5th century In the central eastern Alps a Rhaeto-Romano-Germanic koiné takes shape, which in the centuries will form the Ladinian nation.
402 The Visigoths under Alaric invade northern Italy, taking advantage of an imperial campaign against the Vandals and the western Alans across the Alps, but are defeated by general Stilicho at Pollenza (Piedmont); Stilicho arranges an alliance with the western Alans and the Huns to contain the Goths. The Emperor of the West, Honorius, moves his capital from Milan to Ravenna.
403 A new important victory of Stilicho against the Visigoths at Verona.
404 The Roman Emperor of the West, Honorius, abolishes the gladiatorial games when a monk is killed while trying to stop the bloody “entertainment show”.
404-406 The Huns under Uldin, migrating once again on horseback through the Carpathians, impose their rule over an immense area between the middle Danube and the Black Sea.
405-406 The huge barbarian horde guided by the pagan Ostrogoth Radagaisus, composed of varied Germanic and Sarmatian groups in flight from the Huns, invades Noricum and northern Italy from Pannonia and Moravia, but ends up destroyed by the imperial forces of Stilicho and the Huns under Uldin at Fiesole near Florence.
406-407 Marcus’ and Gratianus’ revolts in Roman Britannia.
407 Large barbarian invasion of Roman Gaul: Swabians, Vandals, Burgundians and a portion of the western Alans (many are still in Dacia) cross the frozen Rhine. Constantine, ruler of Armorica (Brittany), usurps power over Britannia; the Roman troops abandon the island and the "limes" on the Rhine. The White Huns, or Hephthalites, acquire a huge part of Central Asia and begin to terrorize Persia and India with their raids.
408 Britannia thwarts the Saxon raids. Upon the death of his brother Arcadius at Constantinopole, the Roman Emperor of the West Honorius assassinates Stilicho; revolt and massacre of the barbarian mercenaries at Papia/Ticinum. Thousands of Goths desert the imperial army defecting to Alaric, who invades Italy once again and besieges Rome, exacting a rich ransom.
409 Vandals, western Alans and Svevi establish themselves in Spain and Lusitania/Portugal; Spain, after acknowledging Constantine as Emperor, rebels against him, too, under Gerontius and Maximus. Alaric continues his siege of Rome, because Honorius in Ravenna refuses to grant lands in Noricum, and subsequently (with the agreement of the Roman Senate) names a puppet anti-emperor, Attalus.
410 Alaric attempts a siege of Ravenna, then as a gesture of good will repudiates Attalus, but is attacked by treason by Honorius’ troopes and unleashes his Visigoths in the Sack of Rome, an event which shakes the entire Roman world; he subsequently marches toward the south, taking hostage Galla Placidia, Honorius’ sister, and dies in Calabria. Official independence of the Britannian kingdom of Dumnonia, forerunner of the Celtic Cornwall; official abandonment of Britannia by the Romans, and formation of the "Celtic" and "Roman" factions on the island. Coel Hen, ruler of northern Britannia, is the High King of Britain. Eugenius, a son of Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, establishes the kingdom of Glywyssing in southern Wales. The Ruanruan establish themselves as a hegemonical power among the Xianbi (proto-Mongolians).
ca. 410 The White Huns/Hephthalites destroy the residual power of the Kushanshah in Afghanistan, making Chorasmia and the western Sogdians of Bukhara vassals and conquering Alexandria of Aracosia/Qandahar and Kabul, and begin devastating raids in northern India. After the Romans' abandonment of Britannia, the tribe of the Votadini, divided in a northern branch and a southern one, becomes enforces its ascendancy between Yorkshire and the Firth of Forth.
