Middle East: Prince Bohemund of Taranto and Antioch is captured and kept in prisony by the Ortoqid Turks with his illegitimate son Bohemund II (*not the historical one); Tancredi, Bohemund I's nephew, acts as regent in Antioch. Afterwards Bohemund I is freed, but his son is kept in honorable custody as a hostage
1101 Northern Europe: The German county of western Frisia or Kennemerland changes name into Holland.
Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire: A disorganized second wave of Crusaders, mostly German, tries to reach Constantinople by land, but mostly remains entangled in the Hungarian internecine strives. A minority passes through war-torn Croatia and makes it to the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), where it is mostly captured by the Byzantines and made into mercenaries or carves own lordships among the Serbs. Very few make it to Constantinople and beyond, and only a handful arrives to bolster the already ailing Crusader principality of Caesarea/Mazhak Middle East: The “real” second wave of the first crusade, ferried to the Levant with a great logistical effort by the Italian Communal and Western imperial navies bypassing the untrustworthy Byzantines, lands at Acre some 25,000 European warriors who are soon able to break the weak encirclement of the town and march to Jerusalem. The Holy City falls after a brief brutal siege and is subjected to a fierce slaughter :eek: of a half of its population, after which William II of France and England is recognized as “protector of the Holy Sepulchre”, gaining immense prestige for the House of Normandy. A subsequent Fatimid attempt to recapture the city is crushed in blood at the battle of Emmaus, and the Crusaders go on conquering most of Lebanon and Palestine in short order. A principality of Galilee is formed under Tancredi of Antioch, nephew of the still-prisoner Bohemund of Taranto and Antioch. Tripoli (Lebanon) is instead captured by Crusaders led by count Rambert of Barcelona, and made itself a county; also Arsuf and Caesarea of Palestine are taken by crusaders and made the Levant March under marquis Alberto of Biandrate, cousin of king Umberto I of Lombardy, while Jaffa is taken by the Genoese navy. 1102
Southern Europe: The Triple Crown of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia is bestowed upon king Coloman I of Hungary with the recognition of the Croatian nobility (the so-called Pacta Conventa); Venice once again enforces its tutelage over all of Dalmatia. The Comune of Florence is recognized by the Canossa rulers after defeating marquis Frederick, back from the Holy Land. The Abbey of Monte Cassino is made an ecclesiastical principality with domain over a strategic passage of the main Rome-Naples route
Middle East: William II of France, England and Jerusalem is defeated at Ramla by a powerful Fatimid army, who soon besieges the Holy City, but a Franco-English relieve force routes back the Muslims, who entrench in the fortress of Gaza. The Ortoqid Sökmen conquers Hisn Kayfa (upper Tigris, Kurdistan).
India: The second Chera kingdom of Kerala (SW Deccan, India) comes to an end, overrun by the neighbouring Chola Empire of Kulothunga I.
Northern Europe, British Isles: King Magnus II Barefoot of Norway dies in battle against the Irish in Ulster, which marks the effective end of the Viking Era :( and the start of the decline of Norway. His three sons, the step-brothers Eystein, Sigurd and Olaf IV, rule together the Norwegian domains, but the kingdom is weakened: the Orkneys again break free as a Norse jarldom, keeping the Hebrides, and the Crovan dynasty regains power on the Isle of Man with Olaf the Red
Central-Eastern Europe: The Kipchak/Cumans are defeated on the Suten/Moločnaja river by the Kievan Rus' led by prince Svjatopolk II Izjaslavič and his cousin Vladimir II the Great (*OTL Vladimir Monomakh) of Pereyaslavl. Their cohesion is disrupted, and part of them abandons the Bug region (Ukraine sudwestern) to migrate back eastwards.
Middle East: King William II of France, England and Jerusalem dies in Jaffa while on his way back to Europe. He, being homosexual:eek: , had no sons and appointed no regent for the kingdom of Jerusalem. So, though ultimate sovereignty rests in the hands of Henry I Beauclerc, William's brother and the new ruler of the Norman empire across the Channel, the cavaliers elect as “defensor Sancti Sepulchri” the valiant Lombard Arrigo (Henry), brother of marquis William of Montferrat.
