Central Asia, India:
Mahmud of Ghazna builds an empire from the Amu Darya to the Indus river and devastates NW India; he opens India to Muslim aggression.
Malachy II of Meath cedes the High Kingship over Ireland to his prominent ally Brian Boru
Arduin of Ivrea reenters Lombardy hailed as king by the rebellious feudatories, risen again against king William of Burgundy; he is crowned in Pavia as the recognized leader of the anti-Burgundian party.
Tedaldo of Canossa, the most powerful Lombard ruler, accepts Arduin as king but catches the moment to seize Tuscany and proclaim himself margrave, furtherly increasing his own domains, now a solid block from Brescia and the Garda lake to the boundaries of Papal Latium
Christianization of the Magyars ;) and foundation of the kingdom of Hungary under Stephen I the Saint, winner in the succession war against the pagan Koppany; the Poles take advantage of the struggle to conquer Slovakia.
Central Asia, India:
Mahmud of Ghazna again defeats the Hindu Jaipal, raja (king) of Kabul, Kangra (Kashmir) and Bhatinda (Punjab).
Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
Erik the Red's son, Leif Eriksson, explores the shores of Helluland (*OTL Baffin island), Markland (*OTL Labrador) and Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland); he settles in this last island, where he meets the native and has pitched skirmishes with them, then comes back to Greenland with interesting news but little to show.
Arduin of Ivrea confirms his alliance with Henry III of Germany (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE). An attempt by William of Burgundy to cross the Alps to Piedmont is crushed at Mt. Pirchiriano near Turin, thus guaranteeing Lombardy's independence, at least for now. 1002
In retaliation for the increasing violence of Norse raids against England, king Ethelred the Unready has all Danes in England massacred on St.Brice's day :mad:
Basileus-Czar Samuel I campaigns in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) against the rebellious Serbs of Raška/Kosovo, who, despite Samuel's successes, manage to maintain their independence
The Fatimids conquer Cilicia fortress by fortress, pushing the Byzantines beyond the Taurus range
Civil war rages in the Khmer Empire: Suryavarman I dethrones Jayaviravarman
Sven I Forkbeard, king of Denmark, avenges his fellow nationals massacred in England :mad: by staging no less than four fierce campaigns in England :eek: , who basically destroy the Anglo-Saxon kingdom; the vassal Welsh principalities take advantage to break free from English yoke, giving also hospitality as mercenaries to many Vikings driven from Ireland
Lambert I of Louvain, from the Idulfingian family (descendants of Reginar Langhals and Giselbert of Lorraine and their relatives), founds the county of Brabant (central Belgium), theoretically under German overlordship.
King Boleslaw of Poland becomes also duke of Bohemia, provoking the worried reaction of the Germans.
King Stephen I the Saint of Hungary subdues Transylvania.
King Boleslaw of Poland liquidates near Prague Sobjeslav, the last ruler of the White Croatians of the Tatras; soon afterwards, though, Henry III of Germany (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE) ousts him from Bohemia and pursues him in Poland, gaining the renewed vassalage of that country to Germany.
After another popular revolt in Rome, ruthlessly repressed :eek: , emperor Theophylactus deports thousands of people to Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia). Pope John XIV (*OTL anti-Pope John XVI) withdraws Arduin of Ivrea's excommunication after the new king of Lombardy made rich gifts of lands and money to various monastic orders :rolleyes: . The rich sea-trading town of Pisa asserts its freedom by defeating the Canossan armies at the battles of Acqualunga and Ripafratta; Tedaldo of Canossa has to concede Pisa the state of free town.
The Western Byzantine imperial fleet, led by the town fleets of Amalfi and Gaeta, crushes the Egyptian Omayyad fleet blockading Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis) :) ; Omayyad aggression is smashed also by land thanks to a series of fierce Zenete raid in the south of Ifrigia and in Tripolitania. After this utter defeat Abu Rakwa, a local Omayyad governor in Cyrenaica, rebels and establishes an independent emirate in Libya
The Fatimids again overrun Anatolia in a large raid, touching the Aegean coast before retreating with much booty and slaves; their navy conquers Cyprus :( . Middle East:
The Fatimids, at the apogee of their power, finally crush the Buyids at the battle of Shiraz, conquering Fars.
The Lohara dynasty ascends the throne of Kashmir.
The Khitan/Liao invade northern China up to the Huang He and extort tribute from the Song empire.