411 The usurper Constantine is captured in battle at Arles by the Roman general Flavius Constantius, and put to death by the Emperor of the West, Honorius; also the rebellion of Gerontius and Maximus in Spain quickly collapses. Ataulf, brother-in-law and successor of Alaric, crosses Italy from the south to the north; passing passing through Liguria, they pillage Lunae/Luni and Albingaunum/Albenga. After almost a century the Donatist schism of the Christian churches of Roman Africa is settled at Carthage, partly through the eloquence of St. Augustine of Hippo in denouncing the "heresy" and promoting its extirpation (paradoxically St. Augustine will become more and more a symbol of North Africanism in the following centuries). The Burgundians found a kingdom between the Rhine and the Rhone, straddling Gaul and Helvetia, with its capital at Geneva.
411-415 In Gaul, after the collapse of Constantine’s usurpation, other pretenders spring up (the last is the Visigoth-backed Priscus Attalus, the former puppet emperor they backed in 409); all are liquidated either by Flavius Constantius or by marauding barbarians.
412 The Visigoths enter Gaul from Italy, settling west of the lower Rhone. In Britannia, Pelagius spreads the Pelagian Heresy (no original sin, complete free will).
414 Galla Placidia marries Ataulfus, becoming the (not so enthusiast) Queen of the Visigoths. The Roman general Flavius Constantius expels the Visigoths from Narbona, forcing them to move themselves to Catalonia (which takes its name from them) and captures their puppet emperor Attalus.
415 Assassination of Ataulfus and of his murderer Sigeric; Wallia is placed on the Visigothic throne. The emperors of Rome and Constantinople, Honorius and Theodosius II, abolish the office of Naśi (prince) of the Sanhedrin, until then hereditary within the Israelite clan Hillel, as the last claim of authority over the Jews, who are by now dispersed to the four winds.
416 Galla Placidia is ransomed by Flavius Constantius in exchange for about 5000 tons of wheat.
418 The Roman Emperor of the West, Honorius, grants Aquitaine to the Visigoths.
419 The Vandals occupy Hispania Betica (from this point the region will be known as Vandalusia). The Visigoths, now under Theodoric I, choose Toulouse as their capital; their domains extend across the Pyrenees from southern Gaul to northern and eastern Spain.
420 The Liu-Song succeed the eastern Jin at Nanking.
ca. 420 Rugila’s western Huns of Rugila migrate in turn in Dacia and Pannonia, establishing themselves between the Carpathians and the Danube; de facto reunification of western and eastern Huns. Mongolian tribes (Xianbi) migrate to Tibet, where for two centuries representatives maintain power under the title of Tsenpo. The Rugians occupy Bohemia and establish their rule as far as the Alps. The germanic tribe of the Sicambri, located in the Ruhr valley, intermingle with the Salian Franks.
421 The Visigoths and the Roman army fail an initial attempt to dislodge the Vandals from the Betica/Andalusia. Flavius Constantius is named co-emperor of the West by Honorius, but dies almost immediately. The Irish clan Dal Deisi, settled in Pembrokeshire from the times of Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, establishes the kingdom of Demetia.
421-422 Short war between Persia and Rome predicated upon the persecution of the Christians in Persia; the Roman Empire of the East secures the right of asylum for the Eastern Christians.
423-425 Usurpation of John in Italy upon the death of Honorius, put down by the forces of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II; Valentinian III, young son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius, ascends the Roman Western throne in Ravenna.
424-425 The Ruanruan invade northern China but are thwarted in the Gobi desert.
425 The Chalukyas emerge as the dominant dynasty in the Karnataka (SE India). Introduction of Buddhism to western Indonesia.
426 Yax K'uk' Mo founds the royal dynasty of the Mayan town of Xukpi/Copàn. The king of the Alans of Spain, Attaces, is defeated and killed by the Visigoths; his people intermingles with the Vandals.
