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The following is the Timeline of events that happens in One Day In Sarajevo between 1914 and 1923.
- 28 June: Assassination attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo fails. Point of Divergence
- 21/24 July: King George V of the United Kingdom hosts talks between the Irish Nationalists, Unionists and MPs from the Liberal and Conservative Parties of the House of Commons to try to work out a compromise in the Home Rule Act. Little is accomplished, with Irish Nationalists storming out of the meeting over the uncompromising nature of the Irish Unionists from Ulster.
- 7 August: A bomb explodes in the Ulster Volunteer stronghold of Belfast, and is blamed on the Nationalists. The intended target, a Unionist leader, had left the building before it exploded, and it killed a mother and her two children, leading to an outrage in the British and Unionist press.
- 10-13 August: Nationalists and Unionists in Belfast begin to fight during competing rallies, and that leads to the Belfast Riots that destroy much of the downtown core and the Harland and Wolff shipyards, the most important industry in the city, before British troops are able to suppress the fight. However, when troops are ordered into Ulster to break up the Ulster Volunteers, the soldiers and their officers refuse to go in. This event is later called the "Curragh Mutiny."
- 15 August: Prime Minister Herbert Asquith fails a Vote of Confidence over the "Curragh Mutiny", and a general election is called.
- 4 October: Arthur Balfour and the Conservative Party in the UK wins the most seats (343 of 670 seats) and forms a majority government. H.H. Asquith and the Liberal Party is in second (198 of 670), and the Irish Parliamentary Party is third (71 of 670). Labour (39 of 670) and All-For-Ireland (19 of 670) make their best showings in the House of Commons.
- 10 October: PM Balfour tries to suspend the Home Rule Act for two more years, but it is voted down in the House of Commons.
- 12 October: Irish Volunteers and other nationalist groups, seeing the new Conservative government and their efforts to suspend Home Rule as a threat, declare the Free Irish State in Cork, and vowing not to give up until Home Rule is put into effect.
- 15 October: PM Balfour, with the reluctant support of King George V, announces that Ireland is in a state of insurrection and the Army applies martial law to suppress any "violence detrimental to the unity of the Kingdom and Empire."
- 25 October: / First clashes between Irish Volunteers and British troops take place across Ireland, leaving 156 dead and many more wounded. Ulster Volunteers began fighting bands of Irish Volunteers across the Northern counties, killing many more. The Irish Insurrection officially begins.
- 3 November: Elections for the US House of Representatives and Senate result in a majority for the Democratic Party in both houses. Although Democrats picked up three seats in the Senate, they lost 60 to the Republicans who were recovering from the split with the Progressive Party in the 1912 elections, and took advantage of a slowing national economy to blame it on the Democrats.
- December 7: Mexican Revolutionaries led by populist agrarian Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata, capture Mexico City. However, Villa's violent actions against the urban citizens and the former government led to opposition of his rule by moderates in the capital.
- 6 February: After a short illness, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary dies in his sleep. Archduke Franz Ferdinand assumes the throne, taking the title Emperor Ferdinand II of Austria, and King Ferdinand VI of Hungary.
- 19 March: Irish fighters inflict a minor defeat on English troops at Queenstown (Cobh), Ireland. The RMS Olympic, sister ship of the infamous Titanic was set on fire while in port, killing 89 crew members and passengers. The "Olympic Incident", while it didn't sink the ship, caused outrage in The United Kingdom and America, damaging the Irish freedom cause.
- 1 April: Start of the Battle of Celaya in the Mexican Revolution. Revolutionary Francisco "Pancho" Villa's forces, outnumbered and outgunned, are defeated in the week long battle by forces under the command of Álvaro Obregón and Venustiano Carranza, leaving thousands dead. Villa would retreat to Northern Mexico.
- 19 April: The first meetings between German and British officials over Naval and Colonial issues. The increasing cost of the naval arms race in Germany, and Britain's isolation over the Irish Insurrection have led both empires to negotiate a deal. While officials like Admiral von Tirpitz argued against such an agreement, Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg finally convinced Kaiser Wilhelm II that Germany would be unable to afford to keep up with Britain in the naval race.
- 25 April: The North Sea Agreement, or the Nordsee-Abkommen in German, is signed, settling various colonial and naval issues, capping the number of battleships both sides would keep in the North Sea (the (4:5 Ratio, or four German battleships for five British) and calling a brief moratorium on naval construction due to the spiralling costs.
- 17 May: A series of laws, collectively known as the Army Reform Program of 1915, are issued by Tsar Nicholas II and passed by the conservative Duma. More money was to be provided for training and modernizing the armed forces, as well as the overhaul of the Stavka. However, many incompetent aristocratic officers retained their posts, and morale remained low due to the armies role in suppressing protests throughout the Empire.
- 15 December: Provisional President Yuan Shikai of the Republic of China is killed by some of his guards when it was rumoured he was planning on naming himself Emperor of China. The Beiyang Government continues to suffer from instability as a series of Presidents, constitutions and other actions are cycled through the next few years.
- 17 February: The Emir of Afghanistan, Habibullah Khan, is assassinated and a military coup takes power. The plotters were supporters of Mohammad Ayub Khan, the short reigned Emir of Afghanistan who defeated the British Army at the Battle of Maiwand in 1880. Mohammad Ayub Khan had passed away two years earlier in India, but his supporters saw him as a symbol of anti-British resistance. The British, at the time distracted with issues in Ireland, denounced the assassination and claimed the Russians were behind it. Russian officials neither confirmed or denied the rumors, and the British press had a field day, blaming the Russians and increasing tensions between the two nations.
- 8 March: Mexican revolutionaries under Pancho Villa launch raids on towns and railways in New Mexico, causing 56 deaths, although losing 120 to the defenders, in response to American's selling him defective weapons. President Wilson, under pressure from public opinion sparked by newspaper magnate William Randolph Hurst, vows revenge on Pancho Villa.
- 17 June: Negotiations between the UK and the Irish Free State finally reach a conclusion in what is now known as the Dublin Accord. The UK will allow Home Rule to go into effect in Southern Ireland, and Ulster will hold a referendum to decide if they will join Home Rule Ireland or remain in the United Kingdom. In return, the Irish Free State will disband the Irish volunteers, and will remain part of the British Empire as a Dominion. The deal is met with rejoicing in much of the Free State, while Ulster is steadfast in its determination to remain in the UK.