SE Asia: The Parin dynasty succeeds the Earlier Pingtsa in the kingdom of Arakan. 1103-1106
Western Europe: Count Henry I of Limburg and Arlon usurps the marches of Flanders and Hainault upon the sudden death of marquis-regent John I and the minority of Robert III. King William I of Luxemburg and Lorraine fights back: in the end the legitimate Robertingians (*OTL Capetingians) are restored, but the usurper manages to have himself recognized as count of Brabant in addiction to his family holdings. In the meantime Constance of Aberdeen, the Pictish-born widow of John I of Flanders and Hainault, marries Dietrich, younger brother of king Hermann II of Germany
1104 Byzantine Empire: Caesarea/Mazhak, after suffering two attempted sieges at the hands of the Danishmendiyya Turks, again recognizes Byzantine overlordship and is acknowledged as a hereditary Duchy under Bertrand of Septimania, receiving reinforcements from Constantinople. Sultan Kilij Arslan of the Rum-Seljuks rebels and seizes Iconium from the Byzantines, raiding inner Anatolia, but is defeated in Heraclea.
Middle East: The Crusaders of Jerusalem conquer Haifa with the help of the Pisan fleet and occupy the al-Karak region (Krak des Moabites) east of the Dead Sea. A Crusader-Armenian army suffers a disastrous defeat in the battle of Edessa (*OTL Urfa) against the Ortoqid Turks.
British Isles: Henry I Beauclerc issues the Charter of Liberties for England, which replicates, on a lesser scale, the privileges already gained by the French nobility.
Western Europe: The Navarrese of king Sancho III the Great besiege and conquer Burgos from Castile, which has to transfer its capital in Toledo and concede tributes.
Byzantine Empire: The Rum-Seljuks are again defeated at Iconium by John, the young and brilliant son of Alexius I Comnenus and Sophia, Romanus II Diogenes' widow. They withdraw in their mountain nests in the Taurus, where any attempt to dislodge them proves futile; sultan Kilij Arslan strikes an alliance with the Danishmendiyyas of Ahlat/Armenia.
Caucasus: David IV the Builder, king of Iberia/Georgia, defeats the Danishmendiyya Turks at the battle of Ertsukhi, annexes Khakheti (eastern Georgia) and frees most of the country from Turkic rule. Middle East: A last Fatimid attack in force to recapture Jerusalem is thwarted by the Crusaders at the second battle of Ramla. Prince Bohemund I of Antiochia and Taranto is murdered by the Ismaili Nizari Assassins of Aleppo, now close allies of atabeg Toghtegin, the new Turkic regent and strongmen of Damascus. Bohemund holds the dubious honor :rolleyes: of being their first and foremost Christian victim.
Central Asia: Sultan Mahmud I of the Seljuk Empire attacks his young and powerful nephew, Sanjar, who dominates Khorassan and Central Asia; he cannot obtain more than a purely formal submission.
British Isles: The count of Mona/Anglesey, Gruffydd ap Cynan, leads the Welsh armies to victory against Norman encroachment in the battles of Corwen and Talgarth. King Skuli the Ruthless of Northumbria receives Cumbria from Norway as a dowry for the marriage of his heir apparent, Asulf/Hastwolf, to princess Ragnhilde, sister to the royal brothers of Norway
Northern Europe: When duke Magnus of Saxony dies and the Billung family, related to the late Liudolfingians of Otto I the Great, is extinct, the duchy is bestowed upon Magnus' son-in-law, count Otto I der Reiche of Ballenstedt, founder of the Aschersleben/Ascanian House of Saxony. Also Henry the Black, brother of Welf II Duke of Bavaria, is son-in-law of Magnus, and his exclusion opens a rift between the Welfs and the German throne. The Issue of Saxony will be for a long time a thorn in the side of king Hermann II
North Africa: Tripoli of Libya is taken by the Genoese navy after a long and hard-fought siege. Most of Tripolitania, however, remains firmly in the hands of the Banu Hilal clans
1107 Northern Europe: The Polish-Kashubian Duchy of Pomerelia (eastern Pomerania) is formed under duke Wartislaw I with capital in Danzig.
