Central Asia: The Mongols heavily raid northern Persia/Iran, crushing or vassalizing the local Turkic, Kurdish or native states, and raze the great city of Rayy. They unleash particular violence against Muslims, being somewhat less inhumane :roll eyes: toward Zoroastrians, Jews and Nestorian/Jacobite Christians.
Northern Europe: The Republic of Novgorod enters the ongoing war in Estonia in support of the local rebels, but is defeated by the German Swordbearers and their allies.
Southern Europe: Canossa fortress, now much decayed, is captured and held by the Comune of Reggio (Emilia), marking the lowest point of the fortunes of the family bearing the same name. The castle is later retaken by Riccardo, a minor scion of the family, who'll be the ancestor to the Later Canossa dynasty.
1221 Northern Europe: Henry I the Fat, count of Anhalt and a grandson of Albert the Bear of Brandenburg, has its estate raised to a non-electoral duchy.
Western Europe: Burgundy crumbles in a succession war after the sudden deaths of the last Adalbertine Anscarids, Queen Joan, and her son and heir apparent Berengar. Prince consort Arduin of Turin struggles from Valence to keep the reign together as few recognize him: a Savoy and a Balz-Arenjo (*Baux-Orange) parties quickly form, respectively holding the north-eastern and the southern part of the Burgundian realm. Marseille proclaims herself free city; Piedmontese-Lombard forces and Greater Norman armies soon intervene, the former to support Arduin, the second simply to annex more lands possible:D . Also several Crusaders back from the Levant fight over the land in unstable alliance with this or that claimant.
Southern Europe: Pope-king Urban IV (*OTL Honorius III) dies in Rome after a lengthy and controversial reign. The Council of Cardinals elect as Pope and king of Italy the bishop of Benevento, Ranolfo, scion of a minor Lesser Norman family, who takes the name of Leo X. Empress Alexandra of Sicily dies in Palermo, succeeded by her eldest surviving son, Felix I Posthumous.
North Africa: The Genoese and Sicilians take Tripoli of Libya from the local Banu Hilal rulers. Inner Tripolitania, however, remains firmly Arab and Muslim; later attempts to conquest by the Templars will be crushed. Central Asia: Temüjin/Genghis Khan and his Mongols ravage Afghanistan, conquer Ghazni and raze Herat in another killing spree:eek: . The Great Khan's forces then assault Kabul and attack northern India, suffering a resounding defeat :o at the Sutlej river against Iltutmish of Punjab: Mongol general Jebe “the Arrow” is killed in battle.
Central Hesperia (*OTL America): The Mayapàn League rises to paramountry in Yucatàn as Chichèn Itzà's power is shaken by revolts.
Far East: Go-Toba, the cloistered emperor of Japan, stages a revolt (the Jōkyū War) against the Kamakura shogunate, now led by the Hōjō clan, but is defeated at the third battle of Uji and exiled.
Western Europe: The chaotic civil war brings down Burgundy. The Piedmontese Arduin of the Guidoni, ousted from Valence, manages to hold the Brevasque (*OTL Dauphiné) in the Alps, controlling the fundamental Momadrouna pass (*OTL Montgenèvre/Monginevro); Aymeric III de Balz-Arenjo self-proclaims count of Provence, whereas count Berenger II the Tall of Savoy raises his own estate to marchional status. The Greater Normans gobble up most of Lorraine, leaving some fringes to vassal Luxemburg; emperor Amaury II claims the crown of Burgundy, but holds it in name only and, entangled in complex struggles, has to postpone the crushing of Septimania/Languedoc (which is beginning to be called Gadary, from the Cathars still strong there). Lyon, after suffering riots, lootings and the fury of the mad inquisitor-dictator Peter of Verona, becomes a powerful merchant republic. 1221-1226
North Africa: St. Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, where he spends his last years, gaining the respect of Christians and Muslims alike for his mildness and sanctity, in contrast to the ferocity of the Crusaders and of the Papal legates.
