Alternate History

Timeline 1914-1923 (Death of an Era)

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For more details see Death of an Era.

Europe 1905

Europe in 1914


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
  • 21 April. Occupation of Veracruz (Mexico) by the US.
  • 28 June. Assassination attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  • 7 July – Austria-Hungary convenes a Council of Ministers. Decides to give Serbia a warning of its support of anti-Austrian and pan-slavism propaganda.
  • 15 August - Inauguration of Canal of Panama (OTL)
  • 21-22 August - Envoys of Austria-Hungary and Russian Empire meet in Lviv. It is agreed that Austria-Hungary will not take military actions (or preventive war) on any country of the Balkans, in exchange Russia will accept the integration of Bosnia-Herzegovina into the empire provided the rights of the minorities are guaranteed. Two secret treaties are signed: Non-aggression between Austria-Hungary and Russia, and Austria-Hungary will declare the war on Ottoman Empire if it attacks Russia.
  • 23 November U.S. withdrawal of Veracruz (Mexico) (OTL)
  • September - Palace coup in Serbia. Primer Minister Pasic replaced by military cabinet backed by Prince Alexander.
  • October - Austria leaves the Triple Alliance and joins the Quadruple Entente.
  • Government of Ireland (Home Rule) Act, approved by the British Parliament.


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
  • 18 January – Twenty-One Demands from the Japan to China are made (OTL)
  • 20 February to 4 December Panama-Pacific International Exposition (PPIE) World's Fair in San Francisco, California (OTL)
  • 19 March Pluto is photographed for the first time but is not then classified as a planet (OTL)
  • March to October – The 1915 locust plague breaks out in Palestine (OTL)
  • 15 May 1915, Argentina, Brazil and Chile sign the treaty that creates the ABC Pact, the future South Alliance (OTL)
  • 28 July United States occupation of Haiti (OTL)
  • 31 October Pleasant Valley earthquake (1915) OTL
  • 12 December – Chinese president Yuan Shikai declares himself Emperor (OTL)


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • Start of National Protection War in China
    • Start of Hungarian Civil War
  • Proclamation of the Second Republic of China in Nanjing
  • 14 January Zuiderzeevloed hits the Netherlands. North Sea storm that floods the lowlands and kills 10,000 people (OTL)
  • 22 March – The last Emperor of China, Yuan Shikai, abdicates the throne and the Republic of China is restored (OTL)
  • 15 May - United States occupies Dominican Republic
  • 29 August – The United States passes the Philippine Autonomy Act (Establishes the Kingdom of the Philippines) (modified OTL)
  • 12 October – Hipólito Yrigoyen is elected President of Argentina (OTL)
  • 7 November - Wilson reelected as President of the USA (OTL)
  • November - Inauguration of provisional State Governments (State Councils) that will call for elections as soon as the War ends.
  • 10 December - Emperor Franz Joseph dies.Franz Ferdinand takes the throne.
  • 20 December - Hunagry elects Otto Von Habsburg as King.Hungarian Civil War begins.
  • 30 December - Hungarian (Ottonian) armies only control Budapest.