Western Europe: The Zenete Compact army besieges Toledo and enforces overlordship over a weakened Castile. Nearby Leòn, backed by Gallastrian forces, proves unassailable
Southern Europe: Open hostilities erupt around the issue of Dalmatia as the Croato-Hungarians seize it, gaining the obedience of its major cities - Zara, Spalato/Split – at the expense of Venice. Help from the Norman-backed fleet of Bari is instrumental in this curtailing of Venetian power.
Middle East: Bohemund II of Taranto is freed from his golden prisony among the Ortoqid Turks and tries to regain Antioch from his cousin Tancredi, but fails. He soon takes refuge in Armenia Minor, then heads to Taranto to regain possession of his princely throne there, quietly accepting Tancredi's usurpation in the Levantine Crusader states of Antioch and Galilee.
Northern Hesperia (*OTL America): The Iceland-born Thorstein Sigurdsson the One-Eyed, with some dozens of companions from Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland), establishes a stable Norse colony at Thorsteinsflo (*OTL Dingwall bay) in Marksey (*OTL Cape Breton island). They soon enter into contact, and sometimes conflict, with the local Mikkmakk natives
Byzantine Empire, Middle East: Sigurd I Jorsalfar, co-king of Norway, Ireland etc., takes part with his Norse-Anglo-Saxon army to the final destruction of the Rum-Seljuk sultanate in southern Anatolia, gaining the Duchy of Pamphilia as a personal appanage, and also proves instrumental in the crusader capture of Saida/Sidon. He de facto renounces his royal rights over the Norwegian lands to live the rest of his life in the Mediterranean. Most Turks in the reduced area are converted to the Orthodox faith, many others flee east to the Danishmendiyyas of Ahlat/Armenia
1108 Byzantine Empire: Prince Tancredi of Antioch and Galilee is forced to pay tribute to Byzantium after being defeated and captured in an attempt to overthrow Armenia Minor, which also recognizes Byzantine suzerainty. The prestige of the Eastern Roman Empire is thus restored, though Byzantine-Crusader relations sour again. Central-Eastern Europe: The Electoral Patriarchate of Aquileia finally gains suzerainty over Carniola/Slovenia. Hungary directly annexes Slovakia, abolishing its state of appanage duchy, during a brief but illusory truce of the incessant civil war between king Coloman I and his brother, prince Álmos of Nitra. The Rurikid Knyaz (prince) Vladimir II the Great (*OTL Vladimir Monomakh), one of the most powerful rulers of Russia, founds the town-fortress of Vladimir in the central northern part of the country, which is slowly Slavicizing
1108-1110 Northern Europe, Central-Eastern Europe: King Hermann II of Germany fights back all of his eastern neighbours (Wends/Pomeranians, Bohemians/Czechs, Poles and Hungarians) with mixed success, extorting tribute from Bohemia.
Northern Europe: The Polish army of king Boleslaw III defeat the Pomeranians at the battle of Naklo; the Germans are later also overcome at Hundsfeld (Silesia).
Middle East: The noble Genoese family Embriaco, already ruling Jaffa after their invaluable services to the Crusaders, gains the lordship of Byblos/Jubayl, on the coast of Lebanon.
Western Europe: After the death of Adalbert II civil war tears apart Burgundy between the defunct king's twin sons:eek: , Baldwin the Blond, duke of Dijon, and Berenger Iron Mask, duke of Provence. Under the regency of their sister Mathilda the country is bled white, not without Norman and Lombard encroachments, till Baldwin is killed in a skirmish in the Cevennes mountains and Berenger ascends the throne in Vienne. Having no sons and being disfigured due to leper:eek: , the winner is however forced to adopt as heir Berenger's infant orphan, Adalbert:o
Central-Eastern Europe: The Russian Rurikid princes, during a rare lull of their almost perpetual civil wars, attack the Kipchak/Cumans from the Dniepr to the Don, inflicting serious defeats to the eastern hordes. In the end many Cuman chieftains ally to the warring Russian principalities, offering their services as mercenaries
Byzantine Empire: The Danishmendiyya Turks of Ahlat/Armenia invade Anatolia, besieging Caesarea/Mazhak, and conquer Trabzon from the Byzantines, gaining an important outlet on the Black Sea.