Central-Eastern Europe: Mstislav the Bold, supported by the Cumans and Hungary, and his younger rival Danylo, supported by Iwan I Skirmunt of Lithuania-Ruthenia, struggle to control the principality of Galicia until the latter prevails.
Byzantine Empire: The despotate of Lakedaimon (southern Peloponnesus), led by the Chamaretos family and supported by the last surviving Slavic tribes from the inner Peloponnesus, resists for a long time Crusader aggression before being absorbed by the county of Patras. In the end, only the impregnable port of Monemvasia remains in Byzantine hands.
1222 Central-Eastern Europe: Otakar/Ottokar I finally reunifies Bohemia upon the death of his brother Vladislav III, duke of Moravia. The nobility of Hungary extorts from king Andrew II the Golden Bull, which states several important privileges for them, among which the right to disobey the king if he's breaking established laws and customs.
Central-Eastern Europe, Caucasus: A Mongol army defeats and subdues Alania and the eastern Kipchak/Cumans: the Alan capital Maghas/Meget is thoroughly razed.
Byzantine Empire: Genoese and Greek pirates wrest Samothrace from Venetian hands. Queen Vartuhi of Armenia Minor, the last of the Rupenid family, marries Demetrios, second son of Constantine of Canossa-Novellara, lord of Cyprus.
North Africa: The Mamluk army trapped in upper Egypt vainly besieges Cairo, held by the Templar Knights. The Mamluks establish a sultanate in Aswan, then, bolstered by Arab bedouin tribes, sack and burn Old Dongola (Nubia), crushing the old kingdom of Makuria/Mukurra and beheading its last Christian king, Yahya (John). Middle East: In a suicide move, a Crusader army 10,000 strong attacks toward Medina along the Red Sea, supported by a hastily built flotilla. When the latter is destroyed by Arab pirates, the Crusaders, already harassed by Bedouin guerrillas, are defeated heavily at the battle of the Bitter Waters by the Saifid sultan Musa al-Jawhar Ghazi; most of them are beheaded or sold into slavery, and only a handful makes it back to Palestine.
SE Asia: Ken Angrok, a shrewd former bandit, topples the Kediri/Mataram realm (eastern Java) in the battle of Ganter, founding in its place the kingdom of Singhasari.
Byzantine Empire: The puppet emperor Alexius III Angelos dies, succeeded by his weak son Constantine X, a convert to Roman Catholicism:eek: , much to the loathing of the remaining Greek loyalists:mad: . Czar Dimitar of Megavlakia (as the Vlacho-Bulgarian state has come to be known) tries its last bid to gain Constantinople, citing his adherence to Orthodoxy in a vain attempt to attract consensus among the Greeks, but dies while besieging the City he coveted to the point of destroying it in partnership with the Crusaders:mad: . After Dimitar's death one of his nephews, Theophilus the Saint, takes power with Cuman help by exploiting the rivalry between his cousins Dimitar the Younger and Stephen, whom he exiles to distant Russia. Theophilus, a devout Orthodox, at once recognizes Theoktistos I Megas Branas as the only true basileus, being granted by the Greek Church of Nicaea an autonomous Patriarchate in Tarnovo.
Western Europe: Duke Llorente III of Valencia claims the throne of Castile upon the death of his father-in-law marquis Mateo I but is defeated and killed in the great battle of Cuenca by Bernardo, nephew and appointed heir to Mateo's holdings.
Southern Europe: Pope Leo X recognizes the Franciscan Order established by St. Francis of Assisi. Ezzelino III da Romano inherits vast areas near Treviso from his father; his brother Alberico becomes the strongman in Vicenza. The da Romano family is the most powerful in mainland Veneto. Young William III is crowned king of Lesser Normandy in Melfi with Papal benediction. The state, after some years of near anarchy, is in a bad shape.
