Alternate History

Timeline (What if Emperor Alexander II of Russia was not assassinated?)

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Emperor Alexander II of Russia was known as Tsar Liberator, because he emancipated the serfs. However, he performed many more liberal reforms, such as the abolishment of corporal punishment, the zemstvo system, the reorganisation of the judicial system and the ending of some of the privileges of the aristocracy. But few know that he accepted the Loris-Melikov constitution the day he was to be assassinated. This timeline is all about this.



Alexander II's ministers want a constitutional monarchy but he is hesitant in accepting it.


Alexander II finally accepts the Loris-Melikov constitution. PoD: The assassination fails and Ignacy Hryniewiecki, Nikolay Rysakov and Ivan Emelyanov, the assassins, are exiled to Siberia.


The constitutional reforms are complete, and Russia becomes a Constitutional Monarchy. The Imperial Assembly, a parliament is created. It consists of the State Council, the higher house and the State Duma, the lower house. The parliament and monarch share almost equal power. At the moment, only 5 parties exist, the Social Democrats, with 14% of the seats, the Social Revolutionaries, with 35% of the seats the Constitutional Democrats, with 42% of the seats, the Absolutists, with 3% of the seats and the Anarchists, with 5% of the seats. The Prime Minister is a Constitutional Democrat: Mikhail Loris-Melikov.


Another 2 parties are formed, the Liberals and the Nationalists. The Anarchists are forced to disband because the other parties hold campaigns against them.


More reforms come, making the unemployment levels drastically decrease. Mass industrialization is implemented and Russia starts getting closer to the other Great Powers in terms of industry. Also, children are prohibited from working in the factories.


Too many people leave the agricultural industry to work in the factories and a famine strikes Russia. The legislation pass on a law stating that no peasant can become a factory worker without consent of the factory owner. In return, all citizens of the Russian Empire are granted more liberty.


An educational reform is passed and education becomes free and mandatory. Literacy levels rise rapidly exceeding all other European powers except Britain. Another election happens. After the election, the Imperial Assembly consists of Constitutional Democrat and Liberal Coalition - 45%, Social Democrats - 14%, Social Revolutionaries - 35% and the Nationalist and Absolutist Coalition - 6%. Mikhail Loris-Melikov is Prime Minister again.


Alexander II dies and his son, Alexander Alexandrovich, is crowned Alexander III. He tries to reverse some of his father's reforms but the Imperial Assembly protests and Alexander stops the reversal.


The Liberals merge with the Constitutional Democrats. Mikahil Loris-Melikov dies and the new elected Prime Minister is Pyotr Valuyev.


The legislation pass on reforms which grant Poland autonomy. However, Alexander III vetoes them. New railways are beginning to be built and industrialization is implemented again. Farms are beginning to be mechanized, requiring less men to work in them, while retaining the same production.



Another election occurs. This time the parliament consists of Social Revolutionary and Social Democrat Coalition - 47%, Constitutional Democrats - 45%, the Absolutists - 4% and the Nationalists - 4%. The new Prime Minister is Georgiy Plekhanov. The Absolutists merge with the Nationalists later that year, and are renamed the Monarchists. Pyotr Valuyev dies.


The new Socialist coalition government start on new campaign in an attempt to turn the currently mixed economy to an entirely state-controlled one. The Trans-Siberian railway begins construction.


The Socialist government helps the suffering peasants in the farms during the 1892 famine of Russia. However only a small amount of peasants suffer, because the farms were mechanized.


The attempt to create a state-controlled economy fails and a petition is sent to the Imperial Assembly to stop these reforms. It is passed and the Socialist government is kicked out. A re-election is held. The new parliament consists of Constitutional Democrats - 51%, Social Revolutionary and Social Democrat coalition - 41% and the Monarchists - 8%. Dmitriy Nabokov is Prime Minister.


All of the reforms made by the Socialist coalition are annulled. The Literacy rates for people over the age of 6 hit over 90%. Alexander III dies. Nikolay Alexandrovich is crowned Nikolay II.


The government start heavily funding Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece straight after the Austro-Serbian convention runs out. The above mentioned countries join the League of Three Emperors, an alliance between Russia, Germany and Austria. Now this alliance contains: the Russian Empire, the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Greece. The Alliance is renamed to the Christian Coalition.


The Ottoman Empire understands that soon their Balkan neighbours will become too strong and hoping that Russia, Austria or Germany do not intervene, invade the Balkan states of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro. They were wrong. All three Great Powers mentioned above declare war on the Ottomans. The Balkan states invaded by the Turks hold out very well, fight bravely and do not let the Turks advance. The Russians invade from the Caucasus and liberate Armenia and Kurdistan. The Kingdom of Armenia and the Kingdom of Kurdistan are created. The Austrians, alongside some Russians and Germans come to the rescue of their Balkan allies. Because of the war, the Olympic Games are cancelled.


An election is held in Russia. Results - Constitutional Democrats - 57%, Social Revolutionary and Social Democrat coalition - 33% and the Monarchists - 10%. Prime Minister: Dmitriy Nabokov. The Constitutional Democrats greatly rise in popularity since they represent the views of every class well. After that failure, the Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries merge and become the Socialists. Russian forces in Turkey split and around 1/3 go south to Arabia, while the rest advance onto Constantinople. The coalition forces in the Balkans segregate, surround and destroy all Ottoman armies on the peninsula. The Ottomans sue for peace, but it is not accepted. Constantinople is besieged. The Emirate of Arabia, the Islamic Republic of Syria and the Islamic Republic of Iraq is created. Finally, the Ottomans unconditionally surrender and the Ottoman Empire ceases its existence. It is replaced by the Republic of Turkey, the Kingdom of Kurdistan, the Kingdom of Armenia, the Islamic Republic of Syria, the Islamic Republic of Iraq and the Emirate of Arabia. Also large sections of the Ottoman territories in the Balkans go over to Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro. Armenia joins the Christian Coalition. Russia tries to give Constantinople to Bulgaria, but Austria protests, so it remains as part of the Republic of Turkey. The first census of the Russian Empire is held.


The Kingdom of Italy joins the Christian Coalition. The coalition now contains: the Russian Empire, the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Greece. France and Britain are in fear of what they call, "the Eastern Steamroller", i.e. the Christian Coalition, so they form an alliance, with Spain and Portugal, named the Quadruple Entente.


A sudden demographic boom in the Russian Empire occurs. Mass pogroms of Jewish homes and shops by Black Hundred groups, including former Nationalists who refused to join the Monarchists, occur. The Imperial Assembly abolish the Black Hundred groups and pass a reform to grant Jews and other minorities the same rights as citizens. Also, the legislature pass a reform granting Poland autonomy which, this time, is successful.



Russia invade Manchuria to assist the Allied Forces against the Yihequan (Boxer) Movement. The I Olympic Games are held. The first Games were planned to be held in Athens in 1896, but were cancelled due to the invasion of Greece by the Ottoman Empire. Russia do better than in OTL. In fencing, Julian Michaux and Pyotr Zakovorot finished 2nd and 4th respectively, while at the equestrian events, Vladimir Orlov finished 5th.


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