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The Holy Roman Catholic Emperor of the West and king of Italy Louis II “Murus Ecclesiae” dies without male issue; he is succeeded as king of Italy by his cousin Charles the Fat and as emperor by Charles’s father, Louis III the German. When Louis III dies too less than a year later, Charles the Fat becomes emperor as Charles III, while the kingdom of the East Franks (Germany) is carved between the other two sons of Louis the German, Pepin, (*OTL Carloman) who gets Bavaria and Swabia, and Louis IV who gets Saxony and Franconia
Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, at firt suffers heavy defeats at the hands of the Viking invaders, then soundly repels them out of the core of his domains.
In Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland plus Valtellina) duke Waltarius, the last of the native house of the Firmians (a three century old dynasty), marries his daughter Theodula to an Alamannic feudatory, Everhard Strong Arm, to ensure a smooth succession
Ya’qub as-Saffar from his power base in eastern Persia invades Fars and Khuzistan heading for Baghdad, but his attempt is thwarted by Abbasid Caliphal forces (the Turkish Guard and the Tahirids) at the battle of Deyrol-Aqul.
Upon the death of prince Kocelj Pribinović, the Slavic principality of Balaton is peacefully absorbed into the Carolingian march of Carantania/Carinthia (vassal to the kingdom of the East Franks/Germany).
HRCEW Charles III the Fat and his brothers Pepin (*OTL Carloman) and Louis begin to quarrel about their respective domains and to plot against each other
A Byzantine expedition led by basileus Bardas II lands in Puglia and crushes the emirate of Taranto, freeing the ancient city from Muslim yoke, then heads to Calabria reconquering Crotone and Rossano. Being this territories theoretically belonging to the HRCEW, an undeclared state of war between the latter and Byzantium follows 877
Taking as pretext the will to help his Zanj brothers still revolting in Iraq, the strongman of Omayyad Egypt Ahmad ibn Simba invades and conquers Syria, taking Antioch, Damascus and Aleppo; the Egyptians, though, can’t advance further. Southern Europe:
Gaeta (southern Latium) is made a Duchy under John I.
Amoghavarsha I Rahstrakuta dies after firmly implanting Zoroastrism in western India aside traditional Hinduism. The eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, former Rashtrakuta vassals, proclaim independence 877-878
Alfred the Great routs the Danes: by the Treaty of Wedmore they cede overlorship upon eastern Mercia to Wessex, retaining instead the Danelaw with the “Five Boroughs”. The Danish Viking Ubbe, a son of Ragnar Lodbrok, briefly enforces his rule over Wales; a few months after Rhodri Mawr, aging but still vigorous, comes back from his exile in Ireland and wipes away the invaders, establishing full kingship over the whole of Wales, whose other rulers are reduced to vassal state
Duke Lambert I of Spoleto and his brother Guido II attack the Byzantines in Puglia, forcing basileus Bardas II to raise the siege of Arab-held Reggio Calabria. The Byzantines then conquer Bari, Siponto and the whole of Puglia, establishing there the theme (province) of the Italian Chersonesos; Lambert and Guido, being inferior in numbers, withdraw north
The Viking kingdoms of Limerick and Dublin are unified, then each goes its way again
Anglo-Saxon Northumbria is finally conquered: king Egbert II is sacrificed to Odin by Halfdan I of the York/Jorvik Vikings. The Picto-Scots raid Viking-held Strathclyde.
The county of Gerona is absorbed into that of Barcelona, which becomes a march under constant threat from Visigothic Spain
The Armenians drive the last Abbasid governor from Dvin, their major city
In Nepal the Raghavadevas/Thakuri succeed to the long-lasting rule of the Licchavi dynasty
Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
Basileus Bardas II advances quickly up to Latium and threatens Rome; then, confronted by an army led by HRCEW Charles III the Fat and Lambert I and Guido II of Spoleto, and hearing news of a plot to replace him with his crippled brother Theodore, he hurries back to Constantinople, having the scheming Symbatius beheaded and Theodore confined in a monastery.