Central-Eastern Europe: A Mongol army led by Subotai finishes off the eastern Kipchaks in the Pontic Steppe, then sacks some Russian minor lands before turning northeast to attack the Volga Bulgarians. The battle of Kermek is a surprising Bulgar success, and the Mongols withdraw.
Middle East: The Myriamite state in Galilee expands into inner Lebanon with support from the Saifid Arab governors of Syria, repulsing further Crusader efforts.
Far East: First attack on the Korean coast by the Wokou pirates from Tsushima and southern Japan. The Wokou will infest the eastern seas for centuries.
North Africa, East Africa: Caving under duress, the Coptic Church in Alexandria accepts to appoint a Patriarch who recognizes Union with Rome and Papal supremacy. When news arrive in Ethiopia, the local Coptic Church opts for a schism and raises its Abuna (metropolite) Yeshaq I to the dignity of Coptic Pope. Most of the Egyptian Copts will quietly accept the Ethiopian Pope rather then the Latin-appointed Coptic Patriarch in Alexandria.
Northern Europe: King Valdemar II of Denmark is betrayed and kidnapped by his vassal count Henry of Schwerin. The Danish ruler is freed only after giving up all of Nordalbingia (Holstein, Lübeck, Hamburg etc.), Mecklemburg and western Pomerania to duke Otto of Brunswick, the head of the Hohenstaufen house:D , and to his captor, and providing money and an army to help Otto in the ongoing civil war against the Welfs.
Byzantine Empire: King Demetrios of Armenia Minor strangles young duke Nicander of Batiturkeia:mad: , then together with the Akrite Order of Caesarea/Mazhak ruthlessly puts down Muslim revolts in Pamphilia and southern Anatolia, forcibly converting the survivors.
Northern Europe: The Latgalians rise against the Swordbearers of Livonia, allying themeselves with the Lithuano-Ruthenian empire to oust the hated German masters came from the sea.
Western Europe: The Greater Normans try to overcome their rivals to make Burgundy the third kingdom of the empire and conquer the long-sought access to the Mediterranean, but emperor Amaury II and the flower of the Norman nobility fall in the battle of Peyra-Lada (*OTL Pierrelatte, Drôme, Rhône Alpes) against a Lombard-Burgundian coalition led by prince Umberto III of Rivoli, the ruler of Guidonian Piedmont. Amaury's brother, Thomas the Catholic, succeeds him quitting his planned ecclesiastical career.
North Africa: The last Gadirote (*Cathar) diehards of Mauretania (*Morocco) are crushed by king Ruddar I in the fortress of Igadawan. Moreia (*OTL Casablanca) is taken by the Genoese with help from their Maurian allies.
Byzantine Empire: Theoktistos I Megas Branas subdues most of the Latin feudatories of Bithynia, then with Genoese help is able to reconquer Lesbos, Lemnos, Leros and Rhodes from Venice. His forces vainly besiege Gallipoli. Despot Michael I Megaplatos of Turcopolia defeats the Latins at Serrai (Macedonia) and ousts the Vlacho-Bulgarians from Adrianople. Constantine X Angelos dies with no male heirs; the Latins get rid of most remaining Angeloi, deemed disloyal:D , and crown as emperor of Romania Matthias Ghiffiotto, half-brother of emperor Felix of Sicily. The Eastern and Western “Roman” crowns are now under the same family for the first time in half a millennium. The Western-backed “empire of Romania”, however, is reduced to control of the capital, the Straits and bits of Thrace.
Caucasus, Middle East: The Mongols raze Tabriz ousting the Saifid Arabs from Azerbaijan. They then proceed to destroy the Kurdish fortress of Ahlat (whose name will remain to indicate historical or Old Armenia) on lake Van and plunder the area and Iberia/Georgia in a lightning raid before suddenly quitting operations and withdrawing east. The Kurdish Shabankarai overlords of Fars, impressed by the Mongol might, pay tribute to the Great Khan.
India: Mahadharma I dies after firmly establishing the power of the Buddhist Dharma empire he founded in Pataliputra/Patna.
