The twentieth and twenty-first centuries of the world would be times of great technological advancement. The first several decades would be filled with conflict as empires and dictators fell, and in the latter part of this era there would be many conflicts over the resources located in the rest of the solar system, yet for the most part, humanity benefited from this century. It was a time of invention, liberalization and of prosperity.
Instability and Expansion of the Byzantine Republic
The PERDR, or the Peoples' Eastern Roman Democratic Republic, entered this century as the most feared nation in the world. They had proclaimed themselves the vanguard of the Levelist Revolution, and felt it was their duty to incorporate poor, "oppressed" countries into their "liberated' nation. Many small nations like Hungary and Czechoslovakia had fallen to the Byzantines, and their thirst for expansion continued. They were driven by their feared leader, Baltazar Georgopoulos, who celebrated a huge propaganda victory with the Byzantines being the fourth nation to land a man on the moon in 1904 (after Meixikou, Japan, and India). However, after his death in 1905, great political instability and strife gripped the Byzantine Republic, with the next several leaders barely lasting for a single year. The eventual successor, Hector Laskaris, would come to power in 1909, desperate for some external force to keep his nation from collapsing. He began building up the military to even greater extents, using even more propaganda and being even harsher than Georgopoulos. Tensions between the Byzantine Greeks and the rest of Europe were high...
However, it was northern Africa which would first be a test of Byzantine strength. The nation of Libya had been consumed by political instability since its inception. It only took a slight push from Byzantine spies to start Levelist rebellions, that were then funded and armed by the PEDR. When Libya went into chaos, the Byzantine forces swooped into Libya in 1911, placing an allied Levelist government in place. Meixikou, crediting isolationism for its success, did nothing. Japan, fearing that another war could send it down the same path of China and Sri Vijaya, did nothing. India and Vijayanagar sent empty threats, telling the Byzantines to stop. Laskaris swore that would be the last revolution he would help. He lied.
The PEDR then began doing the very same tactics to Arabia and Egypt, destabilizing both nations. In 1913, Byzantine forces swept into Egypt, aiding revolutionary forces there which had been almost totally funded and supplied from PEDR. Egypt, covered in propaganda stating that they would unite the world into one nation, joined PEDR directly in 1915. The next year, in 1916, the Byzantines began to start a revolution in Arabia. The Arabs managed to unite and hold them off for a while, but they too were placed under a Levelist government in 1919. India and Vijayanagar sent empty threats again. The rest of the world did nothing. Laskaris and the PEDR seemed unstoppable.
The Second West China War
To be redone...
Despite the woes occurring in Europe and west Asia and northern Africa, the nations of India, Japan, Korea, and Meixikou (and to a lesser extent Vijayanagar and China and Sri Vijaya) continued to advance technologically. By 1904, 15% of Japan's energy came from nuclear power plants. The first space shuttle was made in year 1909. Meanwhile, advances in computer technology continued, with the first personal computer becoming available in 1915, and a primitive internet became available by 1925. The human genome, after years of research, was finally decoded in 1920. The first video games, an industry pioneered in Japan, were invented during this time. Sri Vijaya's economy began to experience a come back during this time due to all of the new technologies. Korea, traditionally isolationist with only one remaining colony, Hawaii, decided to become a more interventionist nation and was a pioneer in internet technologies. Korea granted Hawaii its independence and focused its resources on building one of the most liberal and advanced nations in the world.
The Byzantine War
BeginningAfter the fall of Arabia, Hector Laskaris found himself in a fix. There was no way that he would be able to start a revolution in the Rus: the people there hated the Levelists and it would require him to genocide the Russians. If he attacked Persia, that may be too close to India for India's comfort and they might finally attack the PERDR. Expansion into the rest of Europe would result in coming into conflict with Germany and Poland, which, although no longer controlled by China, nonetheless had parted from the Chinese all allied nations. Expansion into the Italian areas could result in Sri Vijaya helping their former protectorates, and would probably result in the western European nations all banding together. Unfortunately for the Byzantines, the Sahara had already had a Levelist revolution while they had their period of instability before Laskaris could take control; and the government there, although Levelist, was no friend to the Byzantines. Attacking China directly seemed to be out of the question. Chad and Ethiopia seemed like the best choices to attack.