Middle East: The Crusaders conquer Beirut and Sidon, which are added to the county of Tripoli; the local Maronite Christian church, after centuries of Muslim subjugation, accepts the supremacy of the Roman Popes. Tancredi of Antioch and Galilee with some auxiliary Byzantine troops conquers the strategic fortress of Krak des Chevaliers (Syria).
India: The Chola armies again devastate Kalinga, but cannot unseat the powerful eastern Gangas of Orissa.
Northern Hesperia (*OTL America): The Rauthljudar (Red Screamers, *OTL Beothuks) natives of Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland), much reduced in numbers by European-imported illnesses, are unified under the leadership of the mixed-blood half-Norse Leif Strong-Axe, who enforces Christianization upon them and asks for a bishop from Iceland or Scandinavia
India: Kamarupa (Assam) frees itself from the occupation of nearby Gauda, but the local Bhauma-Pala dynasty is fatally weakened and the state declines in the face of rising tribal power.
1110-1112 Northern Europe: A first civil war is fought in Saxony as the powerful feudatory Lothar of Supplinburg acts as a representant of Henry the Black of the Welfs of Bavaria (their mutual sons are married). With minimal royal intervention duke Otto I of Ballenstedt manages to keep the throne, but Lothar is able to preserve his own domains, significantly weakening Ascanian authority
India: The venerated Tibetan yogi and poet Milarepa relaunches Buddhism of the Kagyu philosophical school in NE India (Bengal, Orissa, Kamarupa/Assam) through his preaching
British Isles: The Synod of Rathbreasail completes the transition of the Irish Church from the purely monastical character of its most glorious days, when it spread faith and culture in Dark Ages Europe, to a diocesan and parish-based institution, modeled after most of the Catholic world.
Southern Europe: Roger I Borsa, prince of Melfi, dies after eliminating all of the non-Hauteville major states from Norman southern Italy. Soon a three-sided struggle:confused: ensues between count Roger II of Puglia and Boiano, prince William of Melfi and Bohemund II of Taranto. The Welfs of Bavaria wrest Bernmark (the march of Verona, in German possession since 948) from margrave Fredegar of Brischna (*OTL Bressanone/Brixen), son-in-law of king Hermann II. The German ruler is forced to play down the issue, at least for now, and host the exiled relative.
Byzantine Empire: The Byzantine army is defeated by the Danishmendiyyas at the siege of Sebastea (*OTL Sivas):( . Alexius I Comnenus grants important commercial rights to Pisa to counterbalance the growing Venetian stranglehold on Byzantine foreign trade; the Pisans hadn't gained from the Crusade as much as they expected.
Central Hesperia (*OTL America): The Aztecs, also known as Mexicas, leave the Pacific coast in Aztlàn moving towards central Mexico together with many other Chichimec (“barbarian”) peoples; they settle for the moment in Chicomoztoc (The Seven Caves).
Western Europe: King William I of Luxemburg and Lorraine crushes with cruelty the revolt of the inhabitants of Laon, who had slain their oppressive bishop and burnt their own cathedral, by burning hundreds of them on the stake (the so-called Laon Barbecue:eek: )
Southern Europe: King Umberto I of Lombardy dies, leaving his reign diveded on the issue of succession between his sons Amedeo II (who takes over) and Guidone (who seizes western Piedmont with Turin, Susa, Ivrea, controlling the way for western pilgrims to Rome, the Via Francigena, and its rich revenues). The subsequent struggle between the Amadei and Guidoni branches of the Susa-Biandrate clan will remain a constant of Lombard politics for much time, intertwining with Communal politics and seriously undermining royal authority
Middle East: Tancredi of Hauteville, the usurping prince of Antioch and Galilee, dies without issue. The principality of Galilee is swallowed by the kingdom of Jerusalem, while in Antioch Byzantine and Cilician/Armenian troops establish a joint sovereignty of the basileus and Armenia Minor. From Taranto, Bohemund II cries to the “heretic traitors and usurpers” :D and swears revenge.
British Isles: Extinction of the main branch of the ruling McFergus dynasty in Alba/Scotland; the king of Man Olaf I Godredson the Red (also known as Olaf Bitling or Olaus the Swarthy) defeats his rival Fergus the Black, a distant cousin of the last McFergus ruler, Talorcan IX, and receives the Double Crown of Alba and Scotland on the sacred stone of Scone, establishing the Crovan dynasty in the two countries. This also finally thaws Picto-Scottish relations, being the new king neither a Pict nor a Scotsman.
