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Timeline 1800 - 1900 (Alternate Imperialism)

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Imperialism 1 The following article is a part of the Alternate Imperialism timeline. Please do not edit or alter this article in any way while this template is active. All unauthorized edits may be reverted on the admin's discretion. Propose any changes to the talk page.




1805

  • 18 August- A large Ottoman force meets Serbian rebels at the Battle of Ivankovac in Ottoman South Serbia, defeating the rebels

1806

  • Relations with Russia and the Ottoman Empire disintegrate into the Third Russo-Turkish War
  • French forces occupy Dalmatia
  • A Russian contingent of 40,000 advances into Moldavia

1807

  • 9 March- An Ottoman offensive is launched against the northern advancing Russian army, meeting near Bucharest. At the ensuing battle the smaller Russian army occupying the city is defeated
  • 18 June- At Arpachai the Russian army under Count Gudovich is destroyed by a Turkish force of over 20,000-strong
  • Russian naval forces defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of the Dardanelles and the Battle of Athos the following month
  • 20 July- An Ottoman offensive of 25,000-strong invades Russia through the Caucasus region

1810

  • 25 May- Russian troops take the city of Silistria from the Ottomans
  • 22 July- The Russian army is unsuccessful in taking the fortress of Rousse

1812

  • The Treaty of Bucharest is signed, ending the conflict with the Russians and Ottomans. Bessarabia is ceded to the Ottoman Empire. All Serbian resistance to Ottoman rule is destroyed

1820

  • 24 February- Alexander Ypsilantis, head of the Filiki Eteria, urges local Christians of the Balkans to rise up against the Ottomans to little success

1821

  • 17 March- A force of 2000 Maniots marches on the town of Kalamata, beginning the War of the Peloponnese
  • 24 March- Kalamata falls to the Greek army
  • 5 April- The Turkish Janissaries begin a skirmish campaign on the Greek countryside
  • 20 April- Large scale Ottoman resupply efforts are successful in reinforcing positions on the Greek Peloponnese
  • 8 June- Tripolitsa is recaptured by the Ottoman army
  • 16 July- Alexander Mavrocordatos and his Greek army is defeated at the Battle of Peta
  • 2 August- A provisional Greek government is established
  • 27 August- The Greek Assembly orders Theodoros Kolokotronis to cede control of his captured territory to the unified resistance. He refuses
  • 5 September- The Greek government declares war on Theodoros Kolokotronis’ territory, besieging the city of Nafplio
  • 1 December- Turkish troops destroy the Greek army near Nafplio
  • 25 December- Nafplio is captured by the Turkish army

1822

  • 18 January- Theodoros Kolokotronis is killed in a military coup against the city state of Kalamata
  • 15 February- Ottoman forces defeat the Greeks at the Battle of Filiatra. The disaster deals a large blow to the fledgling Greek government
  • 27 March- The city of Kalamata falls to the Ottomans
  • 29 April- The Greek national government officially disbands. Small pockets of resistance continue to operate