Protracted three-sided conflict between Lorraine, France and Burgundy over boundary issues and opposite claims to the lands involved. No result is achieved by anyone :D , the only significant consequence being a growing rift between Germany and the two kingdoms of Lorraine and Luxembourg, and a strengthening of the local aristocracy, notably the powerful marquises of Champagne :cool: , second only to the king in France
The armies of Maurian Spain attack Navarra but are defeated in the siege of Pamplona. The army commander, duke Isidore of Andalusia, is subsequently murdered by his cousin king Samuel of Spain :mad: , after which misdeed a grave civil war erupts between Samuel and his uncle Augustin the Bold.
Mahmud of Ghazna conquers the Sindh.
1006 Southern Europe:
The Pisan fleet defeats the Corsican raiders off the Arno's mouth
Yoshua Lamzag dies in the battle of Mila and his attempt to reunify Numidia founders. SE Asia:
Srivijayan forces destroy the capital of the Javanese Mataram kingdom, which begins its decline.
Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
The Icelander Thorfinn Karlsefni leads a Norse settlement at Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland):cool: Thorfinnsvìk (*not existing OTL, some 50 kms due west of OTL St.Anthony) is the first European hamlet in the New World.
Foundation of the prince-bishopric of Bamberg.
The siege of Metz by king William of Burgundy marks the pivotal point of the war for Lorraine, but king Theodoric/Thierry I holds and defends his capital with help from his cousin Henry I of Luxembourg.
Augustine the Bold, once eliminated his nephew Samuel, ascends the throne of Maurian Spain as Augustine I
Margrave Robert I of Flanders (*OTL Robert II the Pious of France) and count Lambert I of Brabant rise in rebellion against German overlordship. To avoid facing the wrath :mad: of king Henry III of Germany (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE), the two accept Luxemburgian suzerainty and protection, which brings along a state of undeclared war between Luxembourg (and allied Lorraine) and Germany.
1008 Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
Basileus-Czar Samuel I trounces the Fatimid invaders at Dokimion near Akroinon (Anatolia): he cuts the right hands of the 10,000 captives :eek: , then sends the survivors back to Fatimid lands, gaining the nickname of Chirotomos (hand-cutter). The Fatimids will never more invade Anatolia, the Byzantine heartland; in retaliation Caliph al-Hakim destroys the shrine of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem and has thousands of Christians massacred or sold as slaves :mad:
The king of Abasgia/Abkhasia Bagrat III Bagratuni, who inherited the crown from his wife Gurandukht, ascends also the throne of Iberia/Georgia gaining the reunification of the two Caucasian lands.
The Kurdish Kakuyids reject the Fatimid yoke in the Zagros mountains of western Persia/Iran
Mahmud of Ghazna defeats a coalition of Rajput rajas and vassalizes the Ismaili Shi'ite emirate of Multan (Punjab).
The Mongol tribe of the Keraites converts to Nestorian Christianity; his ruler assumes the name of Mark I.
1009 Southern Europe:
Arduin of Ivrea invades Provence, blockading Marseille and Vienne and extorting from William of Burgundy the final recognition of his kingship in Lombardy; the Arduinic dynasty :cool: is thus established.
Ly Thai-to, leader of the palace guards, takes power in Dai Viet (Vietnam) with a coup and sets the country's capital at Thang Long/Hanoi. 1009-1011
Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
The distances and the hostility of the natives force the few Norsemen in Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland) to sail back to Greenland; Thorfinn Karlsefni immediately sets sail to Iceland, and thence to Norway, where he gathers some hundred colonists (mainly people fleeing Danish rule) who, after an epic cruise, re-establish the colony at Thorfinnsvìk on the Hesperian (*American) island.
The Byzantine-Bulgarian army campaigns in the Euphrates Valley and slowly and painfully reconquers Cilicia from the Fatimids; all fallen soldiers are proclaimed to be martyrs.
1009-1021 Southern Europe:
Melo leads the long and ultimately victorious struggle to make Bari (Puglia) a free city, vying with Venice for supremacy in the profitable trade with the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and Byzantium.
Sven Forkbeard's campaigns in England culminate in the bloody victory gained at Ringmere (East Anglia) by his Danish-Norwegian army, supported by Jomsviking mercenaries (from Jomsborg, western Pomerania).
