine throne being Eustace II’s son-in-law, is killed by his younger brother Peter in a plot orchestrated by Constantinople. Peter will prove a loyal friend of the Byzantines, renouncing any claim to the imperial throne and giving back stolen lands in Thrace and Macedonia in echange for tributes; he, anyway, will ever refuse to trade back his sister-in-law Zoe and his nephew Simeon (Eustace II’s grandson), well knowing their value as hostages. :rolleyes:
Hugh, count of Arles and Vienne, kills by treason :mad: his distant relative Louis IV at Turin and has himself crowned Holy Roman emperor with his son Hubert as co-emperor, starting a bitter civil war with Louis’ son, Charles Constantine. In the end the latter prevails slaying Hugh in the battle of the Var river (near Nice) and Hubert (who had taken over Spoleto) at Arezzo, to be eventually crowned in Monza as Charles IV Constantine, emperor and king of Burgundy, Lombardy and Italy 927 British Isles:
King Athelstan of England crushes and annexes the Danish kingdom of York/Jorvik; after this successful feat, though, he suffers a setback at the battle of Glanmiwl against the Welsh of king Hywel Dda of Gwynedd and Deheubarth. :D
Ebles Manzer, count of Poitou and half-brother of the long deceased Rainulf III, becomes Duke of Aquitania and Auvergne.
The Duchy of Carinthia is re-established under Berthold of the Luitpoldingian family, brother of duke Arnulf of Bavaria.
Časlav Klonimirovič, escaped from his captivity in Preslav, frees the Serbs from Bulgarian yoke, and reigns over Raška/Kosovo.
Mardawi al-Ziyar founds the Waliist Sunni Ziyarid dynasty of Mazandaran (south of the Caspian Sea). Far East:
The Khitans/Liao overthrow the Korean-Tungusic kingdom of Parhae, thus conquering southern Manchuria
The Magyars invade Italy again in the height of the war for the imperial throne of the HRCEW (*Holy Roman Catholic Empire of the West), pillage Friul and then Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo: afterwards, both Spoleto and Rome are taken. The Urbs Aeterna is terribly devastated :eek: , Pope Leo VI dies in the fire of the Lateran basilica. Not content with the devastation, they free Marozia :D in the city in exchange for a record ransom and hostages from the Tuscolo-Teofilatti family
The Saxons led by their duke, the king of Germany Henry I the Fowler, defeat the Slavic Wends along the lower Elbe and conquer Branibor/Brandenburg, founding there the Northern March/Nordmark.
The Qarmatians sack Baghdad; the Abbasid court and the Waliate (*the Sunny "Papacy") temporarily take refuge in Samarra. Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
The Itzàs abandon Chichén Itzà.
A joint Viking-Breton invasion of Gallastria (*OTL Galicia and Asturias) led by the Pictish-Norwegian Einar Thorsteinsson overthrows king Tiago VI establishing the Mabinardo (map Einar) :confused: dynasty in the country
Nasir ad-Dawlah al-Hasan, governor of Mosul (northern Iraq), secedes from the Abbasid empire establishing the Hamdanid state.
Because of the eruption of the Merapi volcano, the kingdom of Mataram moves towards eastern Java, with its capital in Kediri
The Icelanders establish the Althing :cool: , the oldest sovereign Parliament in northern Europe, as their form of government. Central-Eastern Europe:
Bohemia conquers the Duchy of Lesser Poland (Cracow, upper Vistula)
The southwestern Welsh kingdoms of Glywysing and Gwent merge to form Morgannwyg/Glamorgan
The Alans convert to Jewry :p and reaffirm their historical alliance with the Khazars. Central Asia, Middle East:
The Ziyarids of Mazandaran defeat the Samanids and take several towns in northern Persia/Iran; with Daylami and Tabaristani help they also crush the Sajids of southern Azerbaigian (Tabriz).