Southern Europe: Brescia, a major center of heresy in Lombardy, is overwhelmed by pro-Papal “crusaders” sent in by the court to crush Cathars, Arnaldists and Waldensians. A massacre and scores of burnings at the stake follow:eek: .
Northern Europe: New revolt led the Bagler party in Norway in support of Alfred Skulesson, son of the late king Skuli II of Northumbria, claiming the throne his marriage with Cecilie, one of king Sverre's daughters; the rebels hold the eastern fringes of the country, then are decisively defeated by Haakon IV at the battle of Rena, ending the Bagler-Birkebeiner feud once and for all:) . Alfred flees to Alba/Scotland, where king Duncan III has him murdered:mad: .
1225 Western Europe: Gallastria (*OTL Spanish Galicia plus Asturias) is made into a vassal of Portugal after the successful Portuguese siege of Orense.
Byzantine Empire: The loyalist Byzantines of Nicaea take the Latin stronghold of Artaki/Nea Cyzicon (on the Sea of Marmara) after a lengthy siege, menacing Constantinople. With the bull “Christiana militia” Pope Leo X urges Christian knights to assume the defence of City of Constantine against the “heretic Greeks”.
Caucasus: A renewed Mongol expedition defeats the Ortoqids at Chaldiran (Ahlat, *OTL Armenia), vassalizing them and imposing Rukn ad-Din Mawdud as the new sultan in Amida/Diyarbakir. The Mongols then desolate Ahlat (*OTL Armenia) and Iberia/Georgia (their fierce sack of Trabzon first make them well known in the Christian West, through the tales of merchants and refugees), and crush Daghestan, conquering the fabulous fortress of Derbent. Only the Muslim Laks of the eastern Caucasus resist the Mongol onslaught recreating their Shamkhalat (principality) of Ghazi-Ghumuq under a strong queen, Partu Pattima. India: Sultan Iltutmish of Punjab plunders Delhi during a civil war between local rulers; the city is later rescued and annexed by Vijayaraja I, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer. SE Asia: The Trân dynasty, established by Thái Tông, replaces the Later Le/Lý on the throne of Dai Viet (*north Vietnam).
India: Merchants from Genoa, Sicily and Provence (Marseille, Nice) first reach southern India :eek: after a daring travel by sea from freshly conquered lower Egypt; they are welcomed by king Kalinga Magha of Sri Lanka/Ceylon and come back with precious spices and gold.
Central Hesperia (*OTL America): The K'iche', a people of Mayan stock, establish an own kingdom in OTL Guatemala (*still haven't decided its future name...) highlands.
Central Asia, Central-Eastern Europe: Mongols and Tartars settle SW Siberia founding the White Horde, whereas the Blue Horde settles the Pontic Steppes around the Lower Volga.
Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire: As the Teutonic Order in Transylvania petitioned to Rome to become an ecclesiastical holding on its own, king Andrew II of Hungary expels it. The knights find a new job and lands in Thrace, in the service of emperor Matthias of Latin “Romania”; the eastern “Roman” empire thus gains a substantial bolstering in front of the resurgent Byzantines of Nicaea and the marauding Vardariotes and Vlacho-Bulgarians.
Central Asia: The Khorezmian Inal Tegin, followed by the remnants of the once powerful armies of the Khorezmshah, overthrows the Nasrids in Seistan (eastern Persia/Iran) and holds on until the Mongols crush him, placing there the Mihrabanids as their vassals.