Laskaris chose to attack Ethiopia in 1922, to topple the Ethiopian Emperor and make it a puppet state. He assumed that, just like with the Czechoslovaks and the Hungarians and the peoples of the Caucasus, just like with the Egyptians and Arabs and Libyans, that no other nation would come to Ethiopia's aid.
He was wrong.
Following the invasion of Ethiopia, the Emperor travelled to a joint security conference between India, Vijayanagar, and Meixikou, and gave a stirring speech, begging them to help his nation. Due to fears that the PERDR would continue to expand like crazy, and sympathy for the Ethiopians, those three nations finally agreed. As the speech was broadcast all over the world, public opinion was in favor of the Ethiopians. The Sri Vijayan protectorates in Europe, as well as Germany and Persia, also agreed to help.
The war was fought in two fronts: the European front and the Afro-Arabian front. The European front was initially the stronger area for the Byzantines, with the PERDR forces, led by the famed general Anatoly Sigalos quickly taking the Austrian areas of Germany and the Italian state of Venice. However, after these initial victories, Byzantine progress slowed down immensely. Meanwhile, their initial attack on Persia had backfired, and combined Persian/Indian/Vijayanagaran troops had pushed them out of Persia and were on the verge of joining up with rebellion groups in the Caucasus and among the Kurds and forcing their way into Byzantine territory.
Meanwhile, the Coptic-Speaking, Coptic Christian Egyptians, united as one nation after long years of being under Egyptian rule, revolted as soon as the Anti-Levelists forced the Byzantines out of Ethiopia with the help of Ethiopian nationalists. By 1924, all save for the northern coast of Egypt had been retaken. Meanwhile, aid was given to Libyan and Arabian nationalist groups, and revolutions cost the Byzantines these areas as well. By the beginning of 1925, the Byzantines had lost all territory they had gained in the war on all fronts, and in the Persian/Arabian front they were losing more, having lost their entire Asian territory other than Anatolia.
The situation in the PERDR was grim in April of 1925. The Byzantines were losing the war badly. They had thus far avoided using nuclear weapons, due to the knowledge that if they did so, their enemies would respond in kind and destroy them. However, Hector Laskaris, believing the war to be lost, began questioning whether or not, since Byzantine defeat seemed inevitable, the PERDR should just destroy their enemies as well. The military, thinking in terms of self-preservation and led by the popular General Anatoly Sigalos, managed to convince Laskaris to wait a few weeks.
However, by the end of April, defeat was certain for the PERDR, with much of Anatolia taken already, and most of the Balkans save for Thracia and Greece. Laskaris concluded that nuclear war was the only option. He called General Sigalos together for a private meeting on May 1, and informed the general that he was planning to launch nuclear missiles at India, Vijayanagar, Persia, and several of the Sri Vijayan protectorates. Sigalos, knowing this would kill hundreds of millions, if not billions, pulled out a gun and shot Laskaris point-blank in the face. Sigalos and the other generals immediately seized control of the government in a coup, saving the world from a nuclear war.
The End of the WarGeneral Sigalos, knowing that there was no way that the PERDR could win, immediately surrendered to the Anti-PERDR forces, on the condition that he and the other high-ranking military leaders that he had collaborated with not be tried for their crimes. The Anti-Levelists agreed to this condition and occupied the PERDR. General Sigalos and his fellow generals fled to the neutral Levelist Sahara, where he would serve as a military adviser until his death in 1941. Following the end of the war, all nations conquered by the Byzantines were restored to independence, PERDR ceded territory to Arabia, and Croatia, Serbia, Romania, the Caucasus nations, and Kurdistan were granted their independence. PERDR was disbanded and replaced by the free Eastern Roman Republic.
The worldwide economic boom started in the early twenties in Korea. From there it spread to Japan by 1925, and after the war the economy began to have massive expansion in Meixikou and India and Vijayanagar as well. Spain, who had been occupied for several decades and politically unstable for quite some time, had a massive recovery in the thirties as well. The new internet also helped the economy improve as well. Many semi-developed nations, such as Wolof, Southeast Asia and Persia also had massive economic improvement during this time. Sri Vijaya, after decades of instability and poverty, finally recovered by 1939 and managed to re-secure its spot as a world power. They granted total independence to their European territories, who then united to form the South Europe Confederacy, a loose confederation formed out of the need for mutual protection among nations formerly under Sri Vijayan protection. The only nation without improvement was China.