- 18 July: Norman Thomas, introduced to the Socialist Party over a year before publishes The Coming of the Second American Revolution, outlining the destructive qualities of modern capitalism, political corruption through the parties, the disappearance of Christian charity, and other ills that, despite progressive reforms by leaders like Teddy Roosevelt, the workers were still oppressed and not earning their full worth. Thomas outlined an ambitious program, including nationalizing major industries like railroads and steel, guaranteed minimum wages and a robust social security program, price controls, the elimination of all political parties, and many other proposals. The response is rather muted (due to events in the next few days), but slowly begins to influence thousands inside and outside the Socialist Party, which distributes the book freely.
- 20 July: Pancho Villa's Mexican revolutionaries ambush the United States Mexican Expeditionary Force near the small town of Camargo. General John Pershing, commander of the force, is killed by a sniper, while 1000 of the 5000 strong force are killed or taken prisoner. The Army recalls the expedition, and the public outcry is huge in America, demanding that the US not interfere in other countries.
- 7 August: The Ulster Referendum is held. In the six counties for Union with the UK, majority of the voters in the Irish counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Londonderry, Fermanagh and Tyrone voted to remain in the UK.
- 18 August: Bombing in Ulster reaches new heights, and most are tied back to disgruntled Irish Volunteers who did not agree with the Dublin Accords and the division of Ireland. The Ulster Terror begins in earnest, tying down British troops for months.
- 19 September The Canadian Federal Election is held, with Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden's Conservative Party winning a slim majority of seats to Wilfred Laurier's Liberal Party. The major issues include the high rates of immigration from Europe and a proposed act to restrict Chinese and other "Oriental" Immigration. Borden had faced backlash in Anglo-Canada for his refusal to send Canadian troops to help Britain with the Irish Insurrection, leading to close races and increasing anti-Irish sentiments throughout Ontario (a long time centre of the "Loyal Orange Institution," aka the Orange Order) and the western provinces.
- 25 November: In one of the closest elections in American history, President Woodrow Wilson is narrowly defeated by Republican Candidate Charles E Hughes with the close result in California in favour of Hughes the deciding factor. In all, Hughes won by only one electoral vote (267-264) and only 300,000 in the popular vote. Recounts for weeks after the election on 7 November kept the results up in the air for so long. The Republican Party managed to retake the House of Representatives, while the Democrats held onto the Senate. Many blamed the raid into New Mexico by Pancho Villa and his Mexican Revolutionaries, and the disastrous American response, to Wilson's defeat.
- 16 April: In his first foreign policy announcement, President Charles E Hughes announces that American forces will no longer be used in unilateral invasions in other nations, especially Latin America, without a declaration of war, and asks the US Congress to pass a law to codify the "Hughes Doctrine." Isolationism in the US reaches an all time high.
- 18 May: Negotiations over the Austria-Hungarian Compromise are in deadlock over Emperor Ferdinand's demand for greater centralization and more rights for national minorities in the Empire, and Hungary's refusal to accept.
- 26 May: Prime Minister István Tisza of Hungary makes a last effort to continue the Compromise of 1867, but the Austrian delegation, under pressure from the Emperor, refuses. The negotiations are broken off.
- 28 May: / Hungarian leaders meet with the Russian ambassador, who expresses his support for the "conservative values of the Kingdom of Hungary," and goes a step farther than the Russian government allows and promises support in the event of a civil war.
- 29 May: With the breakdown in negotiations, the Hungarian Parliament under Prime Minister Tisza passes the "Separation Act", where if the Emperor-King of Austria-Hungary does not renounce his efforts to centralize the Empire and destroy the Dual Monarchy, the Kingdom of Hungary will secede from the Empire.
- 30 May: Austrian troops are ordered to shut down the Hungarian parliament, but Hungarian troops fire on their former comrades. The Massacre of Budapest results in heavy casualties on both sides and reduces the chances for reconciliation. Official date for start of the Great War and Austria-Hungarian Civil War
- 31 May: Emperor Ferdinand announces that the Kingdom of Hungary is in insurrection, and as such the constitution is suspended, and Austrian troops will be used to suppress the fight. He also sends a message to Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany if he will stand by Austria's side.
- Hungary the same day announces independence, with Prime Minister Tisza serving as Regent of the Kingdom until a suitable Hungarian noble is selected to lead the country. Hungarian troops are ordered to seize armouries and bases throughout Hungary, leading to firefights between Austrian Loyalists and Hungarian Secessionists.
- 2 June: After days of debate with leaders of the Reichstag and the military, Kaiser Wilhelm II and his Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, decide to support Austria, as they see a strong, united Austria, even if the liberalization under Emperor Ferdinand would undo the strong Conservative regime, as the best ally they have. The Social Democratic Party is split over Austria, with a slim majority demanding support for Austria, while the rest want to keep the peace.
- 3 June: British and French leaders meet in Calais for a secret meeting to determine what should be done. Britain, still dealing with problems in Ireland and warming relations with Germany, is wary to enter a war over Austria, but France, led by nationalist President Raymond Poincare, believes now is the time to stand up to Germany and force them to back down for once even if it leads to war. The Entente is unable to decide what to do.
- 5 June: First clashes of Austrian and Hungarian troops near Jennersdorf, Austria. Emperor Ferdinand calls up "all loyal reserves" to help put down the "Magyar revolution."
- Russian Prime Minister Sergei Witte tries to convince Tsar Nicholas II in a private meeting to not allow a large European War to break out, as Russia was woefully unprepared and needed to continue to modernize the army. Nicholas II, having received conflicting reports from the military commanders, fires Witte on the spot in a fit of rage, and calls upon Witte's rival and former associate Vladimir Kokovtsov to lead the Council of Ministers.
- 7 June: The German Ambassador to Britain meets with Foreign Secretary Edward Grey to ask what Britain's position is in the Austria-Hungarian Crisis. Grey is noncommittal, citing the Entente with France, but makes it clear that so long as there are no threats to Britain, she would stay neutral and do their best to keep France from declaring war.
- 8 June: Hearing Britain's reply, Kaiser Wilhelm II orders the General Staff to prepare military plans for helping Austria.