428 Pressed by the Visigoths, the Vandals migrate to northern Africa at the invitation of General Bonifacius, who is rebelling against the Western Roman Empire. The Salian Franks invade northern Gaul from Belgium, but are stopped by the Roman general Aetius, fresh from his victories against the Visigoths at Arles. Aetius then "federates" the Franks within the empire; their new king is Merovech, founder of the Merovingian dynasty. Nestorius, bishop of Costantinopole, spreads the Nestorian heresy, that has much success in Syria, where it is officially adopted by the local Church, and in Persia as well. The Persian emperor Bahram V severely defeats the White Huns and, at the request of the local Nakharars (lords), annexes eastern Armenia and the Gordiene (central Kurdistan) putting an end to the age-old Arsacid dynasty. The Mayan city-state of Mutul/Tikal frees itself from its servitude to Teotihuacàn.
429-431 The Vandals defeat their former ally Bonifacius (now pleading for forgiveness and help from Ravenna) and besiege him for one year at Hippo/Bona (during which siege St. Augustine dies). In the end, the Vandals raise the siege and Bonifacius flees to Ravenna, obtaining the forgiveness of Empress Galla Placidia.
ca. 430 The Huns impose their supremacy upon the Germanic tribes from the Taurida (*OTL Crimea) as far as the Rhine. The Vandal invasion of North Africa opens the road for a large part of the Berbers to return to self-government in the Atlas Mountains; in Mauretania a weak Roman-Berber kingdom is formed with its capital at Volubilis/Ulili, while another state is formed around the town of Constantina.
430-432 Civil war between the generals in the Eastern Roman Empire: the "magister militum" of Asia, Nicholas, rises up against his colleague and superior, the Goth Ataulf, defeating him on the Halys (Anatolia) and in the subsequent battles of the Dunes, of Syria and of the Long Orchard.
431 Nestorian schism after the Council of Ephesus, which condemns the doctrines of Nestorius. Nestorianism becomes spread throughout the East, from Syria along the Silk Road as far as China. Founding of the classical Mayan kingdom of B'aakal, with its capital at Palenque (Chiapas, *OTL Mexico), perhaps the work of a dynasty of Olmec origin.
432 Galla Placidia pits Bonifacius against Aetius, who, defeated at first, returns to Pannonia gaining help from king Rugila’s Huns and afterward, eliminates his rival. The Pandyas of southern Deccan conquer the kingdom of Sri Lanka/Ceylon.
434 Attila (west of the Don) and his brother Bleda (east of the same river) become kings of the Huns. Short conflict between the Huns and the Eastern Roman Empire, which is forced to increase the tributes paid to the barbarians.
435 The Western Roman Empire formally recognizes the Vandals' possession of a large portion of former Roman Africa.
436-437 The Roman general Aetius defeats the Visigoths, the Burgundians (who are beaten by the Huns, Aetius' allies, and forced to migrate to the region which becomes known as Savoy, from the Burgundian tribe of the Sapaudi) and the ever-rebellious Bagaudae peasants in Gaul.
438 The Persians establish the stronghold of Derbent (between Daghestan and Azerbaijan) and build the blockade of the Caspian Gates between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus to contain the Hunnic raids.
439 Carthage falls to the Genseric’s Arian Vandals, who impose a harsh racist rule and immediately begin to fiercely persecute the Nicene Catholics. Ashina founds the reigning dynasty of the Tu-jüe (Turks) in Mongolia, coming into conflict with the Ruanruan and wrenching their supremacy over eastern Turkestan from them.
ca. 440 St. German, a former soldier dispatched by Aetius, defends the British from the Picts and Scots. Angles, Saxons and Jutes begin to settle heavily in Britannia and to plunder it. Vortigern seizes control over the kingdoms of Britain. Irish pirates conquer part of Wales.
441 Attila razes Singidunum (the future Belgrade) to the ground.
441-447 Attila devastates the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) with his Huns and massacres their population.
442 The Vandals conquer Sicily and Sardinia. Destruction of Naissos and massacre of its inhabitants at the hands of Attila. Eastern Armenia reacquires a weak autonomy from Persia under Vasak Siuna.
444 The Alexandrine abbot Eutiches spreads the Monophysite heresy in Constantinople.
445 After murdering his brother Bleda, Attila becomes sole Khan of the Huns: his empire extends from the Rhine to the Caucasus.