Japanese Decolonization Plan
Japan, knowing that an eternal colonial empire would never happen, created a decolonization plan, in which they would slowly allow their colonies to declare independence after the Japanese thought they were ready. The first colony to become independent was Ogunkaigan in 1929, on the west coast of North Yodderick, which was primarily Japanese in ethnicity and virtually at the same level of development as Japan itself. On the other side of the continent, Midorikuni became independent in 1932 (OTL Eastern USA). Midorikuni was a mixture of ethnicities, about 45% native Yodderickese, such as Cherokee, Creek, Shawnee, and Iroquois. However, another 45% was comprised primarily of immigrants from Europe, such as English, Dutch, Scottish, Irish, and French. Another 10% was Japanese. The Japanese portion shrunk following independence, with many returning to Japan or moving to Ogunkaigan due to the fact that they could no longer dominate. However, due to the mixture of languages, both European and native, the official language of Ogunkaigan remained Japanese.
Next to become independent was the South Yodderick colony, called Kyujin Koku in 1934. However, this nation only lasted for a year before a small portion in the northeast, called Choruikaku, broke away. The European nations declared independence next. England became independent in 1935, still retaining most of its culture and language. However, the next independent nation, Wagenigen in 1937, which had once been the Netherlands and Belgium, had so many competing languages (Dutch, French, German, Flemish) that Japanese became the common tongue there as well. The next independent nation was Kaiketsu, north of Midorikuni. This nation was divided between many different tribes of natives, with a small European and Japanese immigrant minorities (less than 25% combined), so with the division of languages, Japanese became the common tongue there as well in 1938.
Japanese remained the common language of the tribes of Central North Yodderick, which became independent as simply Central Yodderick in 1939. The remaining colonial territory was primarily in the far northern areas, and was named Nosurando, and encompassed all of that territory. It did not become independent until 1945, and remained under heavy Japanese influence for the next several decades.
The New China
China's territory would experience a major upheaval during the same time as the Japanese territory decolonization, but China's would be much more violent.
Great Turkish Revolts
The Turkic nations had remained loyal to China longer than the European ones, as there they had no interference from the Army of God on account of the fact that Tengriism, Buddhism, and Judaism were the three dominant religions here. In 1930, a revolution occurred that swept the Turkish areas of China, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Turkestan the next year. However, after a couple years of political strife, two-thirds of the Turkish territory broke away in the form of the new nations of Bulgaristan, Kazakhstan and Khazarstan.
Dao Siang declared independence in 1933, in OTL Colombia and Venezuela. It was followed by the rest of the South Yodderick colonial empire which broke away as Sen Sia in 1934. The Caribbean island territories all broke away as well as Sia He in 1936, with the exception of the eastern islands, which remained as the autonomous zone of Seaton. After the New Zealand islands broke away as Na Nan in 1937, the only remainder of Chinese territory was the small isthmus between North and South Yodderick. The northern parts of this isthmus, where the former Mayas lived, decided to join Meixikou, while the rest became independent in 1939 as the republic of Sia Si.
* Might be redone
Split of SaharaSahara had been a Levelist state since 1908. However, the oligarchy that controlled the nation was steadily becoming weaker, and after the defeat of the PERDR, Sahara, as the only remaining Levelist nation, was isolated with few allies. In 1935, the increasingly weaker government collapsed into civil war. The Levelists managed to hold onto the southern portion of the country, but the rest became independent as the Republic of Northern Sahara in 1940. However, the RNS soon became engulfed in a religious war, with the Muslim east confronting the Catholic west. In 1945, the nation split into Morocco in the west and Ifriqiya in the east. Many Muslims would emigrate to Ifriqiya, the only nation they were a majority in.
The New Media
The invention of the internet proved to be incredibly popular and important, and by 1950 it has become a major media form. Slowly, paper usage went down, as more and more writings were digitized. Television and radio both were absorbed into the internet as well. The dominant language of the internet would be Chinese, popularized by the Meixikouns and Chinese, but large Malayan, Japanese. Hindi, and Korean groups would exist as well.