Northern Europe: The War of the Lions (as the Welf-Hohenstaufen conflict has come to be called) comes to a stop, as a complex agreement is brokered by Pope Leo X at the Council of Mainz. The Pope does not formally reinstate on the throne Henry IV the Welf (declared deposed by his predecessor), but withdraws Papal excommunication from him. The Pope arranges a dynastical marriage between Otto the Handsome, nephew and heir of Henry, and Beatrix, sister of Otto of Brunswick, the head of the Staufen party:confused: . The crown should remain vacant until a male heir is born – the new king, bearer of both clans' blood:cool: . In the meantime, and as the new king will grow up – hopefully - the contenders should preserve order in their respective spheres of influence and stop fighting, and the Electors regularly hold a national Diet in Mainz every six months to discuss the wider issues. Seeing no end in sight to the war, the two sides accept this compromise as the lesser evil :o and begin the difficult task of pacifying the ravaged country. The Palatinate, the most violently contested territory after the demise of old margrave Hermann of Thuringia, a staunch Staufen ally, is conceded to Otto the Handsome as a guarantee of the pact. North Africa: The Shepherds' Crusade, led by Moses Africanus, an inspired preacher from the Numidian Atlas, ends up massacred by the Hilalian Arabs in Tripolitania (*actually coming to be called Maghrib l-Hilali).
Byzantine Empire: Pope Leo X launches an interdict against the Akrite Order of Caesarea/Mazhak after its refusal to turn arms against the Nicene Byzantines (*the Order is bi-confessional:eek: , with both Catholic and Orthodox knights and a commander for each major confession, and intended for fighting back the Muslims and only for that). The Catholic Akrite knights are not excommunicated, but no reinforcements from the West are allowed - at least officially - until the interdict is in place.
Far East: The Mongols rout the Tangut/XiXia forces in the battle of Helanshan.
Northern Europe: Germany is without a king as Henry IV dies a few days after his grand-nephew, the baby appointed heir, called Frederick. Henry's nephew, Otto the Handsome, keeps the reins of the kingdom as regent, waiting for another child from his wife Beatrix. Valdemar II the Conqueror, king of Denmark, sensing the opportunity and with tacit consent from Otto the Handsome, invades Nordalbingia to retake his holdings and soundly defeats the coalized forces of the local German towns and princes at Ratzeburg, confirming his power. The treacherous count Henry of Schwerin is chased, captured and quartered:eek: . The Danish king does not manage, however, to renew the subjugation of Lübeck, Hamburg and other key trade towns, who by now have united in what will be later known as the Hanseatic League or Hansa – a strong alliance only loosely tied to the Staufen rulers of Saxony-Brunswick.
British Isles: Emperor Thomas of Greater Normandy counter-invades Ireland from the Siennories (*the Welsh-Norman lordships in the south-east). Gonai the Gallastrian is captured at the battle of Roscrea together with Aedh macCadel O' Connor of Connacht; both are later executed in England. Connacht erupts in civil war between brothers Aedh and Turlough, cousins of the defeated local ruler, with Aedh supporting the Norman party and Turlough fleeing to Ulster in support of the Alban-Scot party prevailing there. Thomas then has himself crowned High King of Ireland in the ancient ceremonial capital of Tara, where he orders an imposing castle and a magnificent cathedral built to remember his victory, then heads back to England without even trying to reduce Ulster.
Southern Europe: Pope Leo X dies in San Gall (*OTL Sankt Gallen) on his way back from Germany; when news arrive in Rome, the Archbishop of Palermo, Giacobbe Marino, is elected as the new Pope and king of Italy/Spoleto with the name of Dominic III. Guglielmo I the Simple, the ruler of Lombardy, dies without heirs, leaving the crown in contest between his cousins. After some months of infighting Roberto, supported by High Constable Gugliemo of the Seprio and the Church, gets rid of his rivals and assumes the crown. Soon his harshness in imposing royal authority will drive together a coalition of Comuni in the Second Lombard League.
Central-Estern Europe: Khan Bortz of Cumania converts to Catholicism after efforts from Hungarian missionaries, causing a major break in relations with its southern neighbour Megavlakia. Thousands of Kipchak refugees from the Pontic Steppes have flocked to Cumania (*Moldavia) to escape the Mongols.
Byzantine Empire: The Teutonic Knights recapture Adrianople from Turcopolia, making it their capital and establishing in the town the Teutokastron fortress as their oupost.