King Baldwin I Iron Arm of West Francia/France dies and his succession is immediately disputed between his young son Baldwin II, the king of Saxony and Franconia Louis, and the sub-king of Aquitaine Hugo of Els; though major battles don’t take place, chaos is rampant
The Chinese rebels led by Huang Chao attack Guangzhou/Canton and massacre there thousands of Muslim, Christian, Manichaean and Jewish merchants
To summon support from the feudatories, young Baldwin II of France ensures heritability of major fiefs with the Capitular of Quierzy: the move will soon force other rulers in Christian Europe to comply and set the stage for further feudal anarchy. Hugo, son of Louis of Saxony-Franconia, is then killed at the battle of Auxerre; Louis himself is murdered by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia, who thus reunifies East Francia/Germany under his rule
In Italy duke Guido II of Spoleto and his son Guido III force Pope John VIII to crown them as co-emperors and co-kings of Italy; the deposed Charles III the Fat is killed by treason in Pavia before even being informed about that. Taking advantage of the chaos count Boso of Vienne wrests lands to both West Francia/France and Italy and founds the kingdom of Lower Burgundy, holding sway over Savoy and Provence, between the Rhone, the Alps and the Jura
Foundation of Prague as the capital of the Premyslid Duchy of Bohemia.
Iberia/Georgia gains complete independence from the Abbasid Caliphate; at Tbilisi, though, a Muslim emirate loyal to Baghdad persists
The Ostmark (Austria) is detached from Bavaria under margrave Aribo
The Treaty of Ribémont redesigns the main partitions of the HRCEW. France and Lower Lotharingia (Netherlands, Belgium) are acknowledged as the legitimate possession of Baldwin II, Boso of Vienne is accepted as the ruler of Lower Burgundy, Hugo of Els has Aquitaine detached by France and elevated to a full kingdom on its own, with domain over the border marches with Visigothic Spain; Germany is reunified under Arnulf of Carinthia. The latter and Baldwin II both want the imperial crown, but distrust each other: so they accept as a compromise to proclaim as emperor Hugo of Els, weaker than both, as the Carolingian candidate to the HRCEW crown against the usurper Guido III of Spoleto. Meantime, taking advantage of the civil wars, the Danes occupied Flanders and Hainault (the region between Valenciennes and Liege) Far East:
Huang Chao’s Chinese rebels occupy the imperial capital, Chang’An/Xian, forcing the T’ang to flee for help to the Sichuan whence they ask the Dangxiang/Tangut Tibetans for help
Hugo of Els, with support fom Boso of Lower Burgundy and many counts and dukes of northern Italy, crosses the Alps and the Apennines, deposing Guido III of Spoleto. Guido III takes refuge in Byzantine Puglia; his domains are occupied by count Berengar of Friul, loyal to Hugo. Venice enforces overlordship upon western Histria. A Byzantine fleet defeats the Muslim Sicilian navy at Capo Rizzuto (Calabria)
Greater Moravia invades Bohemia to quell a rebellion and spread Christianity. The Varangian (Swedish) Oleg, brother-in-law of the deceased Rurik of Frisia and Novgorod-Rus’, ascends the throne of Kiev
883 Central-Eastern Europe:
Greater Moravia wrests overlorship on Balaton (Slavic Pannonia, west of the Danube) from Carinthia, thus beginning a lethal confrontation with king Arnulf of the Eastern Franks.