The Kipchaks, put under pressure by their neighbours, the Kimaks in the north and the Khitan/Liao in the east, move west across the steppe north of the Aral lake.
Mahmud of Ghazna overruns Gujarat, but is quickly ousted by the local Chalukya/Solanki rulers
The eastern part of the Haripunjaya kingdom (northern Siam) is taken over by the Khmer Empire.
Dark ages... few news.
1011 Southern Europe:
Corsican raiders sack and set on fire Pisa.
Mahmud of Ghazna captures Balkh (northern Afghanistan)
The Jomsviking heathens in the service of Denmark capture Canterbury and martyr Archbishop Alphege :mad: ; they also extort huge tributes from England (the Danegeld)
Count Reginar IV of Mons wrests Valenciennes from France, reunificating it with the county of Mons to form the march of Hainault inside the kingdom of Luxembourg
Tedaldo, count of Canossa and margrave of Tuscany, dies dividing his family's holdings between his two male sons, Corrado, who inherits the lands north of the Apennines up to Brescia, and Bonifacio, who becomes the new margrave of Tuscany
Basileus-Czar Samuel I massacres and burns at the stake hundreds of Bogomils in Bulgaria and in Constantinople
Pope (and king of Italy) John XIV (*OTL anti-Pope John XVI, John Philagatus) dies in Rome after a saintly reign under the patronage of his spiritual son, the Western Byzantine emperor Theophylactus of Sicily. Another Theophylactus, brother of count Alberico III of Tuscolo, a pro-imperial member of the Crescenzi family, is elected Pope and king of Italy as Benedict VIII
Sven I Forkbeard, king of Denmark, conquers England taking advantage of the Anglo-Saxon internecine strife; he dies soon after, though, and Danish power is quickly overthrown :confused: . King Ethelred II of England, who had fled to Normandy, comes back to rule the country again, while the Danes sail home. Leinster and the Dublin Vikings rise in rebellion against Brian Boru's power.
Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
Vinlandria's (*OTL Newfoundland) few natives are almost completely exterminated by the unknown diseases brought there by the Norse settlers, whom they vainly fought off. Tales of “golden-headed giants” leak on the Hesperian (*OTL American) continent together with the new, unknown illnesses which will reduce the natives of northeastern Hesperia by a half in a few decades before a minimum immunization is reached.
1013-1024 Central Asia:
A separate Karakhanid khanate at Ferghana experiences a period of independence before being vassalized by the main clan branch
Brian Boru overcomes the Vikings and the rebel Irish clans at the battle of Clontarf, but falls in the battle together with his son Murrough; thus Malachy II of Meath retakes the title of High King of Ireland, but the chance for a true unification of Ireland is lost with Brian
King Arduin I of Lombardy, fell ill, abdicates to retire in the monastery of Fruttuaria (Piedmont) he himself founded; he is succeeded by his son Pipino I (*OTL Ottone).
Basileus-Czar Samuel reconquers Melitene (*OTL Malatya) :) from the Fatimids and campaigns up to the Caucasus, enforcing the renewed obedience of the Armenian and Georgian principalities.
Northern Europe, British Isles:
Olaf Haraldsson frees Norway from the Danes and becomes king, enforcing conversion to Christianity with ruthless violence. He had been previously instrumental, in England, in helping the Anglo-Saxons against Knut/Canute, younger brother of the new king of Denmark Harald II.
A group of forty Norman knights on their way back from a difficult pilgrimage to Jerusalem (where they were robbed and harassed by the Fatimids) reaches Pisa where they are entrusted the leadership of a powerful expedition against Corsica. They accomplish the destruction of the rogue Corsican state :D in such a brilliant way that the Pisans make the island a collection of Norman fiefdoms. The following year another group of Norman “pilgrims” led by Robert Drengot helps Melo of Bari and his rebels against emperor Theophylactus' forces before taking refuge in Byzantine Albania, thus starting the Norman influx of mercenaries towards the Mediterranean.
Prince Knut/Canute vies with the Anglo-Saxon king Edmund II Ironside for power over England; after many pitched battles the Danes gain a great victory at Assandun/Ashingdon (Essex). Knut/Canute and Edmund II decide to divide England between themselves :confused: , but the untimely death of Edmund leaves the Dane sole king of England and Edmund's relatives are slain or exiled to Hungary (!) :mad:
The powerful earldom of Northumbria is divided into two halves, one with York/Jorvik, the other centered at Bamburgh.