1831

  • 19 April- Modena is annexed by Austria
  • 18 May- France, fearful of Austria’s influence in Italy declares war. Sardinia-Piedmont and the Papal states ally with France, beginning the War of Italian Independence
  • 26 May- Austrian troops stationed in Milan begin an offensive southwest toward the heart of Sardinia-Piedmont
  • 29 May- Austrian forces meet the Italians at the Battle of Alessandria. The Italians retreat.
  • 3 June- French forces advance through Switzerland and head south, taking the north Italian city of Sondrio
  • 4 June- Austrian troops continue to advance toward Genoa, meeting French and Italian forces at the Battle of Novi Ligure. The Austrians are defeated and retreat east into Parma
  • 5 June- Northern Italians under the control of Austria advance south toward Rome in the Thirty Day Offensive
  • 9 June- The city of Ferrara is taken by the Austrian army
  • 10 June- After almost two weeks of unsuccessful offensives and almost constant warfare, Italian troops from Rome break through Tuscan-Austrian defenses near Viterbo, advancing north
  • 12 June- In an effort to surround Tuscany and aid the Italian troops in the south, France heads southeast. The Austrian army in Parma pursues them south, only to be surrounded by a smaller Italian army from the north. At the Battle of La Spezia the Austrian army is annihilated in a crushing defeat
  • 13 June- The Northeast Italian army in Ferrara continues its advance south along the east coast almost parallel to the French army in the west. The city of Ravenna is besieged by the Austrian army
  • 17 June- Italian forces engage the Tuscans at the Battle of Siena. The Tuscan army is defeated
  • 21 June- A French army, supported by Swiss soldiers engages Austrian reinforcements heading south near Merano
  • 27 June- The North Italian-Austrian army approaches Rimini. French and Italian forces arch east from Siena to meet the Austrians
  • 5 July- The Battle of Rimini concludes in a French victory. The Austrians retreat north, ending the Thirty Day Offensive
  • 20 October- The city of Ravenna is liberated. Much of Tuscany is occupied

1832

  • 4 January- The occupying French-Swiss army is crushed at the Battle of Vermiglio
  • 4 April- A second northern offensive is launched by the French into northeast Italy
  • 3 May- The Austrians are defeated at the Battle of Ceto, as the French continue toward Trento
  • 30 May- The French forces surround Trento
  • 1 July- The Siege of Trento is lifted

1833

  • 2 January- The Treaty of Rome is signed, ending the War of Italian Independence. Tuscany and central Italy are annexed by the Papal States, up to and including the city of Ravenna. Austria annexes the former Papal States' territories north of Ravnenna including the cities of Ferrara and Bologna. Lucca is also annexed by Austria. The state of Northern Italy is formed as a French vassal, encompassing Sardinia-Piedmont, Parma, and northern Lombardy

1835

- Under the influence of the Holy Roman Empire, Austria pushes the Großdeutsche Lösung, or Greater German Decision, gaining political control over many lesser German states - Bavaria, Baden, and Wurtemberg are annexed by the Austrian Empire. Wary of Austria’s growing power, Prussia enforces strict trade agreements on its German allies. The states of Saxony, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Oldenburg, and Bremen are officially under the political influence of Austria. Prussia secretly begins the widespread mobilization of their military, fearing that Austria will try to enforce the Empire’s policies in Prussia through war.