King Theodomiro II of Spain conquers Vasconia/Navarra, killing marquis Sancho Mitarra and installing there his second son Raynaldo as marquis: thus the Raynaldez dynasty of Navarra is founded. Theodomiro II then crosses the Pyrenees and subdues Aquitaine while emperor Hugo is still in Italy; he advances up to the Loire, where he is finally killed by the marauding Vikings, who thereafter sack Bordeaux and Limoges
Mercia is de facto annexed to Wessex and reduced to an important earldom
Basileus Bardas II the Great stages his second Italian campaign. Landed at Taranto with a 20,000 strong army, he heads north in support of the Spoletan claim to the throne of Italy and the imperial crown of the West. The decisive clash with Hugo’s forces takes place at Larino (Molise) and resolves in a crushing victory for the Byzantines: Hugo is killed on the battlefield, while count Berengar of Friul flees to organize resistance north of the Apennines. Bardas II then enters Rome, received by Pope Adrian III. Here Guido III is reinstated as king of Italy under Byzantine suzerainty
Rhodri Mawr dies, dividing Wales among his sons Gwriad (Powys and the High Kingship of Wales) and Anarawd (Gwynedd and Cardigan/Seisyllwg)
Djirva (*OTL Djerba) successfully resists a Byzantine naval assault
The Saffarids invade and vassalize Hindu Kashmir and Muslim-ruled Punjab (held by the emirs of Multan), wreaking great carnage among the Hindus (the Hindukush name is born in these years, meaning literally: “Hindu killer”) Central Asia:
An independent Zaydi kingdom is established in Tabaristan, which broke free from Abbasid rule again under the local Bavandid dynasty.
T’ang loyalist forces and Turkic mercenaries finally crush Huang Chao’s revolt in China, but the T’ang are approaching the end
Historic meeting in Florence between basileus Bardas II, Baldwin II of France and Arnulf of Carinthia and Germany. It is convened that the Papacy should remain a neutral border land between Byzantium and the Spoletan kingdom of Italy to the south and east and a new Kingdom of Lombardy to the north and west to bestow upon Berengar of Friul. Byzantium gains direct rule over most of the Italian south, divided in the themes (provinces) of Italian Chersonesos (Puglia), Idalikon (Campania and Basilicata/Lucania), Roxaneia (Calabria, from its capital in Rossano). Bardas guarantees no further claims on the HRCEW crown by Guido III of Spoleto; Arnulf and Baldwin, always refusing to see the imperial crown on the other’s head, jointly decide to appoint as emperor the king of Lower Burgundy Boso of Vienne, a non-Carolingian in good relations with both. Venice’s complete independence from any power is also agreed: Doge John II Badoer is now a sovereign on par with the HRCEW and the Basileus.
Baldwin II of France, on his way back, forcibly seizes Aquitaine and Septimania, wiping away Vikings and Visigoths; meantime Eudes, count of Paris, soundly defeats the Viking invaders of northern France.
Vendeyssel, the northern tip of Jutland, is annexed to the kingdom of Denmark, which is completing the national unification.
886 Northern Europe, Western Europe:
The Danes are driven from Frisia by Arnulf of Carinthia, king of the East Franks; in Flanders, instead, Baldwin II of France is badly defeated by the Vikings and, wounded, is saved by the young and brave count of Paris, Eudes. In sign of gratitude Baldwin II renounces Flanders and concedes it as a march to Eudes and his descendants, the Robertingians (*OTL Capets)
Alfred the Great’s Anglo-Saxons wrench London and Lincolnshire from the Danes.
Armenia, now completely free from Abbasid domination, becomes a fully independent kingdom under Ashot IV (I as king of Armenia) the Great of the Bagratids (note: a cousin of the deceased Ashot I of Taron, not the same person).
Central Arabia gains formal independence from the Abbasid Caliphate under the Banu Jannabi tribe
Feudal unrest shakes the unity of West Francia/France; the count of Poitou Rainulf II proclaims himself King of Aquitaine with Viking support; the margrave of Transjurania, Rudolf I of the house of Welf, is proclaimed king of Upper Burgundy (Romandie and Burgundy proper). At first Baldwin II of France tries to react, but Arnulf of Carinthia intervenes in support of the secessionists and bribes Baldwin’s vassals, who leave him alone and humiliated; royal authority is largely discredited, and effectively confined to the northern parts of the kingdom, while Arnulf becomes the main strongman of the HRCEW
Boso I dies suddenly in Vienne and is succeeded as king of Lower Burgundy by his 5 year old son Louis, who is also enthroned as puppet emperor of the HRCEW (as Louis IV).