The Qarmatians, at the apogee of their power, conquer and sack Mecca :D , assuming full control over Hijaz; their leader Abu Tahir proclaims himself Caliph in its turn, so there are no less then five rival Caliphates :eek: now in the Dar al-Islam, the Ifriqid Twelver Shi'ite one in Tripoli, Libya, the Sunni Caliphist one in al-Fustat, Egypt, the Sunni Waliist Abbasid one in Baghdad, the Qarmatian Caliph in Mecca and the Ismaili Fatimid Caliph in Mascat, Oman!
Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
Byzantine forces under general John Curcuas conquer Cilicia :)
Grand Župan Časlav Klonimirovič of Raška/Kosovo subdues to his rule Duklja/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro), Triballia, Zahumlje (Hercegovina) and most of Bosnia.
Michael, Christian son of Almush Djafar Khan, takes power among the Volga Bulgarians to be later killed :( by his Muslim brother Muhammad ibn Djafar, who finally sets the Sunni Waliist creed of the khanate
Marozia, now again the true ruler of Rome, enforces the election as Pope of his first son John X (*OTL John XI), born from an illicit relation with Pope Sergius III :eek: when she was only 16. The Byzantine navy enforces Constantinople’s rule (and taxes) over Sardinia
The Byzantine general John Curcuas quickly retakes Melitene (*OTL Malatya) from the Hamdanids who had seized this key border fortress
The Qarmatians are driven from Iraq, Syria and Lebanon by the Hamdanids of Mosul
John Curcuas leads an expedition to Italy that restores Byzantine authority over the south and the Hexapolis (*six towns in Campania) and enters Rome unopposed, installing there Alberic II as king of Italy (Spoleto), senator and prince of the Romans under Byzantine influence (he married a niece of basileus Romanus I). Alberic’s mother Marozia is jailed :D in Castel Sant’Angelo; her infant son Conrad (Alberic’s other half-brother, and son of the deceased Rudolf of Upper Burgundy) is brought to Byzantium, where he’ll be raised as the Byzantine pretender to the HRCEW :cool: . Charles IV Constantine, the Western emperor, is humiliated by his lack of troops to answer the Byzantine move.
A peasant revolt led by Basil the Copper Hand shakes Bythinia, and is painfully repressed by Constantinople
An alliance is sealed between the Khazars and the Oghuz/Ouzoi Turks against the Pechenegs. Saltuk Bughra Khan founds the Karakhanid khanate between the Issyk-Kul and Balkhash lakes
The king of Germany, Henry I the Fowler, defeats the Magyar raiders at Riade. :)
The Vikings of Normandy gain control over the Channel Islands.
The Venetians defeat at Caorle raiders from Trieste who kidnapped some young brides :mad: ; centuries of enmity will follow between the two cities. The Magyars renew their incursions in the Padan Plain.
Khusraw I Samani defeats Marwan al-Ziyar at Gurgan and vassalizes the Ziyarid state in northern Persia/Iran.
Charles IV Constantine is murdered :( by his vassal Berengar, margrave of Ivrea, who is thereafter enthroned as the new emperor of the HRCEW. The Magyars plunder the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) exacting tributes from both Byzantium and Bulgaria.
Henry I the Fowler, king of Germany, routs the Danes of king Gorm the Old who invaded Frisia and wrests Holstein from them.
Northern Europe, British Isles:
Erik I Bloodaxe :eek: is deposed in Norway by his half-brother Haakon I the Good, who came back converted to Christianity from his exile in England; Erik flees to the Orkneys and thence to York/Jorvik, where king Athelstan of England entrusts him with the defence of Northumbria against the Picto-Scots.
Upon Ebles Manzer’s death, Aquitania is taken over by Raymond III, the powerful count of Toulouse
The Hamdanids again conquer Melitene (*OTL Malatya) from the Byzantines and hold it. :( North Africa:
A Byzantine naval and land expedition takes Tripoli (Libya) finishing off the Ifriqid Shi’a Caliphate, but can’t advance in the interior, held by fierce Arab and Berber Muslim tribes.