- 9 June: The French ambassador is summoned to Kaiser Wilhelm II, and he offers President Poincare a deal: a temporary de-militarization of the forts on either side of the common border, a joint force to bring stability to Austria-Hungary led by a military committee of French and German officers, and guarantees of the independence of Belgium and Switzerland. The Ambassador promises to relay the message to Paris as soon as possible.
- 10 June: President Poincare, after an all-night Cabinet session, rejects Kaiser Wilhelm's offer. Poincare says they "will keep all options open."
- 12 June: 20,000 Russian troops are moved to the border of Hungary for exercises, inflaming opinions in Austria and Germany about Russian intentions and raising hopes for Hungarian Nationalists.
- 13 June: Kaiser Wilhelm II is urged by the General Staff to order General mobilization to have the army prepared in case of Russian military incursions and to force France to stand down. He delays his decision until after meeting with British and Italian ambassadors to see that the conflict is isolated to Eastern Europe and won't spark a European War.
- Without Hungarian opposition, Emperor Ferdinand declares the Nationalities Law. In return for allegiance to the Hapsburg Monarchy, the various nationalities in Austria-Hungary will be considered "equals" to Austrian Germans, and will be allowed to establish national assemblies in a federalized structure. Hungarian leaders decry this law, saying that Austria plans to destroy Hungary with this law, reducing Hungarian influence while maintaining Austria's own. Slav's in the Balkan territories, along with Czechs, Slovaks and Ukrainians that are officially part of Hungary support this law.
- 14 June: Italy officially announces neutrality in the crisis, urging a peaceful resolution.
- 16 June: Germany announces the mobilization of its reserves, demands that Russia back down and disavow support to Hungary.
- 17 June: President Poincare sends an ultimatum to Germany demanding the cessation of mobilization in 12 hours, or France will mobilize.
- German General staff approach Kaiser Wilhelm for approval of Schefillen Plan, but he refuses, not wanting to drag in the already neutral Britain. The lack of any other plans throws the General Staff into confusion, and hasty attempts to design other plans are started.
- Russia refuses to German demands, and Tsar Nicholas is approached for mobilization. Indecisive, Nicholas refuses to mobilize, still hoping for peace.
- 18 June: President Poincare sends a telegram to Prime Minister Balfour asking if Britain will stand by France. Balfour is unable to reply, facing a revolt in the Conservative Party and opposition from the Liberals and Labour in the House of Commons over his policy in Ireland, the high casualties and destruction in Ireland, and the Crisis in Europe. The ultimatum expires, and France begins its mobilization.
- 19 June: PM Balfour puts forward a motion to support France in the Austrian Crisis in the House of Commons. It is a free vote, with MPs allowed to vote as they wish, and it is made a vote of confidence. The House in a two-thirds opposed vote, refuses. Balfour asks King George V to dissolve parliament and elections are called for 8 August. The Entente is considered dead by commentators all over Europe.
- The German General Staff presents three plans for Kaiser Wilhelm's approval: Invasion of France by the common border, Invasion of Russian occupied Poland, or aid only for Austria. By accepting one plan, the other two possible fronts would have to maintain defensive positions. Wilhelm is indecisive, but orders preparations for all three plans.
- 20 June: , French and Russian military and government officials meet in Warsaw. Russian military commanders boast they can assemble a two million man army to march into East Prussia and another million to be sent into Hungary in ten days. However, Russia has no plans for partial mobilization, and the military asks Nicholas II for full mobilization. Nicholas, exhausted after days of meetings and pressure, finally relents.
- 21 June: With forces nearly 75% mobilized, the French General Staff quickly reorganizes current mobilized forces in Northern France to initiate Plan XVIII, the invasion of Alsace-Lorraine and to the Rhine River for 24 June.
- Kaiser Wilhelm, with pressure from the General Staff, at last orders the Invasion of France with minor aid to Austria, and defensive operations in East Prussia, assuming the Russian army will take at least three weeks to fully mobilize. It would take until 29 June for the army to have most of its troops ready to march into France.
- 22 June: / The first border clashes in Alsace-Lorraine take place along the border between the French and German forts. Only minor casualties are reported, but the misunderstandings and lack of communication, some blamed on saboteurs, draws both Germany and France closer to war. The French Foreign Office orders officials in Berlin and Vienna to destroy important papers and code books, and return home.
- 23 June: With news of the fighting in Alsace-Lorraine, President Poincare rises before the National Assembly, and asks for a declaration of war against Germany. In a debate that stretches into the evening, France ultimately declares war.
- 24 June: The first French troops cross the border, and heavy fighting along frontier posts go in France's favour thanks to the rapid-firing 75mm artillery, though casualties are high on both sides.
- 25 June: With the invasion by France underway. Metz, Mulhouse and Donan are taken in small battles against disorganized German troops and the sounds of artillery can be heard in Strasbourg. The German General Staff is in disarray, demanding immediate action. Kaiser Wilhelm demands that France be drive from German soil, but the military was to late, and now a hasty reorganization for defensive war is underway. Attempts at local counterattacks, most notably the Battles of fail due to lack of coordination between the different armies, the infantry, cavalry and artillery.
- 26 June: The first major Hungarian offensive against Austria takes place around the Neusiedler See with the goal to break through Austrian lines and capture Vienna. Despite a two hour bombardment, Hungarian troops are only able to reach the town of Neusidel am See before Austrian troops can stop the Hungarians. A diversionary attack into Croatia manages to capture Koprivnica, but Hungarian troops do not push the attack any further.
- 27 June: The first Russian troops move into East Prussia, where a two corps strong German force is defending the region. Light skirmishes are reported on both sides, but few casualties. Berlin is in panic at the news of a "Russian Steamroller." However, the Russian army isn't prepared for an offensive, as the forces are too small and the commanders, despite the 1916 Army Reorganization, are inexperienced and incompetence is still rife in the Russian Army.
- 28 June: French forces have reached Strasbourg and surrounded the city. German forces promise to hold out as long as possible. Casualties are heavy on both sides, especially with the entrenched German positions and machine guns.
- 1 July: Taking advantage of the Nationalities Law, The Czech National Assembly meets for the first time, and declares the Federal Czech State into existence, and is immediately recognized by Emperor Ferdinand. In the next few weeks, Ukrainians, Slovaks and Croatians take advantage and form their own National Assemblies, raising troops for the Empire. Germans in Austria establish their own National Assembly to run parallel to the Imperial Parliament.