The twelfth Shi’a Imam, Muhammad al-Muntazar, a boy only six years old, suddenly disappears in Samarra (Iraq), likely eliminated by agents of the Sunni Wali Abdulmumin I. No other Shi’a Imams will be recognized: since then the majoritary Shi'ite confession, the Twelvers, will wait for his future return as Mahdi (Messiah)
The Anglo-Saxon earldom of Bamburgh/Bernicia is founded under Eadulf I in the Northumbrian territories recently taken by Wessex from the York/Jorvik Danish Vikings
Alain I the Great takes over in Brittany ending Norse domain in the country
The Byzantines finally crush the resistance of the emirate of al-Byrutts (Calabria, Roman Bruttium) taking Reggio after landing in Sicily and conquering Messina
The Magyars stage their first raid in depth across Pannonia and up to Friul, whence they withdraw when king Berengar of Italy moves against them. Romancia, after the death of duke Waltarius, is established as a kingdom under Everhard I Strong Arm.
The Pechenegs (likely an Oghuz tribe descending from the Turgesh/T’u-Ch’ueh), after long struggles with the Kipchaks, migrate west and settle along the Don river, starting the decline of Khazaria. Greater Moravia subdues the Sorbs of Lusatia (eastern Germany, immediately east of Upper Saxony).
Southern Azerbaijan (Tabriz) too secedes from the Abbasid Caliphate under the Sajids
889-891 Southern Europe:
Third and last Italian campaign of basileus Bardas II: after two years of bloody campaigning Sicily is forcibly wrested from Muslim hands and made another Byzantine theme
The Byzantine fleet takes Malta.
King Rodrigo IV of Spain, by the Capitular of Mérida, concedes heritability of major fiefdoms, a lethal blow in perspective for the unity of the Visigothic kingdom
Greater Moravia is forced by the armies of Arnulf of Carinthia to abandon its ties with Byzantium and to adopt the Roman Catholic liturgic rite. Central Asia:
The Karakhanid clan emerges as the most powerful among the Qarluqs of eastern Kazakhstan. The Shahi dynasty takes power in Kabul, capital of the Hindu kingdom of Zabulistan.
Angkor becomes the capital of the Khmer empire under Yasovarman I.
Margrave Eudes of Flanders crushes the Danes on the Dyle river: the Viking invaders are thus driven from Belgium. He afterwards sets the boundary between West Frankish Flanders and East Frankish Frisia at the Lower Rhine
A new Viking kingdom is founded in Ireland at Waterford
the new Abbasid Caliph al-Mu’tadid escapes the suffocating control of the Turkish Guard and relocates the actual capital from Samarra to Baghdad. He is however unable to smash in a decisive way Turkish power, and soon falls under the influence of the Sunni Waliate (*the Sunny “Papacy” of TTL).
Bohemia breaks free from Greater Moravia under duke Spytihnev I thanks to eastern Frankish support
In the wake of the slow disruption of the unified kingdom of Silla, a second Paekche State forms in the southwest of the Korean peninsula (Hubaekche, or Later Paekche)
The Pechenegs are attacked by the Oghuz/Ouzoi, and relocate to southern Ukraine, between the Dnieper and Lower Bug rivers. This, in turn, pushes the Magyars in Moldavia and towards the Carpathian range
The Eastern Franks repeatedly invade Greater Moravia and finally gain overlordship over Balaton/Slavic Pannonia; Greater Moravia itself is weakened and acknowledges East Frankish/German supremacy
The emir of Multan (Punjab) Asad al-Qurayshi cuts the last ties with Baghdad; some years later he allies with the Ismaili Qarmatians of Arabia
The former czar of Bulgaria Boris I comes back from the monastery where he retired and crushes a heathen reaction, deposing and blinding his son Rasate/Vladimir and replacing him with his other son Simeon. The Bulgarian capital is moved from da Pliska to Preslav
Simeon’s Danube Bulgarians invade Byzantine Thrace: the imperial army led by basileus Bardas II confronts them at Bulgarophygon, where a most bloody and indecisive battle is fought. Bardas II, severely wounded, is brought to safety in Constantinople and will never more lead an army; but also the Bulgarians leave the battlefield with a bloody nose.