The Egyptian Omayyads invade Palestine but are routed by the Qarmatians at Emmaus. The Daylam-born Twelver Shi'ite soldier Alì ibn Buya founds the Buyid dynasty in the Fars (southern Persia/Iran).
Alba/Scotland shakes English overlordship with the nativist revolution :D led by Fergus III, who overthrows and kills his cousin Ferach II.
Southern Europe, Western Europe:
Berengar of Ivrea and Giselbert of Lorraine struggle for control over Burgundy and Provence; in the end the Diet of Geneve assigns Burgundy to Giselbert and Provence to Berengar, both provinces reduced to duchies and incorporated into Lorraine and Lombardy respectively
Boleslav I the Cruel, supported by the anti-German heathen faction, overthrows and kills his brother, the duke of Bohemia Wenceslas I the Saint. The Kabaro-Khazar principality of Bihar, between the Tisza and Transylvania, is absorbed into Hungary
the Magyars invade Lombardy but are repulsed at Bergamo by emperor Berengar of Ivrea.
The kingdom di Koryo, under king Wang Kon/T’aejo I, completes the reunification of Korea crushing Silla and Later Paekche/Hubaekche
With Khitan/Liao help the Later Jin overthrow the Later T’ang on the Chinese imperial throne.
Anscarius, brother of Berengar of Ivrea, gains the Margraviate of Tuscany. The Magyars plunder Histria
Central Asia, Middle East:
After winning the great battle of Shurab, which finally decides the Wars of Apostasy, Khusraw I Samani annihilates the Saffarid state in southern Persia/Iran and vassalizes Buyids, Ziyarids, Tabaristanis and Daylamites, enforcing mass conversions to Zoroastrism through high taxation upon Muslims :D. Khusraw I proclaims himself Shah-in-Shah (king of the kings) of Persia, thus founding the Samanid Empire.
A wide alliance of Picto-Scots, Welshmen and Vikings defeats and kills king Athelstan of England at the battle of Brunanburh: Erik I Bloodaxe :eek: becomes the first Norse king of England, gaining recognition as sovereign also by the Jarls of the Orkneys. Edmund and Edred, Athelstan’s brothers, take refuge together with earl Uthred I of Bamburgh/Bernicia at the court of their brother-in-law, the king of Germany Otto I of Saxony. The Briton kingdom of Cumbria (Cumberland) is established as a client of Norse England.
Extinction if the Axumite dynasty in Ethiopia, the paramount Zagwe clan begins the slow reconstruction of the Ethiopian empire
Western Europe, Southern Europe:
The Magyars, called upon by Otto I of Saxony, raid Lorraine and Burgundy (whose king Giselbert submits and accepts German suzerainty), then enter Lombardy from the western Alps and sack the entirety of Italy :eek: up to the whereabouts of Naples before withdrawing
Otto I of Saxony thrice invades and tries to subdue Lower Lotharingia into submission, but king Hugh I the Bold (*OTL Hugh, father of Hugh Capet) resists strongly; in the end the German king is however able to wrest from Lower Lotharingia overlordship over Rheinland and the archbishoprics of Cologne and Mainz by the Treaty of Bonn
Strathclyde gains freedom from Alba/Scotland, but after suffering devastating Norse raids from Erik Bloodaxe, returns under the Picto-Scots
Duke Alain Barbe-Torte drives the Vikings from Brittany :) .
John Curcuas is defeated by the Hamdanid Saif ad-Dawla when he tries to retake Melitene (*OTL Malatya) :(
The Khitan/Liao set their capital in Yanjing/Peking.
Western Europe, Northern Europe:
King Giselbert of Lorraine and Burgundy revolts against Otto of Saxony together with duke Everhard of Franconia (pretender to the German crown), but the two rebels are crushed at the battle of Andernach and subsequently killed. Lorraine and Burgundy are annexed to Germany as two distinct duchies (another duchy of Burgundy, centered in Autun, is part of France since 877).