Far East: Temüjin/Genghis Khan dies in the Gansu (NW China) just after completing the destruction of the Tangut/XiXia Empire. In the same time his son Jochi (of dubious paternity:rolleyes: ), who commanded the western Mongol armies in the subjection of the Kipchaks, also dies. Jochi's son Batu and the able general Subotai, at present in western Siberia to subdue the Kimaks, come back for the election of the next Great Khan. The huge Mongol Empire, running from the Black Sea to the *Pacific Ocean and from Siberia to Afghanistan, is divided between Genghis' descendants. Batu, the grandson, receives back the Kipchak khanate; of Genghis' sons, Chagatai gets central Asia with the former Karakhitai lands, Ögedei the title of Great Khan, Mongolia proper and China (still mostly to be conquered); Tului gets the khanate of Persia/Iran and Khorezm. 1227-1235
British Isles: Richard Mor (the Great) de Burgh, one of the paramount lords in the Siennories (*SE Ireland), conquers most of Connacht (Ireland NW), namely for Greater Normandy, actually for himself, establishing the Bourke clan as the new paramount power in the area and reducing the O'Connor kingdom in size and importance.
1228 Northern Europe: Otto the Handsome's and Beatrix's new son, also called Frederick, is crowned and anointed literally on his birthbed as the new king of Germany (Frederick III Porphyrogenitus), under the joint regency of his parents. In a daring Atlantic raid, the Coghounds sack southern Iceland, carrying back to the Canaries hundreds of prisoners, among whom the former lawspeaker and famous poet Snorri Sturluson, who was later to recount this adventure and his subsequent straddling in *Senegal in one of his most celebrated sagas.
Western Europe: Bernardo I the Founder proclaims Castile a kingdom, receiving the crown from the archbishop of Toledo.
Southern Europe: King Roberto I of Lombardy divides his realm into ten “rectorates” (areas of overall military command), entrusting them to local powerful feudatories, with orders to curtail the power of the Comuni. Ezzelino da Romano, entrusted with most of Veneto, is however defeated and forced to make peace by the insurgent Venetic Comuni, led by the city of Padua. St. Francis of Assisi is canonized as saint only two years after his demise. His figure provided the only viable point of contact between the Catholic Church and the restive Copts of lower Egypt.
North Africa: The last uncompromising Cathars of Mauretania (*OTL Morocco), some 5,000, are exiled to the Canary Islands as slaves for the Coghounds.
India: The Dharma emperor Anishadharma I vassalizes the Khen rulers of the Kamata kingdom, successor of former Kamarupa in NE India. The same year an eastern people from Burma, the Ahoms, led by prince Sukaphaa, migrate in the nearby region between the Kamata, Kachari and Chutiya kingdoms. The Ahoms will later establish a strong kingdom, giving the region its modern name, Assam.
1229 Western Europe: The Greater Norman emperor Thomas I the Catholic invades Languedoc/Gadary through Aquitaine/Occitania with a powerful army, defeating Raymond IV's forces. The captured king, despite being personally a devout Catholic, is then jailed as a heretic with his brothers for the brief rest of his days. The Norman emperor then continues its campaign by attacking Navarre and conquering Barcelona. At the battle of Puig Roitg the Norman army prevails and Ferdinand V of Navarre sues for peace, acknowledging Thomas as overlord and handing over Raymond's nephews, who are promptly slain, extinguishing the Toulouse house. In Languedoc/Gadary the Papal Inquisition :eek: is introduced to root out heresy. Southern Europe: King Roberto I of Lombardy wages a punitive expedition to Tuscany to reaffirm royal power, which down there was mostly ignored in the last thirty years – and even before, under the defunct Canossa kingdom. His army on the route reduces to obedience the Communal towns of Emilia, then, helped by the Genoese navy, besieges and subdues Pisa, who for the first time in centuries loses its ancient independence, though retaining its Communal institutions. For its instrumental help Genoa gains overlordship over the eastern half of Corsica, which is annexed to the kingdom of Lombardy; Pope Dominic III refuses to recognize that, claiming Papal rights over the island.