The Magyars, summoned by Byzantium, together with western Khazar tribes (the Kabars) attack the Bulgarians on the lower Danube
Earl Ethelred II of Mercia routs the Welsh of Powys at the battle of Wolverhampton, pushing beyond the Severn river
Worried by the growing power of Eudes of Flanders, Arnulf of East Francia/Germany attacks him, also with the aim of carving a kingdom for his illegitimate son Zwentibold, but in the end he is defeated by the alliance between Eudes and Baldwin II at the battle of Arlon and murdered
The Alans of northern Caucasus and the Volga Bulgarians free themselves from Khazar overlordship.
A renewed Abbasid offensive against Armenia is repulsed with Byzantine and Alan help
Czar Simeon of Bulgaria reacts quickly to the Magyar onslaught by calling for help the Pechenegs. These quickly smash Magyars and Kabars, who, led by their Gyula (military leader) Arpad, cross the Carpathians to Transylvania and Honoguria, the Tisza basin, whence the Magyars will take the name “Hungarians” (reinforced by the fact of being ten tribes, seven Magyar plus three Kabar tribes: “On Oghur, the ten arrows”); the lands between the Tisza and Transylvania, called Bihar, are settled by the Kabar Iltuvers (princes).
Northern Europe, Western Europe:
A war of succession rages in Germany. After pitched battles Eudes, alredy on the verge of prevailing, suddenly dies: Zwentibold is thus able to kill his infant half-brother Louis, Arnulf’s only legitimate son (and the last legitimate Carolingian), and get the royal crown of Germany. Young Guy, Eudes’ son, takes refuge in Paris at Baldwin II’s court to escape both Zwentibold and count Regnier of the Ardennes (the founder of the Luxemburg-Lorraine dynasty), who usurped Flanders.
Zhu Wen, a former general in Huang Chao’s rebel army, allies with the prime minister Cui Yin to fight the power of the Eunuchs at court. In the end the Eunuchs are slain and Zhu Wen becomes China’s strongman.
Imam Husayn al-Rassi founds a Zaydi Shi’a State in northern Yemen. Hamdan Qarmat establishes in Bahrein (Persian Gulf) the Qarmatian movement, a sect of Ismaili Shi’a creed, soon to assume control over the Jannabi emirate in central Arabia. The Qarmatians will later gain support from Egypt to Central Asia, coming to control most of the Arabic Desert and extort money from pilgrims heading for Mecca.
Aditya I of the Cholas defeats and kills the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman with help from the estern Chalukyas of Vengi; this marks the end of the century-old Pallava kingdom and the true foundation of the Chola empire in SE Deccan. Southern Europe:
Amalfi, Naples, Salerno, Capua and Benevento become local Byzantine Duchies (known as the Hexapolis, the Six Towns, with Gaeta) entrusted to local magnates or Byzantine military commanders. Theodore II, a son of the former Patriarch of Constantinople Photius, reigns as Pope for twenty days, the last Greek Pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
A Greater Moravian offensive against Bohemia ends in a failure.
The Magyars raid Friul and Veneto.
A civil war and Magyar raids wreak havoc to Greater Moravia.
The Magyars stage a major raid in northern Italy/Lombardy: king Berengar at first repels them at Verona, then is routed on the Brenta river and barricades himself in Pavia, where he resists a heavy siege. The Magyars then devastate Emilia and pillage at will almost all of Lombardy (*here means: northern Italy) before retreating with a huge booty.
A Byzantine fleet lands in Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), blockades and takes Tunis, carrying away as prisoners Caliph Yahya III and most of the Idrisids; meantime the Numidians led by prince Galwa of Constantina swarm in the interior, destroying Idrisid rule over the region. The local governor Ahmad bin Abd ar-Rahman al-Ifriqi, a distant relative, proclaims himself Caliph in Tripoli (Libya), establishing the Ifriqid Shi’a Caliphate; Cyrenaica fragments into warring Kharijite and Shi'ite tribes.