- 6 July: The Russian army finally is prepared for its first offensive, and attacks German positions in East Prussia. Despite heavy losses, Russian forces outnumber the Germans six to one and manage to push forward.
- 17 July: The Battle of Istenburg is a Russian victory, and the German army falls back to defend the city of Konigsberg. Reinforcements that were en route to the Western front are diverted to the east.
- 8 August: In a bitterly fought election campaign, the Liberal Party of David Lloyd George wins a minority government (279 of 707 seats) with support from the Labor Party and its leader Ramsay MacDonald (187 of 707), which for the first time is now His Majesty's Loyal Opposition. The Conservatives under Arthur Balfour finished third (169 of 707), while the Irish Union, a conglomerate of all Irish parties, won 72 seats. This pretty much ensures that the UK will not join in any war that breaks out in Europe for a while.
- 10 August: The first action of PM Lloyd George is to order the Royal Navy to establish a "Neutral Sailing Zone" around the the British Isles, where no warships except those of Great Britain and her allies would be allowed, and no warships of any nations currently at war will be allowed to enter. The English Channel, the Irish Sea and all water within fifty miles of a British port in both the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean were made part of this Neutral Sailing Zone. Due to the power of the Royal Navy, bigger than the German and French fleets, it was assumed this should keep the war from interfering with British trade.
- 9 September: The German General Staff asks many retired generals, colonels and other officers if they will return to the Army and serve the Empire. Many, most notably Paul von Hindenburg, agree. General Hindenburg is put in charge of the 3rd Army, currently fighting the French, to replace it's former general, who was demoted for his failures of command.
- 18 October: Hungarian and Russian troops capture Lviv, the centre of the Federal State of Ukraine. The Ukrainian National Assembly flees to Krakow.
- 10 March: France launched the Battle of Wiesbaden on German forces in front of Frankfurt in an attempt to break through the front line and capture the major railroad and industrial hub. The small artillery bombardment by French 75's is insufficient to destroy the barbed wire in front of the well built German trenches, resulting in heavy casualties.
- 19 March: The R.M.S. Lusitania is stopped and boarded 25 miles off the coast of Ireland by a squadron of French navy destroyers and cruisers over the mistaken belief it was one of the large German four funnel steamships. The British demand and apology, which the French give, but refuse to compensate the Cunard Line for the delay and damage and losses from when French sailors searched the Lusitania.
- 7-10 April: After months of sabotage attacks and guerrilla warfare, Hungarian and Russians forces undertake a devastating campaign against Ukrainians in occupied territory, killing over 580, arresting over 33,000 men and women which were sent to hastily established prison camps in both Russia and Hungary. Thousands more would be sent to the camps over the next two years, and hundreds would die of malnutrition, disease and brutality.
- 2 May: Germany starts a 12 hour artillery bombardment on French lines near the city of Strasbourg. This causes an enormous number of casualties on the ill-prepared French trenches, but alerted the French High Command to the Germans intentions, and allowed reinforcements to be diverted from Wiesbaden to the new battle.
- 12 May: The Battle of Wiesbaden comes to an end, with the French having gained only half a km of land for 40,000 casualties. German forces suffered at least 25,000. All attention in the Rhineland is now focused on Strasbourg.
- 6 June: Germany launches a two-pronged offensive in Poland with the purpose of taking Warsaw. The Russians retreat before the German attacks to defensive lines behind the Vistula River, but this quickly over-stretches German supply lines and exhausts troops fighting over the broken terrain against ferocious Russian rearguard actions.
- 19 June: Emperor Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, with the support of the National Assemblies, declares the Confederation of the Danube into existence, with himself as Emperor. The first Confederation Diet is to be called for 8 August with representatives of each National Assembly based on population to meet in Vienna. An upper house, yet to be determined to provide an equal body for the different nations in the new Confederation. All military units raised by the various national assemblies are put under command of a unified military structure headed by the Austrian Chief of Staff.
- 27 June: General Alexi Brusilov leads a counter-attack on the Northern German force in the Battle of the Vistula River, smashing in and forcing a near rout of tired, exhausted and ill-supplied German forces. A few days later, the southern German force halts and pulls back to not present a salient to the Russians. Casualties in this battle include 40,000 German dead and wounded and 50,000 prisoners. Russia suffers over 95,000 casualties in a very costly victory, but morale in the Russian army rises as they prove they can stop the "invincible" German army.
- 3 July: Germany and the Danube Confederation establish the Combined High Command of the East (Kombinierte Oberkommando des Ostens) to aid in the war against Russia. All military operations on the Eastern Front are to be conducted through the KOKDO, while units will still maintain their nationality, and commanded by officers of that nation, except at Corps and Army level. Field Marshall Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck of Germany is made the head of the KOKDO, while Austrian Field Marshall Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen, was made the second in command.
- 15 July: After the victory at the the Battle of the Vistula River, Russia launches an unprepared attack on Danubian controlled Galicia, seeking to force their way through the Carpathian Mountains to open a second front in Bohemia and Moravia.
- 10 August: The Ottoman Empire, long neutral in the Great War, officially enters on the side of the Central Alliance, and in the next two weeks launches an offensive on the Caucasus Mountains, which quickly bogs down.
- 21 August: Romania and Serbia, after months of secret negotiations with the French and Russians, and spurred on by the entrance of Ottoman Turkey on the side of Germany and Austria, declare war on the Danube Confederation with the promise of territorial gain at the expense of the former Austria-Hungarian Empire. The land included Transylvania to Romania, which was officially Hungarian, but this proviso was kept secret.
- 29 September: The Kingdom of Italy, seeing a golden opportunity to reclaim land from Austria (now the Danube Confederation), and with significant French and Russian incentives, declares war on the Central Powers and invades Trentino and toward Trieste. The Danubian troops in the region fall back in the face of fresh Italian troops, but costs are high on both sides. However, Prime Minister Antonio Salandra, a strong supporter of France, started the war without popular opinion of Parliament backing, and only the first victories against a weakened Danubian military prevent his immediate ousting from office.
- 5 October: Japan presents the "Manchurian Demands," also known as the October Fifth Demands, to the Republic of China. In light of the instability in China, Japan wanted to secure the rights to the railroads, mines and industries of the region, along with guaranteeing that Japanese businesses would be given priority on contracts and resources for the area. China reluctantly accept the demands, which causes anger and frustration throughout China at giving in to another imperial power.