446 Attila defeats the Eatern Roman army at Marcianopolis and devastates Thrace. Vakhtang I Gorgasali (the Wolf's Head) founds in Iberia/Georgia the local dynasty of the Bagratids, succeeding the Khusrawids.
447 St. German expels the Irish from Wales.
449 The Second Council of Ephesus imposes Monophysitism in the Eastern Roman empire. Honoria, daughter of Galla Placidia, exiled to Constantinople for having conspired against her brother Valentinian III, in a secret letter asks Attila to marry her.
450 Hengest and Horsa establish the first germanic kingdom of Britain in the Cantium (Kent). Upon the death of Theodosius II at Constantinople, his sister Pulcheria, instead of offering the crown to Valentinian III to reunify the empire, marries the Thracian general Marcian who ascends to the throne. Foundation of the kingdom of Kara-Khodjo/Kao Ch'ang at Turfan (Eastern Turkestan), which replaces the ancient kingdom of Chü-Sh'ih.
ca. 450 St. Patrick, kidnapped by the Irish in 434 but subsequently freed, christianizes them and makes Ireland a center of diffusion for monasticism and the Christian religion. General fragmentation of the Celtic kingdoms of Britannia. In the lower Volga area, the Sabir Huns subjugate the Onogurs (the Ten Arrows, from ten tribe components). Amida/Diyarbakir (Kurdistan) falls under Persian rule again. The Arian Vandals, cruelly ruling former Roman Africa, gain Tripolitania (Libya) and exterminate the Circumcelliones.
450-457 The Jutes, coming from Jutland, complete their conquest of Cantium (Kent).
451 Monophysite schism after the council of Chalcedon, which restores orthodox (Nicene) Catholicism as state religion in Constantinople. Monophysitism is adopted from Armenia to Egypt and Axumite Ethiopia (which however continues to have a strong Jewish bent). The Persians invade eastern Armenia and try to force conversion Mazdeism on its people, but, although victorious against Vasak Siuna in the battle of Avarair, do not succeed in eradicating Christianity from Armenia. Demanding the hand of Honoria (and the lands of the Roman Western empire) Attila unleashes his hordes in the terrible Hunno-Germanic invasion of Gaul, but is stopped at the giant battle of the Catalaunian Fields by Aetius with an army of Romans, Burgundians, Salian Franks, Visigoths and Britons; Theodoric I, son of Alaric I and King of the Visigoths, dies in the battle.
452 Attila invades Italy from Carniola/Slovenia razing to ground Celeia/Celje, Emona/Lubiana, Aquileia and Altinum, and further sacks and sets fire to Vicenza, Brescia, Bergamo, Milan and Papia/Ticinum. He is stopped willy-nilly on the Mincio river by Pope Leo the Great and returns in Pannonia, also because his army is undermined by an epidemic. The populations of the Veneto flee to the coastal lagoons, establishing the foundations for the future power of Venice. Armenia adheres to Monophysitism, repudiating the Council of Chalcedon, and establishes its own Patriarchate at Dvin.
453 Unexpected sudden death of Attila in Pannonia. The Caucasian kingdom of Sarir (Daghestan) falls under the supremacy of the Alans of Caucasus; Lazica (NE Georgia) is liberated from Iberian/Georgian domination.
454 Assassination of Aetius by Valentinian III the Western Roman emperor. Arderic’s Gepids rebel against the Huns, weakened by succession struggles, eliminate Ellac, son of Attila, and create a strong kingdom between the Tisza river and Transylvania. The Huns withdraw to Moldavia under Ernac, another son of Attila.