The Khazars defeat a Varangian-Russian invasion.
Vietnam breaks frees from China under the Ngo dynasty
The emirate of Shirvan (Azerbaijan) occupies Debent and coastal Daghestan, but can’t control them for long
Hisdai ibn Shaprut, the former Jewish vizir (prime minister) of the Omayyad Caliph of Egypt Abd ar-Rahman III, ascends the throne of Khazaria as Khan Joseph
Saif ad-Dawla’s Syrian forces sack the Byzantine city of Colonea
Mularaja I, a prince from the Solankis/Chalukyas of Kalyani, takes power in Gujarat overthrowing the local Rashtrakuta branch
Three kings from the Yadjaskara family briefly rule Kashmir upon the fall of the Utpalas, then Parvagupta establishes his own dynasty in the kingdom
A Varangian-Russian naval armada led by knyaz (prince) Ingvar/Igor of Kiev is defeated under the walls of Constantinople.
The Norse (and heathen) king of England Erik I Bloodaxe stages a naval expedition to his native Norway to overthrow his brother Haakon I but is routed at the Sognefjord and barely saves his own life
Again in York/Jorvik, Erik Bloodaxe crushes with cruelty the Anglo-Saxon rebels; he also begins persecutions against the Church
Southern Europe, Western Europe:
The Magyars stage a new great raid in Lombardy and Italy; Rome’s Byzantine garrison resists the horde, who then turns north, cross the Alps and the Pyrenees and plunges on Visigothic Spain, defeating king Rodrigo VII at the Ebro and sacking up to Andalusia before heading back home.
King Arnulf I of France invades Lorraine but is defeated at Metz and forced to concede the disputed duchy to Germany. The county of Carcassonne passes to Arnold de Comminges.
The Vikings of Dublin conquer the Isle of Man
Khusraw I, the founder of the Samanid Empire, dies in Nishapur, succeeded by Shapur I Nuh.
Civil war rages in Provence, where count Rotbald, emperor Berengar’s brother-in-law, has seized power together with his son Boso; in the end the two pretenders, despite help from some Italian feudatories in Lombardy, are forced to flee to Spain from Marseille by the superior forces of Berengar of Ivrea
The Magyars raid Bulgaria, where young Simeon tries to overthrow his uncle Peter, then, having failed, takes refuge in Hungary: his mother Zoe, daughter of the deposed Eustace II of Byzantium, is blinded and confined in a nunnery
Western Europe, Northern Europe:
The king of Germany Otto I of Saxony entrusts the duchy of Lorraine to his son-in-law, Conrad the Red. The county of Loon/Looz is established in the Limburg region of southern Lotharingia
The Magyars defeat the combined forces of Carinthia and Friul (the Aquileia Patriarchate) along the Drava river. The Pechenegs stage a major raid in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), especially targeting Bulgaria.
John Curcuas defeats the Hamdanids in Cilicia, then raids and briefly conquers Edessa (*OTL Urfa), bringing back the Sacred Mandylion, the Holy Shroud of Jesus, in a solemn triumph in Constantinople; he is thereafter appointed as katepano (“captain”, that is High governor) for southern Italy. Shortly after his departure basileus Romanus I Lecapenus is deposed and forced to become a monk by his sons Stephen and Constantine, who rule jointly as co-emperors, Stephen I in Europe and Constantine VIII in Asia.