- 7 March: After months of accusations of French interference with British shipping in the Atlantic, Pacific, Mediterranean and the British "Neutral Sailing Zone" established two years before, (such as the boarding of the Lusitania a year before) and failed attempts to reach a compromise, Prime Minister Lloyd George sends an ultimatum to the French government to cease and desist attacking, capturing and sinking British shipping. Paris is given 48 hours to reply.
- 9 March: President Poincare of France, on the advice of Prime Minister George Clemenceau, issued a rebuttal of British demands, citing the "Neutral Sailing Zone" was in fact aiding the German war effort and France had a legal right to blockade ships heading for Germany.
- 10 March: Prime Minister Lloyd George addresses the House of Commons, claiming that since France was illegally attacking and capturing British merchant shipping on the high seas and within the "Neutral Sailing Zone," leading to the loss of 38 ships captured, 11 sunk and 87 sailors killed. He then asks for a declaration of war, which is approved by a huge majority, 675 votes to 32. The Army reserves are called up, and the 200,000 strong Home Army is mobilized to prepare for war. In the next few days the rest of the Empire, especially Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa pledge expeditionary forces for the Empire, though enthusiasm for the war in the Dominions, and at home, is lower than expected. Many questioned why the UK should get involved in the war at all, especially against France. Other's recognized the need to stand up for sailing rights.
- 11 March: As news of the British declaration of war reaches America, British investors in Wall Street begin selling their bonds and stocks and converting the money into gold to prepare to invest in the war effort. With most American government and business debt having been held by European investors, the sudden selling, and the lack of action by the US government, results in the US economy suddenly crashing overnight. In a week, millions of dollars worth of American debt and stocks had been sold, most for a fraction of its previous price. In a few weeks, the entire US economy is in recession. The Panic of 1919 has begun.
- 13 March: Field Marshall Lord Kitchener, despite his pro-French feelings, is sent to Germany to meet with Kaiser Wilhelm II, General Ludendorff of the General Staff and other German military staff. While the Kaiser and Germany are originally quite pleased with Britain entering the war, it is soon clear that Britain is refusing to have its units serving under German generals, and instead insisted on fighting under their own commanders. Kitchener is also to present a plan to Kaiser Wilhelm, which, while secret at the time, is accepted. Only a small force, 50,000 strong and composed of four infantry and one cavalry divisions under General John French, is to be sent to Germany to help hold the German line.
- 14 March: The United Kingdom issues an ultimatum to Spain, demanding that they demilitarize an area five miles wide around their enclave of Gibraltar. While the government of Eduardo Dato, Conservative Prime Minister, wants to remain neutral, the liberal Álvaro de Figueroa, 1st Count of Romanones, agitates to refuse this ultimatum, calling it an "assault on Spanish honor and land." Count Ramonones, one of the most active pro-French leaders in Spain, has been secretly aided by French agents for months, providing money and helping write pro-French and anti-German propaganda and newspaper articles. The population, divided between those who want to remain neutral and those that support one or the other of the allies, isn't prepared to go to war.
- 16 March: The Government of Eduardo Dato in Spain collapses, and King Alfonso XIII, though his family was linked to all the sides of the war, appointed Liberal Álvaro de Figueroa, 1st Count of Romanones Prime Minister, and he officially rejected the ultimatum. The army, partially mobilized since 1917, is now fully mobilized, and 400,000 men are called up to arms.
- 17 March: The Kingdom of Spain declares war on the UK. Many of the troops already mobilized are rushed to Gibraltar, and engage with the British garrison. The Battle for Gibraltar, while over in ten days, is very costly in Spanish lives against entrenched British troops and the Royal Navy Squadron that mounted a strong defence before it is withdrawn on 24 March.
- 21 March: Returning from Germany, Field Marshall Lord Kitchener is made the Chief of Staff of the British Army, and he instantly begins a major campaign drive to recruit two million men into his "New Army," as he believes the war will be long and will costs hundreds of thousands of lives. Units not currently fighting are divided and reshuffled, giving a mix of regular troops and volunteers for brigades. This leads to much confusion and backlash in the army, which still see their entering the war as the best way to end it quickly. Kitchener stands by his decision, and in a few months the "New Army-Old Army" units are deemed ready to be used in Europe.
- 1 April Japan, as per the alliance with the UK, declares war on France and Russia. Within hours, Japanese ships bombard Vladivostok, while a large force is assembled and prepared to be sent to French Indochina.
- 4 April: With Gibraltar in their hands, the Kingdom of Spain makes plans to send an expeditionary force to help France, who has already signed a secret alliance with Spain a couple weeks before.
- 9 June: In a daring pre-dawn attack, 10,000 British Marines and other troops, supported by a fleet including seven battleships, land around Dunkirk, near the border with Belgium, surprising the unprepared French troops sent to hold the town after the declaration of war. Despite surprise, British troops are unable to reach Lille, and trenches are dug, starting a new front in the war in Western Europe. Thousands more men are sent to bolster the line, drawing French troops away from the German front.
- 10 June: Bulgaria declares war on the Ottoman Empire and the Danube Confederation, and an army marches on Constantinople, similar to the First Balkan War (1912-1913), causing panic in the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The city would come under siege, but the Bulgarian army would be unable to break through.
- 21 June: Australian and New Zealand troops, in their first major operation, attack the French colonies of New Caledonia. The small French garrison is easily overrun with minimal casualties in just over a week.
- 29 June: Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich dies in his sleep after a massive internal haemorrhage. Tsar Nicholas II and his wife go into mourning, and their mystic healer Rasputin is arrested and sent to Siberian exile for his failure to save the Tsarevich's life.
- 5 July: The first troops of the Ejército Español de Francia (Spanish Army of France) arrive at Paris. Spanish industry, after two years of growth and production that was mostly sold to France and Italy, is able to produce many rifles and machine guns to help arm their new army, though many units that arrive in France only have rifles dating from before the Spanish-American War, and few machine guns and almost no artillery.