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • Arab Revolt
    • National Protection War
    • Hungarian Civil War
  • 25 January The Danish West Indies is sold to the United States for $25 million (OTL)
  • 5 February - Germany invades Russia and Italy invades France. World War I begins.
  • 5 February – The constitution of Mexico is adopted (OTL)
  • March Democrat Woodrow Wilson is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States.
  • 19 March - The National Protection War ends with an agreement for peace between Beijing and Nanjing
  • March - Diet of Austria votes to start talks on reform of the Empire and invites diet of Hungary to do the same. Meeting between delegates of Austria and Hungary. Representatives of Boheme, Slovakia, Croatia, Transylvania, Galicia and Slovenes joint the meeting on invitation of the Emperor-King. Deadlock because of refusal of Hungarians to divide lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Kingdom of Hungary) and give full autonomy to Croatia and other nationalities.
  • 3 May Suspension of the application of Government of Ireland (Home Rule) Act until the end of the war.
  • May Establishment by the US of the Kingdoms of Haiti and Dominica (ex Dominican Republic)
  • * June National Councils of Boheme, Slovakia, Croatia, Transylvania, Polish Galicia, Ukrainian Galicia, Vojdovina-Banat, Slovene and Italian zones formed and control zones of their nationalities.
  • June Emperor-King decrees it assumes direct control of Hungary and introduces universal suffrage on lands of the Kingdom of Hungary and full autonomy to nationalities within the Empire. Other decrees end the process of Magyarization.
  • June Compromise of the National Councils to stay within the Crown of Habsburg if an assembly is called to reform the Empire on the base of the March meetings.
  • June (end of Hungarian Civil War) Capitulation of Budapest and designation of military governor and provisional Government.
  • June Declaration of the Federal State of Austria-Hungary and draft of territorial organization approved by the Conference on the Organization of Austria-Hungary. The Conference votes to rename itself Federal Parliament.
  • November Approval of the territorial organization by the National Councils and Federal Parliament (Austria-Hungary).
  • September The Federal Parliament votes the new Constitution. However, its applications is limited to the Federal government. As soon as the war ends will it be fully implemented (Austria-Hungary).


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • Arab Revolt
    • Russia Revolution. Proclamation of the Republic.
    • Russian Civil War
  • Ottomans join World War I and the Arabs take Baghdad
  • January The Nationals Councils, the Austrian Diet and the provisional Council and Government of Hungary send deputies to the Conference on the Organization of Austria-Hungary
  • Extraordinary Pan-american Conference
  • March Russian revolution. Czar Nicholas abdicates on pressure from the part of the army and internal front (workers strike and peasants revolts).
  • March Installation of provisional government Calls for elections of All Russian Constituent Assembly and vows to continue the war on Germany.
  • June-July German occupation of Baltic countries, Ukraine and Belarus by Germany. Proclamation of puppet states by Germany
  • July Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia proclaim their independence from Russia
  • 11 October Mayagüez (Puerto Rico) and other adjacent towns are nearly destroyed by a 7.5 earthquake and a tsunami. (OTL)
  • October Russia, overthrown of Provisional Government. Socialist Republic proclaimed
  • November Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia form the Transcaucasian Federation. Invasion by Ottoman Army
  • November Finland proclaims independence
  • December Transcaucasian Federation dissolved. Each of the 3 republics negotiates cease fire with Ottoman Army
  • December Peace Treaty between Ottoman Empire and Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia.
  • 20 December - Tsarists defeat the Russian FSR and force it to retreat beyond the Urals.The Russian Confederacy is formed and retakes the Baltics,Ukraine,and Belarus.The Socialists form the Russian Union.


  • Ongoing events
    • Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • Arab Revolt
    • Russian Civil War
    • Polish National Independence War
  • January Turkestan declares itself part of the Russian Confederacy.
  • 1 March Constitution of Uruguay. Establishes semi-collective executive power (President and National Council of Administration) (OTL).
  • March Start of Polish National Independence War.
  • March 1st Movement manifestations (1919) in Chosen.
  • July Declaration of the Moldavian Democratic Republic in Bessarabia. Months later votes to unite with the Kingdom of Romania.
  • September - Battle of Jutland is a victory for Germany.Meanwhile:Italy loses the Battle of Milan.
  • November - Battle of Copenhagen is the turning point in the War;Allied Victory.