North Africa: John II the Pious wins a succession war against his cousin Theodatus and crushes local revolts, proclaiming the kingdom of Greater Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia): indeed, this name will replace in common use that of Numidia (*OTL Algeria) for some centuries. Lower Egypt rises against the Crusaders in a massive revolt, stirred by the Mamluk sultanate of Aswan. The Templars crush the rebellion with ferocity after the Roman Church and emperor Felix Posthumous of Sicily – the nominal ruler of Egypt - yielded to the necessity of giving positions of power to the local Copts. Thousands of Muslims emigrate south in Upper Egypt.
Arabia: The Zaydi Yemenites repulse Arab aggression under the leadership of Omar Hasan al-Mervi al-Hijri, a former Khorezmian commander escaped from Persia/Iran, who is hailed as sultan establishing the Mervid dynasty.
India: A powerful Mongol army led by Chagatai Khan and general Chormaqan plunges on the Indus Vally and Punjab. This time the sultanate is thoroughly crushed, as the Mongol mercilessly massacre and enslave the Muslims in droves:eek: , not sparing, though, the Hindus. Lahore is burnt to the ground and its defeated sultan, Iltutmish, flees to the Sindh, dying there in obscurity. Also Hindu Kashmir is forced into obedience; subsequent Mongol raids in depth end in the sacks of Ajmer and Delhi, with the subjugation of most Rajput states; Gujarat too suffers its share of plundering and has to pay tribute to the Great Khan. Conquered Punjab is entrusted to the Gakhar Rajput clan after the Mongol invasion, which is said to have caused some 1,000,000 deaths:eek: .
North Africa: Kirvana (*OTL Qairawan), the last nativist stronghold in Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia, is taken and destroyed and king Galvas executed. When puppet king Gregory Skyphios dies in Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis), Ifrigia is directly re-annexed to the Western Roman empire of Sicily, though in a poor shape, being a half-desolate country torn by decades of strife.
Northern Europe: The regent of Sweden, Knut Långe till Sko, usurps the throne as Canute II. Upon his death the dethroned Erik XI is reinstated as king.
Central Asia, Middle East, Caucasus: The remaining Khorezmian military and many Turkoman tribes fleeing the Mongols pour across Iran/Persia as a tornado, plundering their way to Ahlat (*OTL Armenia), Iraq, Anatolia and northern Syria in a major migration. Most of them become mercenaries or found small Turkic chiefdoms; the areas affected will have a hard time in forgetting their passage.
1230 Southern Europe: The newly appointed Patriarch of Aquileia, Berchtold V von Andechs, regains eastern Histria from his brother Otto of Andechs-Merano, thus removing the cause for Papal meddling in German affairs. King Roberto I of Lombardy and his allies from the Seprio, Montferrat, Lomello and Vercelli defeat the Comune of Novara and its ally, Alessandria, at the bloody battle of the Sesia river; but the Second Lombard League is not yet tamed.
Central-Eastern Europe: The Cumans defeat the Vlacho-Bulgarians at Kulubash along the Prut river, despite their khan Bortz's death in the opening stages of the battle.
Byzantine Empire: The Teutonic Knights prove their valor by defeating Michael I Megaplatos at the battle of Meglenorion. Czar Theophilus of Megavlakia subsequently invades Macedonia but Megaplatos repels him at the Aliakmon river. Caucasus: The Ortoqid sultan Rukn ad-Din Mawdud is defeated and killed by Turkoman raiders from Persia/Iran: his state shatters into fragments held by relatives and local chieftains. The Alans rise against Mongol supremacy.
Northern Europe: The Commonwealth of Iceland begins its agony, weakened by the the fierce power struggle between the Sturlung and Thorvaldsson clans for the position of Lawspeaker, the supreme authority of the island.
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