- 19 July: Sensing a weakening of French lines to confront the British invasion a months before, General Erich von Falkenhayn launches a new attack on the lines near Frankfurt, hoping to liberate the city from French forces and force a breach in the lines. If a quick breakthrough wasn't made, then he would try to "bleed the French white" by forcing them to send more men to hold on to the valuable target. Gaining Frankfurt would be a huge morale boost to Germany, while the loss would sap French morale.
- 23 July: The Battle of Frankfurt begins with a ten hour artillery bombardment and ten German divisions attacking the four French ones stationed in and around Frankfurt. German attacks, refined over two years of war, lead to impressive gains with some units reaching the suburbs of Frankfurt in the first day. However, no breaking of the French line is evident, and casualties on both sides is estimated at over 175,000 in the first day.
- 18 August Australian and New Zealand troops, now jointly operating under the designation of the Australia-New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), invade French Polynesia. The fighting is longer than in New Caledonia a few months before, but with few casualties, and mostly from disease and accidents than combat.
- 11 September: President Charles E. Hughes signs the repeal of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, with many on both sides of Congress blaming the break up of the big businesses by the Progressive movement into smaller, less stable enterprises, as a major factor in the collapse of Wall Street six months before. The US economy was suffering from over 12% unemployment, and over 300 banks and 9,000 businesses had shut down.
- 3 November: ANZAC units are sent to Egypt for training for possible usage in North Africa and possibly Europe. British military officers and staff are assigned to the ANZAC units in addition to the few English officers and Australian/New Zealand militia and reserve commanders that were in charge until now.
- 17 November: The first snows in Western Europe begin to freeze the ground around the Frankfurt Salient, and both the Germans and French cease major attacks on the area. Almost one million casualties are reported in total on both sides during the five months, and while Frankfurt had not been captured, the French position was very precarious.
- 3 December: After three weeks of low intensity raids, artillery bombardments of supply lines and a general feeling of dismay and depression, French troops pull back from Frankfurt and other threatened areas of the Western Front to the so-called "Foch Line," named after Marshal Ferdinand Foch who was Commander in Chief of the French Army, to mount a more defensive position
- 17 December: The first Canadian troops of the Canadian Expeditionary Force arrive in the UK for further training before they are sent to the front. General Herbert Plumer, despite no experience with Canadian forces before, was placed in charge of the CEF.
- 23 March The UK, facing an impasse after their landing in Northern France and unable to link up with the German army and stuck in the same trench warfare elsewhere in the world, begins planning for a new operation against Spain which is called Operation Liberty. With the loss of Gibraltar, only the Suez Canal, partially protected by the alliance with the Ottoman Empire prevents the Mediterranean from being completely lost to the British Empire. A dual pronged amphibious attack: one from the Atlantic near the town of Tarifa, another from the Mediterranean to land north of Gibraltar, is designed to encircle the enclave and retake the town for the British.
- 13 April Japanese forces land north of Vladivostok, and besiege the city. The Imperial Japanese Navy bombards the city for days before the Imperial Japanese Army storms the city and takes it, though with heavy losses. The Japanese army, under the commander of General Yui Mitsue, then march north, easily overwhelming any Russian opposition they meet.
- 27 April: The ANZAC units training in Egypt are selected for the attack on the Mediterranean landing zones, with two British Divisions, mostly full of hastily trained "Kitchener's Men," to land on the Atlantic side. Winston Churchill, former First Lord of the Admiralty and now the War Secretary, actively pushes for the operation.
- 15 May: Two British fleets, one from Malta and the other from the UK itself, descend on the area of Gibraltar, opening fire on troop concentrations and artillery positioned to block ships from sailing through the Strait of Gibraltar. Casualties are inflicted on the naval squadron, mostly through mines that Britain was unaware had been placed around possible landing sites and through the straits itself. Of the seven battleships sent, two are sunk and three others are severely damaged by Spanish artillery and mines. The ANZAC troops, shipped directly from Egypt with a brief stop in Malta, land on their beaches to find that the Spanish defenders have not been destroyed, and the landings are heavily contested. The British force from the Atlantic side is landed four miles northwest of the designated landing zone, which leads to a lot of confusion despite gains made.
- 21 May: An offensive by ANZAC troops, supported by naval artillery, gains only a few hundred meters, at the cost of 12,000 casualties. Spanish forces, with the aid of French officers, manage to hold defensive lines and prevent ANZAC or British forces from breaking out.
- 8 July: Prime Minister Tisza of Hungary, after three years of brutal war and a collapsing military and economic situation, at last surrenders to the Danubian, German and Ottoman troops. Emperor Ferdinand declares a day of mourning for the millions of lives lost in the brutal Austria-Hungarian Civil War, but states that the war with Russia and France will continue. The Austria-Hungarian Civil War officially ends
- 14 July: Russian forces capture and occupy the city of Khabarovsk. By this point, all land south of the Amur River is fully under Japanese control, and some units reach as far as Blagoveshchensk. The Russian Army is in no shape to resist, and the Tsar sends diplomats to see if peace can be arranged in the Far East.
- 9 September: The Treaty of Schönbrunn, taken place in the Hapsburg's palace in Vienna, is between the Central Powers and Hungary, to reunify Hungary with the Danube Confederation. Hungary is to be divided into three separate nations to join the Confederation (Hungary, Slovakia and Transylvania), and a Military Commission is put in place to rule Hungary for a minimum of ten years, or until the Confederation Council has agreed that Hungary should be given local administration rights, whichever comes first.
- 16 September: The First Canadian Division finally arrives on the Continent to fight the French. In the next two months, the Second, Third and Forth Canadian Division will arrive in France as well, forming the Canadian Corps.
- 4 October: Japan and Russia sign an armistice, ending the war in Siberia. Japan holds all the territory to the south of the Amur River, pending a final peace treaty.
- 2 November: With America still suffering from the Panic of 1919 caused by the collapse of Wall Street at the entry of Britain into the Great War, the United States Presidential Election results in an overwhelming victory for the Democratic Party. Californian William Gibbs McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury under Woodrow Wilson won the Presidency, with Senator Robert Latham Owen of Oklahoma as Vice President, with a wide ranging progressive platform to reign in the big banks, big business and "get us working again". Current President Charles E Hughes, with his new running mate Senator Robert M. La Follette, Sr., of Wisconsin of the Republican Party fought a spirited, but ultimately doomed campaign due to the Panic of 1919.