  • Ongoing events
    • end of Mexican Revolution
    • World War I
    • Russian Civil War ends by 1920
    • Polish National Independence War
    • Irish War of Independence
  • United Provinces of China, South Chinese Republic and State of Yunnan are established has independent states.
  • January Puerto Rico becomes a Kingdom associated to the United States.
  • January ABC Alliance (South Alliance) formalized has a permanent agreement by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay
  • May Advance on Bremen is victorious;Italy defeated at Turin,Florence,Naples,Lecce,and Rome.
  • May Proclamation of the Polish Republic
  • May the Polish Revolutionary Committee (Polrewkom) under assistance of the Red Army, proclaims the People's Republic of Poland
  • May proclamation of the Arab Kingdom of Syria under Faisal I and establishment of the Confederation of Arab States
  • June Proclamation of Federal State Austria-Hungary by the Emperor-King in joint session with the Federal Parliament. Issue of writs for State and Federal Elections.
  • July - Russian Confederacy joins World War I on the Allied Side
  • June Russian Union joins World War I on Unity Side.
  • 20 June - Battle of the Baltics;Baltics occupied by Germany.
  • 21 June United Kingdom general election, triumph of the liberal-conservative coalition under Lloyd-George
  • 25 June Declaration of independence of Ireland (Irish War of Independence)
  • July Red (Russian Union) army enters Transcaucasia
  • August - Turkestan joins the Russian Union;Ukraine conquered by Germany.
  • August - Georgian,Azerbaijan,and Armenian SRs declared.
  • 2 November 1920 US Election: Republican Leonard Wood elected
  • 19 November - The Russian Confederacy annexed to the Russian Union
  • 16 December Haiyuan earthquake (OTL)


  • Ongoing events
    • World War I
    • Irish War of Independence
    • Polish National Independence War
  • Establishment of the Irish Free State
  • Tripartite Agreement of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Relations signed by South Chinese Republic, State of Yunnan and United Provinces of China.
  • Government of India Act (1921), first proposal to give some form of internal autonomy to Indian colony by the United Kingdom.
  • Union of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua into the Federal Republic of Central America.
  • Costa Rica joins Panama
  • Creation of International Agrarian Bureau (IAB) in Cluj (Austria-Hungary)
  • March - The Germans are destroyed and forced to retreat from occupied Russia.The Battle of Hamburg ends in an Allied Victory.
  • March Republican Leonard Wood is inaugurated as the 29th President of the United States.
  • May - Austria defeats Germany at Landshut and Munich.The Battle of the Rhine is won.
  • July - The Battle of Potsdam is a Victory for the Allies.
  • August - Berlin Falls and the August Armstice is signed (End of WWI)
  • September - First Assembly meeting of the League of Nations
  • September the People's Republic of Poland is dissolved


  • Ongoing events
  • Arbitration of USA and South Alliance of the Tacna-Arica dispute
  • Pan-american Conference in Santiago de Chile
  • Establishment of Turkish Republic of Pontus
  • Signing of Anglo-Irish Treaty that ends Irish War of Independence
  • July - Treaty of Moscow is signed
  • August Treaty of Versailles (UK, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and USA with Germany)
  • August Treaty of Lucerne (UK, France, Italy, Greece with Ottoman Empire) and partition of Ottoman Empire. Creates new policies: International Straits Zone, Ionia, Lycia, and Cilicia.Many Other States are also established
  • August recognition of the Confederation of Arab States
  • August a series of Baltic peace treaties are signed (Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia and Russia, Belarus and Ukraine)
  • September Compromise of Warsaw (Germany and Poland) and Status of East Prussia
  • September Treaty of Ravenna (Italy, Serbia, Austria-Hungary, UK, France)
  • September Army uprising in Ankara and Konya marking the start of Anatolian or Turkish Civil War
  • 4 December - British Parliament approves Government of Ireland Act. Applied only in Northern Ireland, because of Irish War of Independence.


  • Failed coup in Belarus of Social Revolutionaries (SR) and Left Social Revolutionaries (Left SR)
  • March Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Transcaucasia establish the Federation of Russian Republics
  • Proclamation of the Afghan Democratic Republic.
  • 18 June – Mount Etna erupts in Italy, making 60,000 homeless (OTL)
  • 1 September Great Kantō earthquake (OTL)
  • The Government of Northern Ireland Act (1923) establishes Ulster

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