Southern Europe: With the first Genoese expansion towards the eastern Riviera, the first open clashes between Genoa and Pisa begin, opening a bitter struggle for supremacy both at home and throughout the Mediterranean. The Pisan fleet crushes the Western imperial one at Favignana, ensuring free access at least through the Sicily Channel. The Strait of Messina, instead, remains off-limits for Pisan shipping. Middle East: The Nizari Ismaili Assassins are ousted from Aleppo by the Ortoqid Turks and take refuge near Damascus where they find protection under the new emir, Toghtegin, founder of the Burid dynasty; they will soon begin a violent struggle with the Muwahiddins (*OTL Druzes) nested between Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The Knights Hospitalier of Saint John of Jerusalem, in the service of the Crusader cause, are recognized by pope Paschal II as the first military monastic order of Christianity
SE Asia: Suryavarman II takes power in the Khmer Empire. Northern Hesperia (*OTL America): The Norse bishop Eirik leads a party of Vinlandrians, both Norsemen and Red Screamers (*OTL Beothuks) to found the first successful European settlement on the Hesperian mainland, Eiriksnes (*on OTL Cape George Point) in Skraelingarland (*OTL Acadia).
1114 Byzantine Empire: General Constantine Gabras, helped by Russian and Pisan naval forces, retakes Trabzon from the Danishmendiyyas, sealing them off the Black Sea; the town is made into an unofficial Pisan colony and outlet for Russian trade, enjoying prosperity as an almost tax-free port.
North Africa: A Pisan naval crusade against Cyrenaica and the Egyptian ports proves an utter failure, with a fleet being destroyed by the Fatimids near Alexandria. The hundreds of captives are ransomed only with a lavish tribute and the solemn promise by viceroy Arrigo/Henry of Jerusalem not to harass Muslim pilgrims any more.
Middle East: Bohemund II of Taranto sails back to the Levant with a Pisan fleet, leaving his wife Serena to act as princess regent, and recaptures Antioch from the astonished Armenians and Byzantines.
Northern Europe: Another burst of civil war sparks out in Germany, with the Welf-Supplinburg axis openly attacking King Hermann II and the royal family; this time Lothar of Supplinburg is defeated and forced to flee to Branibor/Brandenburg, seat of the Slavic principality of Greater Wendia, now also rebel to German suzerainty. The Welfs now rule practically as independent sovereigns over Bavaria and Bernmark (*Verona), being the paramount lords of southern Germany, while lesser feudatories support king Hermann II
British Isles: In a swift, brutal civil war, the count of Mona/Anglesey Gruffydd ap Cynan overthrows king Owain ap Maredudd and establishes the Second House of Griffith as king Gruffydd II of Wales
Far East: The Jurchens, ancestors to the later Manchus, defeat the Khitan/Liao in Manchuria; their chieftain, Wangyan Aguda, proclaims himself emperor Chinese-style (Huangdi) establishing the Jin (Golden) dynasty as a rival to the Khitan/Liao just north of China 1115
Northern Europe: Knut Lavard, nephew of king Niels of Denmark, is made king of southern Jutland
Southern Europe: Anselm deposes his aged father Frederick of Canossa and closes him in the monastery of Camaldoli (Tuscany), starting a civil war with his mature brothers, Sigembert and Roland, and their young sons. The town of Brescia rebels against Canossa authority and establishes a free Comune, defeating the Canossa armies at Volta Mantovana.
Middle East: Arnulf Malecorne, the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, is deposed by Pope Paschal II after accusation of a sexual relation with a Muslim woman:eek: , and having kept very bad relations with non-Catholic Christians in the Holy City, turning them into pro-Muslims. Bohemund II of Antioch and Taranto invades Armenia Minor (Cilicia) but is repulsed; however king Thoros I, the Armenian ruler, has to acknowledge Bohemund's “legitimate” claims on Antioch.
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Timeline 1080-1100 AD
|1100-1115 AD||Later in time:|
Timeline 1115-1130 AD