- 5 November: Facing increased dissent at home and a stalemate on the front, Tsar Nicholas II is forced by his ministers to allow greater representation in the Duma, which immediately leads to the Imperial Government of Unity, with Bolsheviks, Social Democrats, Kadets and Mensheviks allowed to join the mainly Conservative Duma. Ministers are reshuffled, and Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, is made Minister of Agriculture and Pavel Milyukov, leader of the Kadets, is made Minister of Internal Affairs. War hero General Aleksei Brusilov was made Minister of Defense, and he proposed a sweeping reorganization of the Army, but the Emperor and the mostly Conservative Duma balked at the demands, leading to political deadlock.
- 5-10 December The British Admiralty and Imperial Staff ultimately decide to pull troops out of the Battle of Gibraltar. ANZAC troops in the east are pulled back to Malta, and from there to Egypt. The British troops on the western side of Gibraltar, in a daring operation, are pulled under the cover of darkness, sailed past the Spanish city of Seville, and landed in southern Portugal without loss of life.
- 22 December Spain launches a formal protest at Portugal for allowing British troops being withdrawn from the Battle of Gibraltar to land near Lisbon without being interned. Portugal states that their alliance with Britain allows them to do so.
- 3 January: Border clashes along the Spanish-Portuguese border are inflamed by sensationalist media reports in both countries, and quiet machinations by the French and British in Spain and Portugal, respectively. In all, 258 Portuguese and 389 Spanish casualties are reported before war between the two is even declared. Portugal mobilizes it's army.
- 17 March The first bills of the so-called "McAdoo Plans" are proposed in Congress. A massive, $100 million fund is put into place to give low interest loans to farmers and small businesses, that were still reeling from the effects of the Panic of 1919. While the stock market itself had more or less recovered, and some factories and industries had been converted to producing war material for the European War. Other proposals include an eight-hour work day, a minimum wage, injury compensation and employment insurance. Many of the later laws were held up by lassiez-faire, right leaning members of both parties in the Senate.
- 17 April: Bolsheviks that were invited to form the Imperial Government of Unity in 1920 walk out due to Conservative efforts to limit economic and military reforms that Lenin demands. General Brusilov, although a conservative, is leaning toward joining the Bolsheviks and their demands.
- 4 May: After months of border clashes as both sides build up (the Portuguese with British help, and the French aiding Spain), Portugal is able to mount the first major offensive. With the aid of British troops, most from the failed Gibraltar campaign, the Portuguese make huge inroads in their drive to Caceres, and from there aiming toward Madrid. The Spanish, with their complicated plans for a multi-prong offensives into Portugal, are thrown into disarray. French troops, desperately needed in France, are unable to come to bail out the Spanish.
- 8 May: Russian soldiers, facing shortages in almost everything, riot in St Petersburg. The destruction is extensive and over 400 people are killed in the riots and the brutal crackdown. Bolsheviks decry the riots as the result of Imperial incompetence, and order a nation-wide General Strike.
- 11 May: A general strike lead by Bolsheviks in St Petersburg and Moscow grind the war-economy to a halt. Soldiers on the front line refuse to fight, only to defend their trenches. Generals struggle to maintain control, and many officers are shot by desperate soldiers when they are threatened with military courts.
- 14 May: Tsar Nicholas II, panicking over the loss of control over the army, disbands the Duma and forms the Government of Emergency. All "revolutionary parties," including the Kadets, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and Social Democrats are declared illegal, and many of its leaders are arrested or go into hiding. Lenin and Leon Trotsky manage to escape the police, but the editor of Pravda, Joseph Stalin, is captured and killed when resisting arrest. General Brusilov, with his known sympathies to the revolutionaries, is put under House Arrest. The strikes are brutally put down, killing hundreds.
- 17 May: Meeting secretly in Kazan, the leaders of the Left Wing parties led by Lenin, Trotsky and Pavel Milyukov of the Kadets form the Union of Russian Socialists, declaring a state of insurrection against the Russian Empire, and issuing a fifteen point manifesto, which included democratic elections, leaving the Great War, abolition of noble titles and land distribution to the poor. In the next week, military units, workers and peasants throughout the empire hear of this, and begin to join. The Russian Civil War has begun.
- 17 June With the Alpine Military situation faltering and Central Powers troops approaching Venice, Italy at last sues for peace with the KOKDO.
- 2 July: With the military situation collapsing, the home front in chaos and the Union of Russian Socialists gaining ground all across the country against Imperial forces, Russia asks diplomats via Stockholm to see what terms they can get with the Central Powers.
- 5 July: German and Danubian officials with the Combined High Command for the East send a list of demands to Russia via Stockholm. The list includes the liberation of Poland, Belorussia, Russian Ukraine and federated Baltic State (all territory that the Central Powers control), an independent Finland, Demilitarizing the Crimean Peninsula, giving land in the Caucasus to the Ottoman Empire, and the payment of reparations, to be determined later.
- 6 July: Russian officials at first baulk at the demands, but it's clear that peace with Germany is vital to fighting the Civil War. Tsar Nicholas II, resigned to defeat against Germany and the Danubians, but still seeking to hold onto his throne against the Red Army, agrees to the demands, and orders a ceasefire on all fronts.
- 8 July: Surprised that Russia accepted the demands, the Combined High Command for the East also orders a ceasefire to begin at 9:00 AM. An armistice is signed hours later at Demidov, Russia. The Great War in the East officially ends
- 18 September: The French army is rocked by mutiny and desertion as military reverses and rumours of food shortages and worker unrest at home.
- 20 September: Taking advantage of the unrest, and using the example of Russia, Communist allied soldiers in the French army begin organizing Communes and Soviets, demanding more say in the army and an end to the war.
- 23 September: The French General Staff issues Order 984, which declares that "any Communist or Radical protesting against the military and the nation" are to be dealt with "severely, and with the full force of the army in this treasonous activity." Immediately, leaders of the Soviets and Communes are placed under arrest, though violence breaks out.
- 26 September: President Poincare orders a crackdown on Communist and Socialist agitation in the army and on the home front. Prime Minister Clemenceau, opposing this move, is fired from his position and arrested.
- 28 September: French troops refuse to fire on other troops or civilians, and desertion reaches an all time high.