1836

  • 1 January- War is declared between Prussia and Austria, and their respective satellite states, beginning the War of German Hegemony
  • 5 January- A massive Prussian invasion of Austria is organized. Prussian soldiers quickly surround Leipzig, Dresden and Frankfurt.
  • 8 January- At the Battle of Leipzig the Prussians crush the Saxon army, forcing the army of Saxony to retreat south into Chemnitz.
  • 9 January- Austrian soldiers meet the Prussians north of Prague at the Battle of Mlada Boleslav. The Austrian forces retreat into the city of Prague, pursued by the Prussians
  • 14 January- The Siege of Dresden begins
  • 15 January- Austrian and Prussian troops meet near Erfurt as part of a plan by Austria to break the siege at Frankfurt. The Austrians are victorious and the Prussians retreat. The Austrian garrison is able to fortify the city, acting as a barrier between the west Prussian armies and the Austrian supply lines. With the added defense of Austrian forces in Erfurt, Austria is able to successfully reinforce the Saxons in Chemnitz
  • 17 January- Prussian soldiers in the Rhineland are sent south around Frankfurt, meeting a reinforcing Austrian army at the Battle of Heidelberg. The Prussian army is defeated
  • 20 January- The Austrians advance toward Frankfurt in an effort to break the siege of the city
  • 21 January- The Prussian navy destroys the navies of Bremen and Oldenburg at the Battle of the Helgoland Bight. Prussian ships surround Hamburg where a Prussian land force is advancing
  • 23 January- Dresden falls to the Prussian army
  • 24 January- Prussian forces near Frankfurt flank the reinforcing Austrians, engaging on the outskirts of Offenbach. The Austrian army retreats east
  • 29 January- The city of Hamburg falls to Prussia
  • 30 January- Bremen and Oldenburg are occupied by Prussia
  • 2 February - Prussian soldiers begin besieging Prague
  • 5 February- A massive Austrian army advances north toward Prague meeting a secondary Prussian army flanked to the east. At the Battle of Kolin the Prussian army defeats the larger Austrian army, continuing the siege of Prague
  • 8 February- Prussian forces begin the Siege of Erfurt
  • 10 February- Prussian forces near Chemnitz are attacked by a Saxon-Austrian army at the Battle of Altenburg. Prussia is victorious and continue advancing south
  • 14 February- The Prussian army advancing south from Altenburg meets the retreating Austrian forces from Offenbach, defeating the Austrian Army
  • 15 February- The city of Frankfurt falls to the Prussian forces besieging it
  • 18 February- The Northern Prussian army continues advancing at an alarming rate, engaging an Austrian army near Stuttgart. The Austrians retreat into the city
  • 21 February- The Siege of Chemnitz begins
  • 27 February- Prague falls to the Prussians
  • 3 March- The Prussians renew their offensive, pushing south toward Munich and Vienna
  • 13 March- Chemnitz falls to the Prussians
  • 15 March- Stuttgart is captured by the advancing Prussians
  • 30 May- At the Battle of Budweis the Austrians are defeated bu the Prussians
  • 14 June- Prussians soldiers enter Linz
  • 20 August- Prussian forces in the east defeat the Austrians at the Battle of Ostrava

1838

  • 20 January- The Treaty of Cologne is signed, officially ending the War of German Hegemony. The remainder of German states are loosely united under Prussian influence. Bohemia, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, the Jutland peninsula, the Electorate of Hesse, Frankfurt am Main, Nassau, and parts of Hesse-Darmstadt are annexed by Prussia
  • 28 January- The North German Confederacy is formed by Prussia, officially annexing parts of north Germany
  • 3 February- The Second Congress of Vienna is called into order. The object of the congress was to discuss the future of a unified German state and to redraw international borders after the War of German Hegemony
  • 10 May- The Second Congress of Vienna concludes. Austria agrees to form Greater Germany, combining with Prussia’s influence in the north to form a union under a single Emperor
  • 14 May- Germany is officially unified
  • 1 June- The First Austrian War begins as rebels rise up along the southern border of the former Austrian Empire. Several farms near Lienz are razed
  • 4 June- A German army under Otto Von Mecklenburg is sent from Vienna to meet advancing rebel forces
  • 21 June- Religious tension and resistance to their German occupiers builds in Hungary
  • 12 July- Great Britain, Spain, and their respective satellites declare war on Germany with the goal of Austrian independence
  • 15 July- The Austrian resistance is crushed by the German occupiers
  • 17 July- A joint German-Austrian army enters Hungary with the intent of pacification
  • 18 July- Denmark declares war on Germany
  • Sweden declares war on Denmark. Great Britain and Spain declare war on Sweden and Germany
  • 21 July- 50,000 German soldiers enter Jutland. Schleswig-Holstein is overrun
  • 2 August- The Hungarian army is defeated at the Battle of Irota
  • 5 November- After vigorous negotiations Russia agrees to aid Germany, despite their disapproval of Sweden's involvement
  • 26 November- Odense is captured by the German army

