Emperor Alexander II of Russia was known as Tsar Liberator, because he emancipated the serfs. However, he performed many more liberal reforms, such as the abolishment of corporal punishment, the zemstvo system, the reorganisation of the judicial system and the ending of some of the privileges of the aristocracy. But few know that he accepted the Loris-Melikov constitution the day he was to be assassinated. This timeline is all about this.
Alexander II's is looking to create a constitutional monarchy but he is hesitant in choosing a certain project.
Alexander II finally accepts the Loris-Melikov constitution. PoD: The assassination fails and Ignacy Hryniewiecki, Nikolay Rysakov and Ivan Emelyanov, the assassins, are tried and executed.
The constitutional reforms are complete, and Russia becomes a Constitutional Monarchy. The Imperial Assembly, a parliament is created. It consists of the State Council, the higher house and the State Duma, the lower house. The parliament and monarch share almost equal power. At the moment, only 3 parties exist, the "Land and Will" , with 40% of the seats the Westernisers, with 48% of the seats and the Slavophiles, with 12% of the seats. The Prime Minister is a Westerniser: Mikhail Loris-Melikov.
Another 2 parties are formed, the Liberals and the Absolutists.
More reforms come, making the unemployment levels drastically decrease. Mass industrialization is implemented and Russia starts getting closer to the other Great Powers in terms of industry. Also, children are prohibited from working in the factories.
Too many people leave the agricultural industry to work in the factories and a famine strikes Russia. The legislation pass on a law stating that no peasant can become a factory worker without consent of the factory owner. In return, all citizens of the Russian Empire are granted more liberty.
An educational reform is passed and education becomes free and mandatory. Literacy levels rise rapidly exceeding all other European powers except Britain. Another election happens. After the election, the Imperial Assembly consists of Westerniser and Liberal Coalition - 48%, "Land and Will" - 40%, and the Slavophile and Absolutist Coalition - 12%. Mikhail Loris-Melikov is Prime Minister again.
Alexander II dies and his son, Alexander Alexandrovich, is crowned Alexander III. He tries to reverse some of his father's reforms but the Imperial Assembly protests and Alexander stops the reversal.
The Liberals merge with the Westernisers. They are renamed to the Constitutionalists. Mikahil Loris-Melikov dies and the new Prime Minister is Pyotr Valuyev.
The legislation pass on reforms which grant Poland autonomy. However, Alexander III vetoes them. New railways are beginning to be built and industrialization is implemented again. Farms are beginning to be mechanized, requiring less men to work in them, while retaining the same production.
Another election occurs. This time the parliament consists of "Land and Will" - 45%, Constitutionalists - 44%, the Absolutist and Slavophile Coalition - 11%. The new Prime Minister is Georgiy Plekhanov. The Absolutists merge with the Slavophiles later that year, and are renamed the Counter-reformists. Pyotr Valuyev dies.
The new Socialist coalition government start on new campaign in an attempt to turn the currently mixed economy to an entirely state-controlled one. The Trans-Siberian railway begins construction.
The Socialist government helps the suffering peasants in the farms during the 1892 famine of Russia. However only a small amount of peasants suffer, because the farms were mechanized.
The attempt to create a state-controlled economy fails and a petition is sent to the Imperial Assembly to stop these reforms. It is passed and the Socialist government is kicked out. A re-election is held. The new parliament consists of Constitutionalists - 50%, "Land and Will" - 39% and the Counter-reformists - 11%. Dmitriy Nabokov is Prime Minister.
All of the reforms made by the Socialist coalition are annulled. The Literacy rates for people over the age of 6 hit over 90%. Alexander III dies. Nikolay Alexandrovich is crowned Nikolay II.
The government start heavily funding Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece straight after the Austro-Serbian convention runs out. The above mentioned countries join the League of Three Emperors, an alliance between Russia, Germany and Austria. Now this alliance contains: the Russian Empire, the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Greece. The Alliance is renamed to the Christian Coalition.
The Ottoman Empire understands that soon their Balkan neighbours will become too strong and hoping that Russia, Austria or Germany do not intervene, invade the Balkan states of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro. They were wrong. All three Great Powers mentioned above declare war on the Ottomans. The Balkan states invaded by the Turks hold out very well, fight bravely and do not let the Turks advance. The Russians invade from the Caucasus and liberate Armenia and Kurdistan. The Kingdom of Armenia and the Kingdom of Kurdistan are created. The Austrians, alongside some Russians and Germans come to the rescue of their Balkan allies. Because of the war, the Olympic Games are cancelled.
An election is held in Russia. Results - Constitutionalists - 51%, "Land and Will" - 37% and the Counter-reformists - 12%. Prime Minister: Dmitriy Nabokov. The Constitutionalists greatly rise in popularity since they represent the views of every class well. Russian forces in the Ottoman Empire split and around 1/3 go south to Arabia, while the rest advance onto Constantinople. The coalition forces in the Balkans segregate, surround and destroy all Ottoman armies on the peninsula. The Ottomans sue for peace, but it is not accepted. Constantinople is besieged. The Emirate of Arabia, the Islamic Republic of Syria and the Islamic Republic of Iraq are created. Finally, the Ottomans unconditionally surrender and the Ottoman Empire ceases its existence. It is replaced by the Republic of Turkey, the Kingdom of Kurdistan, the Kingdom of Armenia, the Islamic Republic of Syria, the Islamic Republic of Iraq and the Emirate of Arabia. Also large sections of the Ottoman territories in the Balkans go over to Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro. Armenia joins the Christian Coalition. Russia tries to give Constantinople to Bulgaria, but Austria protests, so it remains as part of the Republic of Turkey. The first census of the Russian Empire is held.
The Kingdom of Italy joins the Christian Coalition. The coalition now contains: the Russian Empire, the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Romania, the Kingdom of Bulgaria, the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Greece. France and Britain are in fear of what they call, "the Eastern Steamroller", i.e. the Christian Coalition, so they form an alliance, with Spain and Portugal, named the Quadruple Entente.
A sudden demographic boom in the Russian Empire occurs. Mass pogroms of Jewish homes and shops by Black Hundred groups, including former Absolutists who refused to join the Counter-reformists, occur. The Imperial Assembly abolish the Black Hundred groups and pass a reform to grant Jews and other minorities the same rights as citizens. Also, the legislature pass a reform granting Poland autonomy which, this time, is successful.
Russia invade Manchuria to assist the Allied Forces against the Yihequan (Boxer) Movement. The I Olympic Games are held. The first Games were planned to be held in Athens in 1896, but were cancelled due to the invasion of Greece by the Ottoman Empire.
Elections conclude, with the following results: Constitutionalists - 51%, "Land and Will" - 38% and the Counter-reformists - 11%. Prime Minister is Dmitriy Nabokov again. The second census is held (a law is passed stating that censuses should be held every 4 years).