- 1 October: The French Army, facing a collapsing situation at the front and political crisis at home, stages a coup d'etat and overthrows Raymond Poincare's government, arresting the President and other leaders, though Socialist and Communists already in prison are not released. General Petain, the Conqueror of Frankfurt, is made the new President.
- 8 October: Facing an impossible military situation with entire divisions no longer under the control of the Government of France and German and British forces fighting just outside Paris, and Danubian troops marching from Northern Italy into Southern France, President Petain asks for an armistice with German, British and Danubian forces. The Great War is officially over
- 1 January: The victorious Central Powers meet for the first meetings in London, UK, to begin laying out the peace treaties for their foes. Eventually a four point plan is agreed upon: disarmament, dismemberment, reparations and liberation.
- 17-24 May: In Italy, riots break out in Danubian occupied Venice against the heavy handed occupation. Twenty four civilians are killed in street fighting, while the Danubian Navy is given orders to fire blank shots over the city to quell the uprising. The SMS Tegetthoff and Viribus Unitis executed their orders, and the riots were brought under control.
- 3-29 August:The Treaties of London are signed. The victorious powers, having been meeting since January, have not allowed the representatives of France, Italy, Serbia, Romania and other defeated states to negotiate on their behalf. When the French diplomatic team balked at the demands and tried to propose amendments, but the Central Powers stated either they sign the treaty or they will enforce through arms. The Entente powers reluctantly sign.
- 9 September: While visiting the front line south of Moscow, a sniper mortally wounds Premier Vladimir Lenin of the Union of Russian Socialists (URS). He dies four days later in Moscow. The premiership is passed to Pavel Milyukov of the Kadets to maintain the URS, while Leon Trotsky is given full reign over military affairs.
- 19 September: The public announcement of the Treaties of London that Italy was forced to sign has lead to weeks of demonstrations in Rome, Florence, Naples and other cities against the corrupt, ineffective government that dragged Italy into a war the people had no interest in, and then suffered major defeats and the lost of Venice, the Jewel of the Adriatic. The Army and Police are ordered by Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando to break up the protests, but King Vittorio Emanuele III instead demanded Orlando's resignation, and he appointed Field Marshall Armando Diaz as Prime Minister, but with virtual dictatorial powers for two years.
- 12 October: The Italian Revolutionary Legion (Legione Rivoluzionario Italiano, LRI), is established in Italy by former socialists, capitalists, veterans and militarists, led by Italo Balbo. This is the first party of the new "Legionism," named after the ancient Roman military unit famous for it's unity and cohesion when attacking and defending, and hinting at the militaristic, corporatist and extreme nationalist ideals it holds.
- 29 January: General Ludendorff, head of the German General Staff, published a secret paper that his staff had prepared, mildly called "1917-1921 War Analysis." In this paper, which discusses the start of the Great War, lays the blame for early German defeats on the Kaiser for not outlining a specific course of action at the beginning of the crisis for either the defence or offence against France or Russia, instead waffling back and forth. At the same time, in light of experience, it is found that the Schefflin Plan would not have worked; the time tables were too strict, motorized transport not reliable enough, the entrance of Britain over the invasion of Belgium too likely, and the French army had too much time to mobilize. Other faults included lack of popular support due to confusion over war goals, no plans for a possible long war, and the effects of naval blockades. Recommendations included the General Staff should develop a wide variety of plans for any possible enemy in the future, closer relationships with the elected officials, and a reduction in the Kaiser's powers over the General Staff.
- 2 February: The "1917-1921 War Analysis" paper released a few days ago makes its way to Kaiser Wilhelm II's hands through loyal officers in the General Staff, and in a fit of rage, fires General Ludendorff for his perceived insubordination to "The German Monarchy and Empire." This sparks a controversy in the political and military wings of the Empire, and veterans who served in the Great War are shocked that their commander, the one who brought victory to Germany, was ousted by the Kaiser, who only months ago had given the greatest honours to Ludendorff.
- 9 February After a week of speculation, Ludendorff supporters in the General Staff released a slightly censored version of the "1917-1921 War Analysis" paper to newspapers in Berlin, who immediately print it. The "Ludendorff Scandal" rocks the Empire, with monarchists and conservatives and old generals rallying to the Kaiser, while democrats and liberals, along with a large part of the military establishment that had been raised up during the war publicly support Ludendorff in an unlikely alliance.
- 23 February: A meeting by the forces that support the recently fired General Ludendorff, including the leader of the Social Democratic Party Friedrich Ebert, Constantin Fehrenbach of the Centre Party, Major General Wilhelm Groener, wartime leader of the Reich War Industry Office and a left-leaning officer, as well as General Ludendorff himself, met in a house in Charlottenburg, Berlin, and drew up the Charlottenburg Proclamation. In it, an outline for a constitutional monarchy is laid out, making Germany a more democratic society very similar to the United Kingdom. However, to insure military support, the politicians agreed to not infringe of the "rights of soldiers and their leaders in military matters." It is signed by 65 men in the next two weeks.
- 6 March: The Charlottenburg Proclamation is issued to the public, stunning observers both inside and outside Germany for the bold stance, and the political ramifications in the strongest power in Europe. Kaiser Wilhelm II is reported to have mood sings ranging from vitriolic opposition, to depressed acceptance, but does not make an official statement.
- 10 March: Chancellor Georg Michaelis of the German Conservative Party, after a failed attempt to negotiate with the signers of the Charlottenburg Proclamation, offers his resignation the Kaiser. Wilhelm II reluctantly accepts, but is unable to find another conservative politician, general, or civil servant that would support him. He offers General Ludendorff his old position on the General Staff in a last effort to stop the crisis, but Ludendorff refuses.
- 13 March: Kaiser Wilhelm II at last breaks down and asks Friedrich Ebert to be the new Chancellor, granting victory to the signers of the Charlottenburg Proclamation.
- 18 May: As per the Treaty of London, the Danube Confederation holds a referendum in both Danubian and former Russian occupied Ukraine to determine its status: to join the Confederation or establish its own country. In a close vote, Ukraine votes for independence, and Ukrainian Galicia joins them.
- 17 June: After months of political wrangling, the first reforms are passed to make the German Empire a constitutional monarchy. Kaiser Wilhelm II, despite the best efforts of himself and monarchists, are unable to effect any major changes to the legislation, and he is depressed at his new, much more limited role in the Empire. However, he agrees to abide by whatever laws the Reichstag now passes.