455 Assassination of Valentinian III near Rome at the hands of soldiers infuriated by the murder of Aetius; this marks the end of the Theodosian dynasty. Genseric’s Vandals plunder Rome (Pope Leo the Great obtains a pledge to respect the sacred places and not take part in any massacres and fires from Genseric; the new emperor Maximus Petronius is lynched by the crowd) and conquer Corsica. Ambrosius Aurelianus eliminates the much-hated Vortigern and succeeds him as ruler in Britannia. In India, Emperor Skandagupta stops the invasion of the White Huns (Hephthalids) ); the Kadamba kingdom in western India is carved between the two family branches of Triparvata and Banavasi, beginning a slow decline. Ernac leads his Huns to settle between the Dniepr and Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
456-459 A first wave of Irish and Brythonic Celts comes ashore in Spain’s nothwestern corner, Galicia, where they establish a principality after fierce struggles with the local Swabians.
456-472 General Ricimerus, grandson of the former Visigothic king Wallia, takes power, eliminating Avitus, the Western Roman emperor of the West, and rules Italy through puppet emperors.
457 Leo I is the first Roman Emperor of the East to receive his crown from the hands of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
459 The White Huns help Firuz ascend to the throne of the Sassanian Empire, defeating the usurper Hormizd. Sri Lanka/Ceylon is liberated from Pandya's domination under Dhatusena, founder of the Singalese Moriya dynasty.
460 The Ruanruan/Avars defeat the Tu-jüe (Turks) between Mongolia and Manchuria and reduce them to vassal state.
ca. 460 The prince of Kindah, Hujr Akil al-Murar, obtains from his stepbrother Hasan ibn Amr ibn Tubba' of Himyar the title of king and the dominion over the deserts of central Arabia, where the tribe had migrated from the Hadramaut; in the town of Mecca the Quraysh tribe gains ascendancy.
460-471 The Alan Flavius Ardabur Aspar becomes "magister militum" (commander in chief) of the Roman army of the East after having helped emperor Leo I succeed to the throne, and is then assassinated by the antibarbarian faction at court.
461 The imperial forces of the West are defeated by the Vandals in Africa.
463-487 Direct Persian occupation of Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan.
464 Syagrius establishes a strong Roman kingdom in northern Gaul between the Maas, the Scheldt and the Sein rivers, while the rest of Gaul lies in the hands of the barbarians.
ca. 465 The Goths of Taurida (*OTL Crimea) found the kingdom of Taurogothia fighting against the Huns, and take control of the Cimmerian Bosphorus (Strait of Kerč).
467 Disastrous failure on the part of the Byzantines, led by the incompetent Basiliscus, in their attempt to wrest Carthage from the Vandals.
469 The Persian emperor Firuz is captured in battle by the White Huns who obtain a lavish ransom and take his heir Kavadh as hostage. The Huns of Pannonia attack the Eastern Roman Empire, but Khan Dengizich, one of the sons of Attila, dies in battle in Thrace against Aspar’s Byzantines, Alans and Ants. The Huns then withdraw east in the Ukraine and the lower Volga, where they will form the Bulgarian nation; a minority settles in Transylvania, from which originates the community of the Székely, while the remainder is divided in two confederations to the east and the west of the Don.
ca. 470 The Lombards settle in Bohemia. Foundation of the (Sabir) Hunnic Khanate of Caucasia in the northern Daghestan.
471 The Western Roman emperor, Anthemius, against the will of Ricimerus attacks the King Euric’s Visigoths in Gaul, but is defeated.
472 Siege and new sack of Rome by troops faithful to Ricimerus, who eliminates Anthemius but dies shortly afterward.
473 Theodoric the Great’s Ostrogoths settle in Moesia as allies of the Eastern Roman empire.
474-475 The Isaurian Zeno Tarasicodissa ascends to the throne of Constantinople, but is shortly chased from it by Basiliscus, in turn crushed and eliminated by Zeno after a few months.
474-476 Ustus raises the flag of rebellion in Palestine: the revolt keeps brewing amongst Jews and Samaritans as well in the following years.
475 The Pannonian Roman Orestes, formerly in the service of Attila, overthrows the Western Roman Emperor, Julius Nepos, enthroning his own son Romulus Augustulus in his place.
