Emperor Alexander II of Russia was known as Tsar Liberator, because he emancipated the serfs. However, he performed many more liberal reforms, such as the abolishment of corporal punishment, the zemstvo system, the reorganisation of the judicial system and the ending of some of the privileges of the aristocracy. But few know that he accepted the Loris-Melikov constitution the day he was to be assassinated. This timeline is all about this.
Emperor Alexander II wants to urgently create a nation-wide elective body to create a nation based on the rule of law and to ease tensions among the population, but is hesitant in accepting a certain project.
The Emperor accepts the proposal of the Minister of Internal Affairs, Mikhail Loris-Melikov. PoD: The assasination fails and the assasins, Ignacy Hrynieviecki and Nikolay Rysakov are arrested and executed.
All of the proposed reforms are carried out, including the conversion of most peasants to farmers, the cancellation of the payments peasants had to pay to the landowners after they were emancipated, the opening of a large number of new village and church schools, and the main reform, the introduction of elected Zemstvo and City representatives into the State Council to consult the emperor with te introduction of new laws. Within the State Council, two Commissions were created; the Administrative and the Financial. They consisted of the aforementioned Zemstvo and City represntatives, and they would assist the emperor in drafting new laws. Then they would discuss the drafted laws in a combined meeting, chaired by the Minister of Internal Affairs, and decide which laws were to be put before the State Council. Within the State Council and the Committee of Ministers, "parties" emerge: the "Progressists", led by Chairman of the Committee of Ministers Pyotr Valuev, who were radical liberals; the "Reformists", led by Minister of Internal Affairs Mikhail Loris-Melikov, who were moderate liberals; the "Absolutists", led by Ober-Procurator of the Synod Konstantin Pobedonostsev, who were the reactionaries. The "People's Will" terrorist organisation is found; its members arrested and executed.
The Reformists and Progressists form an official coalition and begin working together in all aspects of central and local governments, including the Committee of Ministers, the State Council, the Zemstvo Assemblies and City Dumas. All of the Committee of Ministers and the majority of the Council of Ministers and State Council was of the Progressist/Reformist coalition. This meant the liberals dominated Russian politics, and they could advise the emperor and influence him to pass more liberal legislation, e.g. introducing more elected representatives to the State Council.
Alexander, knowing the slow economic growth in Russia, due to the fact that throughout his reign, he focused on socio-political, but not economic reforms, decided to begin industrialisation at a faster rate, when he effectively began a policy of state capitalism, the state owns industries and subsidises private industries. This really kicks off well and Russia, slowly but surely, begins catching up with the industrial powers of Europe.