1839

  • 3 January- The First Austrian War ends
  • 5 January- Russia declares war on Great Britain, Denmark and Spain
  • March 30- Alborg is captured by the German Army
  • 9 April- The Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia and Germany
  • 13 April- A major British fleet of eighty-eight ships under Admiral of the Fleet Charles Edmund Nugent enters the North Sea with the intention of blockading all northern German trade activity and naval movement, as well as the successful capture of Prince Adalbert, German naval theorist
  • 19 April- Nugent’s fleet meets the fledgeling German navy twenty-five miles north of the mouth of the Great Belt. The German navy is crushed.
  • 25 April- An additional army of 16,000 North German soldiers is moved into Jutland
  • 26 April- As the Great Belt is secured for the British a plan is drawn-up for a twenty-five ship transport fleet to move 45,000 British soldiers to the Jutland coast, connecting with the Danish army and advancing south
  • 15 June- The British-Danish force lands near Odense meeting heavy German resistance
  • 17 August- The city of Odense is secured by the British army. The German army falls back to the fortifications around Vejle and Kolding
  • Constant bombardment of Jutland coast and small naval skirmishes occur between the German and British near Odense
  • 26 October The British Invasion of Jutland begins as 50,000 British and Danish soldiers attack the fortifications near Kolding and Vejle. The main invasion is a disaster. Small pockets of British soldiers hold near Binderup and Fredericia
  • 31 October- A British force of 20 ships is defeated while on patrol to the north of Jutland after facing a large Swedish navy in the Battle of Skagen
  • 2 December- British general in charge of the Invasion effort is replaced. All besieging British and Danish soldiers are ordered to retreat.
  • 5 December- The tattered and tired retreating British army is attacked at the Battle of Fredericia..The British are defeated, however, some retreating units are able to regroup and fall back to the awaiting ships.
  • 7 December- An Ottoman force of 60,000 enters German Croatia and German Serbia.
  • 12 December- British forces regroup and fortify Odense.
  • 16 December- British naval forces under Admiral Nugent defeat a combined Swedish-German navy at the Battle of Kolobzeg. Nugent is killed.
  • 17 December- German armies in Hungary and Austria are moved south to meet the Ottoman Empire
  • 30 December- Largely outnumbered the Germans defeat the Ottomans at the Battle of Sinj

1840

  • 1 January- The United Kingdom general elections begin.
  • 26 January- The United Kingdom general elections conclude. Viscount Melbourne is voted out of first party. The majority of seats are won by Sir Robert Peel.
  • 4 February- A plan for a Spanish-British invasion of Jutland is rejected.
  • 12 February- The Ottoman army defeats the advancing Russian army at the Battle of Nicolae.
  • 28 February- The Ottomans and Moldovans are defeated at the Battle of Botosani.
  • 3 March- The Berlin Conference begins to formally address questions raised over Germany’s legitimacy and the remaining German territories still in the hands of other countries.
  • 4 March- A Spanish fleet of thirty ships carrying about 30,000 soldiers entered the Heglioland Bright. British ships bombard Lubeck, as the Spanish forces land near Cuxhaven.
  • 6 March- A large German army is ordered south from Jutland under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder.
  • 23 March- The Siege of Bucharest begins as Russian forces surround the city.
  • 24 March- The Spanish army defeats the Germans at the Battle of Bremerhaven.
  • 13 April- The Spanish army is crushed at the Battle of Bremen. Remaining Spanish forces fall back to the coast.
  • 15 April- The Spanish naval forces begin constant bombardment of the German coast near Bremen.
  • 17 April- An additional 20,000 Spanish forces arrive in Cuxhaven.
  • 18 April- Ottoman forces are defeated by the Germans at the Battle of Leskova.
  • 29 April- The Russian siege of Bucharest ends as the city is taken.
  • 5 May- Remaining Ottoman and allied forces in the west Balkans retreat to Sarajevo, pursued by the occupying Germans.
  • 6 May- Wallachia, Moldova, and the coast of the Black Sea are under Russian control. The Russian army continues south into Ottoman Bulgaria
  • 7 May- German forces enter Mostar, occupying the city
  • 10 May- German forces catch up to retreating Ottoman soldiers and irregulars at the Battle of Vilusi. The battle is a horrible defeat for the Ottomans
  • 11 May- The Berlin Conference concludes, agreeing that the states of Germany shall stay united to face the common enemies of Germany. German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine is deemed a priority, severely weakening diplomatic standings with France. Guidelines are established for the negotiations of the end of the German Patriot War
  • 12 May- Peace negotiations begin the belligerents of the German Patriot War, especially the Ottoman Empire
  • 15 May- The Battle of Cuxhaven begins as German soldiers attack the fortified Spanish position. The Germans suffer major casualties in the initial assault but after a disastrous counter attack directly into German artillery the Spanish are unable to break the German line
  • 19 May- The Spanish occupiers in Cuxhaven abandon the city. German forces enter the wreckage soon after
  • 1 June- The Treaty of Krakow is signed, officially ending the German Patriot War. All of Jutland is annexed by Germany, including the island of Heligoland. Transylvania is released as a German satellite, Russia annexes Moldavia, Wallachia, and eastern Romania, including the city of Constanta. Malta is released as a British satellite (See page for full treaty)
  • 10 July- Presentations for rebuilding the German navy are largely rejected. German's many naval focus becomes trade ship building/protecting..
  • 18 July- Full-time German military garrisons are posted in the regions of Hungary and Austria.
  • 20 November- The British Railway and Infrastructure Project begins in England as government funded railroads begin appearing in new large industrial areas.