476 The Western Roman Empire falls to the hand of the Herul Odovacar, who defeats and kills Orestes at Papia/Ticinum and deposes his son Romulus, then formally remits the authority of the Roman West to Constantinople, which names him a "patrician;" but Italy is de facto under the heel of the barbarian confederation headed by Odovacar. Death of Skandagupta and beginning of the decline of the Gupta Empire in India.
476-480 The former Emperor of the West Julius Nepos "reigns" in Dalmatia under Byzantine protection, then the region passes under the control of Odovacar.
477 Foundation of the kingdom of Sussex by the Saxons.
479 The southern Qi replace the Liu-Song on the throne of Nanking. Marcianus, son-in-law of former emperor Leo I, rebels in Costantinople but is defeated and slain.
ca. 480 The Angles, coming from Schleswig-Holstein and Frisia, settle in Britannia near Lindum Colonia (Lincoln), there defeating the Roman-British kingdom of Linnuin and establishing the kingdom of Lindsey; they also occupy Norfolk and Suffolk (East Anglia). King Arthur (son of Uther Pendragon, "Son of the Dragon", and Aurelius Ambrosius’ nephew) begins to unify the southern Britons.
481-483 Christian anti-Persian rebellion in Armenia and Iberia/Georgia guided by Sahak II Bagratuni (who later comes to be defeated), and by Vahan Mamikonian, the prince of Taron.
481-488 Civil war between the Isaurian strongmen in the Byzantine Empire, won by the emperor Zeno against his rivals Illus and (later, from 484) Leontius, whose strongholds are Asia Minor and Isauria (southern Anatolia).
482 The three brothers Kiy, Šček, and Khoriv, of the Slavic tribe of the Polainai, found Kiev on the banks of the Dnieper.
484 The White Huns defeat and kill the Persian emperor Firuz. His brother Balash, succeeding him, renounces the conversion of Armenia to Mazdaism. Bar-Sauma, with the approval of Balash, establishes Nestorianism as the sole belief of the Christian Church of Persia. Zeno, the Byzantine emperor, crushes the Samaritan rebellion in Palestine.
484-519 Schism of Patriarch Acacius between Rome and Constantinople.
485 Vahan Mamikonian becomes Marzpan (governor) of Armenia for the Sassanians, guaranteeing his country a degree of autonomy.
ca. 485 The Dal Riada Scots, coming in Ireland where they were pushed from power by the High Kings of the O'Neill clan, occupy Argyll (west Scotland). Mazdak preaches a equalitarian and socialist variant of Mazdeism in Persia.
486 Chlovis’ Salian Franks defeat the Gallo-Roman kingdom of Syagrius and take Lutetia (Paris). The Byzantines expel the Ostrogoths from Moesia with help from the Hunno-Bulgarians.
487 Odovacar defeats the Rugians (settled in Noricum/Austria) . The Visigoths trade the fugitive Syagrius to Clovis I of the Franks, who has him stabbed to death in jail. Foundation of the first Uighur Khanate in Mongolia under Ay Uzhru. Birth of the kingdom of Chenla at Champasak in southern Laos, established by the Khmer who immigrated from the north-west.
488 Theodoric the Great’s Ostrogoths defeat the Gepids at Sirmium (Illiria) and invade Italy under a Byzantine mandate, with the support of the Lombards (rulers of Bohemia) and of the Rugians of Noricum. The Gepids remain masters of Dacia.
488-496 Kavadh of Persia supports the Mazdakite movement against the clergy and nobility.
489 Theodoric triumphs on the Isonzo and at Verona, then, betrayed by the turncoat Tufa, withdraws in Milan.
490 Theodoric transfers himself to Papia/Ticinum, then decisively defeats Odovacar on the Adda river (Lombardy).
ca. 490 The "Nine Saints", a group of Egyptian Monophysite theologians (Copts) exiled by the Byzantine authority, settle at Axum (Ethiopia) establishing the roots of the religious communion between the Christians of Ethiopia and Egypt and the Jacobites of Syria. The Syrian Arab kingdom of Ghassan annexes the Salihid state between Jordan and northern Arabia.