Health and Medicine
Medicine would continue to improve over the course of the century, with increasing numbers of cures and vaccinations. However, there were new health problems, including increasingly high cancer rates (higher in Europe due to the several nuclear bombs detonated there), the spread of STDs, as well as new anti-bacterial resistant bacterium. Despite these increasingly dangerous challenges, human health would improve slowly, reaching 80 by the present day (with more developed nations having average life expectancies of 100).
Further Space Exploration
Space exploration had slowed down a bit after the turn of the century, with most advancements being in satellites and other low earth orbit technology. However, in 1947, Vijayanagar made a well-published return to the moon, with the first woman landing on the moon. This started a renewed interest in space exploration. The first moon colony was built in 1959. In 1967, an international cooperative space program landed the first humans on the planet of Mangala (the Indian names for planets being the most common, due to India's status as one of the most powerful nations. In 1975, a Mangala colony was built. There would be landings on the moons of Bṛhaspati (Jupiter) by humans in 1984, with the landings being on the moons known OTL as Ganymede and Castillo.
In 1995, a mission was sent to Bṛhaspati's moon called by the Europeans Europa. This mission sent a carefully sterilized probe into the under-ice ocean of that moon, where they made a momentous discovery: extraterrestrial lifeforms. These aliens were fairly simple, with the most complex being no more complex than flatworms, yet they were still living. This discovery shook the world, as it proved that life was not unique to Earth. (certain religious fundamentalists of the Semitic/Abrahamic religions would reject the evidence as it contradicted with their beliefs, yet they were pretty much ignored). Europa was declared off-limits for human colonization, mining, or extensive exploration to preserve these life forms.
For all the good that the space exploration gave to humans, conflicts arose as well. As mining the moon for resources became a way to help conserve the earth's environment, numerous nations began doing so, starting with the space powers (India, Meixikou, China, Japan, and to a lesser extent Vijayanagar and Sri Vijaya) in the late 1970s. By the early 90s, even nations like Arabia and Ifriqiya had began to mine on the moon. Arabia and Ifriqiya had traditionally been at odds, due to competition in the oil markets and Muslims and Alhaqists fighting over which was the true successor to Muhammad. In 1994, the Lunar War between these two nations began. The war was fought entirely upon the moon, primarily through robots (although a few humans were killed), and resulted in a stalemate in 1996, where the two nations stopped fighting due to international pressure.
In 1990, years of experimentation paid off, resulting in the first successful virtual reality, allowing a realistic simulation of the world to be transmitted directly to the brain. This remained small, unpopular and impractical until the turn of the millennium, when more advanced forms of this technology allowed the virtual reality technology to begin to spread from experiments to an actual media. By the present day, virtual reality internet has started to compete with the old version of the internet among richer areas, although it is still an experimental technology.
Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
Robots had been widely used in factory production for decades starting in the 1920s, yet the first truly artificial intelligence was not created until the late 1970s. Even then, throughout the eighties AI remained mostly experimental. However, by 1992, the first working AIs were made for the public in the form of simple service robots. Service robots would become increasingly common throughout the next two decades. In many developed nations, most factory labor and agricultural labor in the leading nations was done through robots as well, with humans directing and controlling robots, as well as non-AI technology. However, the increased production generated by robotic labor managed to offset the cost by 2005, and the resulting economic improvement has prevented a huge recession from the lack of industrial jobs.
The Modern World
There are those, who, upon seeing the rise of the Eastern Nations, wonder if it could have been different. Some Turks in Central Asia, learning about the lost Mongols and the Turkic Khanates, wonder if they could have banded together and become great. Some Europeans look at world maps, and think of how they could have colonized the Americas instead of the Asians. Muslims in Ifriqiya look at the maps of the world before the eleventh century, when Islam was practiced from Central Asia to the Atlantic, and wonder if Islam could have slowly grown instead of shrank. All of these people look upon the world and state "It could have been ours".
Yet they are not the only ones who stare at the world. There are people, mostly East Asian but of all ethnicities, living on colonies on the moon and Mars, staring down upon the earth. There are people from across the world, plugged into the internet, using the virtual reality functions to see the entire world as a 3-d model. There are company employees, in the East Asian nations, and increasingly others as well, looking upon robots as they advance. There are new philosophies, both anti-religious and religious, practiced by all sorts of races and ethnic groups, and there are also Buddhists, Cathars, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and many others, carrying on old traditions and practices, thousands of years in age. So many people, of all ethnicities, and they all look upon the planet and say "It is ours".