Japan's conquest of China suffered a severe setback from defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, China attacked, restarting the war between them, and Russia had gained a new far Eastern Ally, Mongolia.

Tsar Nicholas had four daughters and a healthy son, Alexis by his wife, Empress Helene, in 1911 Italy went to war with the crumbling Ottoman Empire, taking Libya and the Dodecanese Islands, and in 1913 Russia's allies in the Balkan League went to war with the Ottoman Empire. Montenegro, Russia's close ally asked Russia to attack in the Caucasus, General Nikolai Yudenitch commanded Russia's forces on this front, most of Ottoman Armenia was lost, meanwhile Bulgaria, Greece & Serbia were advancing towards Istanbul, Albania, Thrace, Macedonia and Thessaly had been lost to the league. Istanbul was soon besieged by the Greek and Bulgarian armies.

An army officer in Ankara could see the way things were going yet and hardliners refused to make peace, so this officer, Kemal Ataturk staged a coup in Ankara, declaring the Republic of Turkey and immediately asked for peace. The League accepted the peace. Turkey lost all its European lands and Armenia, Montenegro was doubled in size from Albanian territory captured, Greece received Thessaly and Constantinople. Serbia annexed Macedonia and Bulgaria received Thrace, yet believed it should have received more territory, This was the cause of another Balkan War, in which Bulgaria was beaten and King Constantine of Greece put his son George on the Bulgarian Throne.

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