Supported by Pope Stephen VII, king Lambert II of (Byzantine) Italy invades Lombardy through Papal lands, killing Berengar at the battle of the Trebbia river. Then, at Monza, he proclaims himself emperor of the HRCEW, usurping Louis of Provence’s title. The count of Camerino Alberic I, of Lombard origin, seizes Spoleto as the new king of Italy with Byzantine approval (Lambert’s acts are held as treason by basileus Bardas II); in Rome Pope Stephen VII is jailed and killed by the populace.
The Vikings of Dublin occupy the Isle of Man.
Feudal fragmentation prevails in the West, especially in France and Aquitaine; the modern nations and languages of Europe begin to emerge. Magyar raids terrorize post-carolingian Europe.
The southern Slavs of the Greek peninsula are mostly Grecized.
Recolonization of Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) with Byzantine, southern Italian and Numidian Christians.
Central Asia, India:
Islam establishes footholds in eastern Turkestan and India.
A second wave of Indonesian people reaches Madagascar and intermingles with the Africans living there.
Louis of Provence crosses the Alps to Italy and gets the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Monza against Lambert II, who flees back to Spoleto, where Alberic I slays him. Thus the emperor of the HRCEW unifies the crowns of Lower Burgundy/Provence and Lombardy, giving a new sense to his title. Western Europe:
Baldwin II of France and Rudolf I of Upper Burgundy move against Zwentibold, who is killed by treason by the twice disloyal Regnier of the Ardennes, who abandons Flanders, where Guy is reinstated as the legitimate margrave, to have himself crowned king of Germany.
The Bokharan forces of Ismail I Samani conquer Khorasan and capture in battle Amr as-Saffar, thus breaking Saffarid supremacy.
German missionaries complete the conversion of Greater Moravia to Roman Catholicism. The Bashkirs, a Turkic people of eastern Russia dwelling between the Volga and the Urals, free themselves from Khazar suzerainty.
Argyll, the first foothold of the Scots in Britain, is conquered by the Vikings of the Alban Isles (*TTL collective name for Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides).
Götland (both the western and eastern parts) is absorbed into Sweden.
The four Sardinian judicates (kingdoms) of Cagliari, Gallura, Torres and Arborea acknowledge Byzantine suzerainty. Rise of the Slavic principalities of Zahumlje (future Hercegovina) and Duklja (ancient Dioclea, later Zeta, eventually Melanoria [*OTL Montenegro]).
Christianity slowly replaces Jewry among the Zenetes of the kingdom of Sijilmasa.
The Ghana Empire formally converts to Christianity by the efforts of North African missionaries, but the new faith largely lives along with traditional pagan beliefs, and doesn’t root. The Christianized Nilotic Tungurs migrate to Darfur establishing their domain there. The Nubian kingdom of Dotawo is founded. The Berber Zaghawa kingdom rises in the Tibesti region, between Fezzan and Chad.
The Tibetan kingdom of Ladakh is established in the mountains between Kashmir, Tibet proper and eastern Turkestan.
The Kirghizes vassalizes the Kimaks in southern Siberia. The Oghuz/Ouzoi found an own State around their stronghold of Enikert in NW Khorezm.
Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
The Inuits of the Thule culture reach northern Greenland. The agricultural Chaco-Anasazis of New Mexico thrive. The Desategués (*OTL Iroquois) migrate from the southeast to their historical seat east of the Great Lakes.
Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
The Mayan civilization crumbles in Guatemala, while in Mexico the Toltecs of Tula are paramount. The city-state of Mayapan is founded in the Yucatàn. The Mixtecs migrate in the Oaxaca region of Mexico clashing with the native Zapotecs. Pacific Ocean:
A group of Hesperindian (*OTL Amerindian) seafarers, likely coming from the coast of Peru, reaches Rapa Nui, where they become the local ruling caste.
|Earlier in time:|
Timeline 850-875 AD
|875-900 AD||Later in time:|
Timeline 900-925 AD