John Vladislav, Samuel's nephew, stages a successful expedition in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). He kills prince John Vladimir of Duklja/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro), replacing him with Dragimir Vojislavjević, lord of Zahumlje/Hercegovina, then turns against Raška/Kosovo crushing it and annexing also Triballia (between Raška/Kosovo and Zahumlje/Hercegovina).
The last remnant of Khazar power at Bosporon/Kerč, under Khan George Tzul, is liquidated by a joint Rus'-Byzantine expedition; in exchange for the city, Samuel I regains the coastal strongholds in Taurida (*OTL Crimea) formerly occupied by the Kievans.
A cataclysm destroys the Mataram capital at Kediri (Java)
The Cholas complete the conquest of Sri Lanka/Ceylon with the capture of king Mahinda V; their fleet sacks the remote Srivijayan domains between the Malay peninsula and Indonesia.
Mahmud of Ghazna vassalizes Khorezm, which is afterwards more and more attracted into the Seljuk sphere of influence.
Upon the death of his elder brother, Harald II, the Viking king of England Knut/Canute the Great inherits also the throne of Denmark as Knut II, thus creating a vast Norse empire across the North Sea.
The double crown of Alba/Scotland inherits Strathclyde by dynastical right upon the death of the last native ruler, Owen IV the Bald, thus adding the Lothian region to its possessions; this land will be ruled as a crown fief, not included in either Scotland (the Scottish kingdom) or Alba (the Pictish one).
Upon the extinction of its native royal house, Cornwall passes under king Evenus, brother of king Alain III of Brittany and founder of the apEven Cornish dynasty
King Augustine I of Spain crosses the Strait of Arrodriga (*OTL Gibraltar), defeats his rivals Donatus the Indatha and Rodrigo of Tangiers and is recognized as king of Mauretania (*OTL Morocco), creating a strong empire on the shores of the Atlantic ocean. The Cathar heresy (the western European and North African version of Bogomilism) is noted for the first time in Aquitaine/Occitania, and its followers suffer immediate persecution and burning at the stake.
The Western Byzantine emperor, Theophylactus of Sicily, dies in Rome. His two surviving sons, Peter and John, divide the empire: Peter gains the imperial title and will rule from Rome (*which is, technically speaking, a Papal possession, part of the kingdom of Italy/Spoleto) over southern Italy, while John will have sway over Sicily and Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia) as Peter's viceroy. The rebel Melo of Bari, defeated at Bitetto by imperial forces, takes refuge in Byzantine Albania with his local Norman allies.
By the terms of the treaty of Bautzen, king Boleslaw of Poland gains Lusatia as a crown fief.
The Hungarians wrest Transcarpathic Ruthenia (Munkacs/Mukačevo) from Kievan hands.
Basileus-Czar Samuel I the Chirotomos dies in Constantinople; his nephew John Vladislav, thanks to the loyalty of the army, enforces his appointment as co-emperor of basileus Peter (Samuel's grandson).
The Hindu holy city of Mathura (south of Delhi) suffers a devastating pillage at the hands of Mahmud of Ghazna. SE Asia:
The Earlier Pingtsa dynasty replaces the Wethalis on the throne of Arakan (western Burma).
1019 Northern Europe:
The king of Germany Henry III (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE) defeats at Ulm the rebel duke of Carinthia, Adalbert von Eppenstein, and temporarily deprives him of the title. India:
Mahmud of Ghazna destroys the city of Kanauj, fostering the final decline and extinction the Pratihara dynasty and the fragmentation of its empire into independent Rajput states; in the south the Cholas invade Kerala. SE Asia:
Airlingga rebuilds the Mataram/Kediri kingdom in eastern Java 1020
A Byzantine army led by Belisarius Bioannes quells Croatian unrest in Dalmatia in cooperation with the Venetian fleet, then enforces Byzantine suzerainty over Croatia itself. Central-Eastern Europe:
The Kipchak/Cumans settle along the Don and Donec rivers
Mahmud of Ghazna overruns and takes Lahore, Gwalior and Kalinjar (NW India). ca. 1020 Caucasus:
The Alans subdue the Chechens.
The Tomar Rajput ruler Anangpal II trasfers his capital from the ruined Kanauj to the newly-founded Dhilli/Delhi
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Timeline 975-1000 AD
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Timeline 1020-1040 AD