A “Rus” (Viking) fleet, coming via the Volga and the Caspian Sea, wreaks havoc in Muslim Azerbaijan until it is finally repulsed
Sulayman ibn Abi Sa'id Abu Tahir, the Qarmatian Caliph of Mecca, dies, and his brothers and sons immediately begin a civil war which fosters Fatimid ascendancy
944-949 Byzantine Empire:
The Byzantine world falls into a chaotic civil war following Stephen and Constantine’s usurpation of the throne: the main noble families, led by the Dukas and the Phokas, rebel in their Anatolian strongholds, while some other families, notably the Melissenoi, reject imperial authority in Greece
The royal families of Cornwall and Brittany are tied by a dynastic marriage
The Magyars again plunge across the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and enforce Simeon the Bulgarian as the ruler of vast swaths of land in Slavic and Greek Macedonia, amidst the chaos of the Byzantine civil war
Shapur I Samani invades Iraq but his siege of Baghdad is a dismal failure. Saif ad-Dawla Alì establishes his own Hamdanid emirate at Aleppo seceding from Mosul and reconquers Cilicia from the Byzantines, torn apart by the civil war
Helga/Olga of Kiev avenges her killed husband Ingvar/Igor annihilating the rebel Drevlians.
Simeon the Bulgarian conquers Thessalonica and crushes in the battle of Lamia the forces of Michael Melissenos, conquering all of mainland Greece.
Southern Europe, North Africa:
General John Curcuas is hailed as Byzantine basileus for the West by his army in southern Italy, and later confirmed in this title in Rome by Pope Agapithus II, re-establishing the Western Byzantine empire. He sets his capital in Messina, holding domain from the south of Italy (and, through Alberic II, Spoleto) to most of Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia).
Vairisimha II frees the kingdom di Malwa and re-establishes there the Paramara dynasty. 946-948 Southern Europe:
Civil war in Lombardy between emperor Berengar of Ivrea and his brother Anscarius, margrave of Tuscany.
The Dukas and Phokas pretenders fight each other to exhaustion in Anatolia.
Simeon the Bulgarian, gathered an army of Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians and even Magyars, conquers Gallipoli, then crosses the Dardanelles despite the opposition of the fleet (still loyal to the Lecapenus brothers) and takes Nicaea, Nicomedia and Chalcedon, putting Constantinople under siege.
The Magyars again invade Lombardy; emperor Berengar pays tribute :( and they head south to pillage first Tuscany, against the rebel Anscarius, then Byzantine Puglia, until John Curcuas repels them.
The king of Germany Otto I of Saxony concedes the Duchies of Bavaria and Carinthia to his brother Henry upon the death of Duke Berthold. Tension between Germany and Lombardy will soon arise over the possession of Tyrol (*still Lombard ITTL).
The Khitan/Liao take Kaifeng, the Chinese capital, overthrowing the rebellious Later Jin and completing the conquest of northern China. The Later Han are installed there on the Chinese throne as allies. 947-954
Middle East, Central Asia:
Repeated Sunni and Shi'ite revolts shake the power of the Samanid empire, which comes to depend upon the dubious loyalty of the Turkish mercenaries (mostly Waliist Sunnis). Buyid Fars regains complete independence.
Simeon’s army, now reinforced by Varangian-Russian warriors, swarms into Anatolia crushing both the Phokas and Dukas provincial armies; the imperial pretenders are both killed. Meantime Simeon’s uncle, Czar Peter of Bulgaria, joins forces with the co-basileus Stephen and Constantine Lecapenus and occupies most of Macedonia and Thrace, raising the land siege of Constantinople.
Margrave Anscarius of Tuscany is decisively defeated by his brother, emperor Berengar of Ivrea, at the battle of Bardi (Emilia); he flees to Corsica and establishes there a rogue domain, resorting to piracy ;) . The margraviate of Tuscany is bestowed upon Guido, Berengar’s teenage second son; Adalbert, the eldest son of Berengar, is crowned in Arles as co-emperor and king of Burgundy and Provence. Soon afterwards duke Henry of Bavaria and Carinthia invades Tyrol and takes Trento, then Friul where he executes the Patriarch of Aquileia, Lupus II :eek: , for an alleged betrayal in the previous battles in Carinthia against the Magyars, who are now ousted from Lombardy. The conquered regions are annexed to the kingdom of Germany :( as dependancies of Bavaria (Tyrol and Trento) and Carinthia (Friul); from now on the Patriarchs of Aquileia will be German nobles for a long time, just as the local rulers of (eastern) Histria, Grizza (*OTL Gorizia), Carniola/Slovenia.