490-493 The Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great besiege Ravenna and complete their conquest of Italy.
491 Chlovis I defeats the Bretons at Blois and repels them in Armorica/Brittany. Odovacar summons help from the Burgundians, who plunder Milan; Theodoric in turn calls for help Alaric II’s Visigoths.
491-497 Elimination of Isaurian power and rebellion by the Byzantine army after Anastasius I's ascent to the throne.
492 The Ostrogoths wrest Sicily and Corsica from the Vandals. The Byzantine general Julian is defeated and killed in Thrace by Kutrigur Khan’s western Hunno-Bulgarians.
493 Theodoric treacherously murders Odovacar and its son and massacres their troops during the negotiations for the surrender of Ravenna.
496 The Salian Franks under King Chlovis rout the Alamanni at Tolbiac and Strasbourg, the Alamanni having already been deprived of some of their lands on the Neckar and on the Main by the Ripuarian Franks; Chlovis is converted to Catholicism. The British of king Arthur severely defeat the invading Saxons of Sussex at Mount Badon, stopping their expansion for at least half a century.
496-498 Usurpation of the Sassanian throne of Persia by Zamasp, enemy of the Mazdakites and brother of Kavadh, who comes to be reinstalled on the throne of Ctesiphon by the White Huns (among whom he had been raised). Accompanying Kavadh in Central Asia, Nestorian priests begin to spread their variant of Christianity.
499 The Chinese buddhist monk Hoe-Shin returns to his homeland after an incredibly long journey along the coasts of the Pacific as far as Mexico, from which he has returned, and tells of the far-off country, which he calls Fu-Sang. His stories, however, are not taken seriously and are treated as the stuff of legend among the learned.
5th cent. General crisis of urban civilization in Europe and the crash of the Classical World. Judaism is diffused widely in Yemen. Valorous resistance of the Celts of Britannia to the Anglo-Saxon invaders; the Celtic culture is preserved in all of the north and the west of the British islands, while expanding in Brittany and in Galicia with new colonizations. Expansion of the Frankish dominion in Germany, and dashing advance of the Slavs in central and eastern Europe.
Ca. 500 The Polynesians settle Rapa Nui. Mutul/Tikal emerges as the paramount city-state among the Mayans, struggling especially against Calakmul and its ally Caracol/Oxuitza. The White Huns enforce their supremacy up to the borders of eastern Turkestan and invade northwestern India nordoccidentale, absorbing the Chionite Hun domains, wreaking great havoc and provoking mass migrations and displacements. The first Chalukya dynasty takes power in Maharashtra. Foundation og the Indo-Malay kingdom of Srivijaya on Sumatra. The Kirghiz people coalesces in southern Siberia on the upper Yenisey (Tannu Tuva). The Pontic Ssteppes Hunno-Bulgarians split into the Kutriguri (west of the Don) and Utrigur (east) tribal compacts, from the names of their respective Khans Kutrigur and Uturgur. The Zenete Berbers, partly still heathen, partly Christian or converted to Judaism, coming from the heart of the desert taking its name from them (*OTL Sahara), enforce their rule over northwest African Berbers, founding a number of tribal states between Numidia and Mauretania, notably the kingdom of the Djeddars at Tahert (Numidia). In the Fezzan (inner Libia) the kingdom of Phazana is founded under the Berauna berber dynasty as a successor to Garamantian hegemony. From the shambles of ancient Meroe Nubia sees the rise of the kingdoms of Nobadia/Faras in the north and Dongola more southward. The Slavs settle in Slovakia. The Welsh kingdom of Demetia (Pembrokeshire) is rechristened as Dyfed. The millennial kingdom of ‘Ad in western Oman, source of the best incense (olibanum) for the civilizations of classical antiquity, finally crumbles and disappears.
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