1841

  • 7 February- The Balkan Legion is created by the Ottoman Empire as an official military division for Ottoman, Balkan and foreign units. The high paying work and partial lack of discrimination drive many Greeks to enlist
  • 15 February- German soldiers finish withdrawing from Transylvania. The new nation is officially declared.
  • 25 February- The Forţele Terestre Române, Romanian Land Forces, are founded in Transylvania
  • 4 March- The Romanian Democratic Party is founded in Transylvania as a group dedicated to the formation of a Romanian republic. Originally formed as a club for the similar thinking elite, the organization begins to attract average citizens into their ranks.
  • 2 June- Count József Teleki, who had been provisionally ruling Transylvania since its formation, is declared king of Transylvania
  • 5 June- A large protest is organized in Klausengurg by those opposed to the monarchy of Transylvania
  • 19 October- The First Romanian War begins as two hundred Romanian republicans raid a military outpost along the Transylvanian border
  • 1 November- Several dozen protestors in Șieu-Măgheruș are forcefully arrested by armed forces under Laurentiu Ionescu. Ionescu call for aid in his local region of Bistrița-Năsăud County
  • 7 November- Royal soldiers are ambushed while traveling north of Teaca. The royal soldiers manage to hold the road and the rebels are routed
  • 24 December- the governor of Eve Bistrița-Năsăud County demands a massive purge in retaliation against the rebels. On Christmas Eve he calls upon Laurentiu Ionescu and his soldiers who round up hundreds of people and execute them, most without prior evidence. Throughout the county many are left hanging in town squares. Neighboring counties are urged to follow. Many rebels flee to Cluj County.

1842

  • 2 February- A large protest in Târgu Mureș ends with several protestors dead. Local republicans rally through the incident, organizing a renewal of rebellion.
  • 25 March- An irregular army of 1,000 men under Marien Marcek attacks a royal garrison near Cluj-Napoca. The rebels manage to inflict heavy casualties, but are routed by reinforcements from within the county capital.
  • 4 April- The Battle of Sic begins as rebel forces under Marien Marcek and Alin Mandruleanu are forced into the salt mining town of Sic by Laurentiu Ionescu. Throughout the night the small force of defenders lining the high elevation are bombarded by superior numbers
  • 5 April- Rebel forces abandon the town of Sic. Laurentiu Ionescu enters the town soon after. Although the rebels suffered severe casualties the battle is revered by the rebellion who use the incident as an example of successful retaliation


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