When the two imperial brothers let Bulgarian troops into Constantinople :eek: a rebellion breaks out in the fleet, who calls Simeon to enter the city. The Lecapenus brothers are spared life, but are blinded and jailed :( in remote monasteries in the Taurida (*OTL Crimea); their brother, Patriarch Theophylactus, is deposed and made a monk in a Greek island. Simeon I the Bulgarian, the grandson of Eustace II and of Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, is crowned basileus in St. Sophia by the new Patriarch Polyeuctes.
Berengar, emperor of the HRCEW (*Holy Roman Catholic Empire of the West) only in name (more than ever now that the Papacy recognizes again a Western Byzantine empire), declares Otto I of Saxony a felon :D for his brother’s invasion of NE Lombardy, then calls for help... the Magyars :eek: , who begin repeated raids from Friul to Austria, Bavaria and Germany. Berengar isn’t able, thogh, to gain back more more than Trento, while in Germany no one dares to defy Otto’s power.
In Bulgaria Czar Peter is deposed by rebel generals and basileus Simeon is hailed as Czar, unifying Byzantium and Bulgaria :cool: (the Bulgarians soon divide into a “Byzantine” and a “Slavic” faction over the issue). The great župan (prince) of Raška/Kosovo, Časlav Klonimirović, formally acknowledges basileus Simeon’s overlordship in an effort to gain protection against Magyar raiding. In Lombardy Berengar of Ivrea reorganizes the western territories of Lombardy into three Marches: the Arduinic March, entrusted to his own son and co-emperor Adalbert, from western Piedmont and the Alps to Nice and Ventimiglia; the Aleramic March (western Liguria, southern Piedmont), entrusted to Aleramo of Montferrat; the Obertingian March (eastern Liguria and Piedmont, western Emilia, western Lombardy proper) bestowed upon margrave Oberto, scion of a noble Lombard family and ancestor to a number of future dynasties and noble families (notably the Este, the Later Welfs, Pallavicino, Malaspina etc.) :cool: .
The Germans force Boleslas I of Bohemia to acknowledge Otto I’s suzerainty.
The Fatimids gain the upper hand after long and obscure struggles against the Qarmatians and conquer Najd and Hijaz with the Holy Cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.
The earldom of Mercia is entrusted to the Leofricson family. Western Europe:
Foundation of the county of Arlon in SE Belgium.
Bogomilism (“friendship to God”) is introduced into Bulgaria by exiled prisoners of the Byzantine civil war, late Paulicians coming from Cappadocia; the doctrine will spread with immediate force in the country.
Poland wrests Galicia/Ruthenia from Magyar overlordship.
The Sunni-Shi’a schism becomes endemic in the Muslim world, such as the rift between Waliist (“Papist” :D , loyal to the Walis of Baghdad) and Caliphist Sunnism; meantime Sufism, a trans-confessional mystical approach to Islam (and not only that faith) emerges as a significant philosophy in multicultural Persia/Iran.
The Haussas impose themselves as the paramount people of northern Nigeria, where they found a network of city-states bound together by alliances. The kingdom of Benin is founded in SW Nigeria.
The Arabs establish the trading post of Mogadishu in Somalia and discover Mauritius, though they don’t settle the island.
The Khmer empire attacks and vassalizes the Cham kingdom (Annam, *OTL southern Vietnam). Batara Guru I founds the first dynasty of kings of Gowa/Makassar on Celebes/Sulawesi island.
The Karakhanids of Transoxiana (eastern Kazakhstan and Kirghizistan) and the Uygurs convert to Waliist Sunni Islam.
|Earlier in time:|
Timeline 900-925 AD
|925-950 AD||Later in time:|
Timeline 950-975 AD