Back to United Germany, Divided Spain
This is a bare bones timeline to provide a basic understanding of the history of this AH. It will work in conjunction with future in-depth century timelines, and supplementary articles on nations, important people, and the like.
: Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, rather than dying of Malaria in September of 1197, recovers by October.
November 1197-January 1199: Henry crusades in the Levant and Egypt, scoring several victories against the Ayyubid Dynasty, largely by taking advantage of the quarrels over the sultanate. Henry and his Imperial forces take entirety of the Levantine Coast.
February 1199: Henry's army is routed, and the Holy Roman Emperor is captured by Al-Adil
March 1199: After praying to God for his rescue, Pope Innocent III arrives, destroys Al-Adil’s army and brings the Emperor back to Italy.
April 1199: Henry signs the Treaty of Naples, and all land of the Holy Roman Empire south of the Alps is ceded to either the Papal States or the Kingdom of Naples.
June 1199: Henry returns to the Holy Roman Empire, where the Nobility is disgusted with his signing of the Treaty of Naples; they declare Henry’s brother, Phillip of Swabia, to be the Holy Roman Emperor, thus beginning the German Civil War.
1199-1202: The Pope tries and fails to establish control of Northern Italy, which soon fragments into various city-states.
1August 1202: Phillip II of France and John I of England go to war after John marries Isabella of Angoulême despite her betrothal to Hugh IX of Lusignan.
December 1202: Henry kills Phillip, ending the Civil War; the Holy Roman Empire is abolished, and replaced by the Kingdom of Germany. The Prince-Electors lose all power, and are either executed or exiled. Louis of Bavaria is named First Chancellor, and new Nobility is chosen by King Henry I of Germany.
April 1204: King John meets with Henry I of Germany, and though they do not come to terms, a rumor reaches Phillip II that they may form an alliance against France.
July 1204: The Pope calls for a crusade to help the Byzantine Empire retake the land lost in the Crusade of 1197, and to prevent further warfare between France, England, and Germany.
1206: English, French, German, and Italian Crusaders set out for the Near East, Southern Anatolia, and Egypt, thus beginning the Fourth Crusade.
June 1211: The Fourth Crusade is a success; Crusader States are established in Eastern Egypt (Germany), Southern Anatolia (France), Cyprus (Venice), and Israel (England).
July 12th 1211: Pope Innocent III meets with Alexios III Angelos, where he is cast out by the hateful Byzantine Emperor.
July 13th 1211: Michael Komnenos Doukas incites the wrath of the people, who are unhappy with the mismanagement of the empire by Alexios, who is killed by rioters. Michael is placed on the throne by the people as Michael VIII of Byzantium.
July 14th 1211: After much convincing, the Pope meets with newly crowned emperor Michael I, and they work out a deal hoping to heal the schism between the two churches, known as the Pact of Constantinople.
April 1212: Andrew II of Hungary (Seeking to quell the nobility) and Michael VIII of Byzantium (Seeking an easy war to legitimize his reign) sign the Pact of Athens, a secret agreement to invade Bulgaria, Serbia, and Bosnia, and divide the land therein two nations.
May 1212: Henry is assassinated by a Dane, Chancellor Louis claims power as a regent for Henry’s son, and gathers the army for a war with Denmark.
July 1212: The Battle de Las Navas de Tolosa is a disaster for Christian forces, as Muhamad al-Nasir was expecting them.
August 1212: Madrid, Leon, Zaragoza, and Braga are laid to siege, with Pope Innocent III calling for a crusade to defend all of Western Europe from catastrophe.
April 1213-1219: Fifth Crusade: Knights from across Europe relieve the sieges, and rout the overstretched Moors. Al-Nasir dies in battle, plunging the Almohads into chaos, and allowing most of the Iberian Peninsula to be reconquered.
June 11th 1213: First Minister Louis invades Pomerania, which the Danes had taken decades earlier. Subsequently, Louis also launches a seaborne invasion of Zealand (A success), and a land invasion of Jutland (A rout of German troops). Bishop Valdemar is freed by German forces from Zealand, and leads a second invasion, with local Danish support, usurping the throne and killing King Valdemar II.
June 28th 1213-December 1215: Bulgarian War: Bosnia and Northern Bulgaria is annexed by Hungary, while Serbia and Southern Bulgaria is conquered by the Byzantines.
1219-1249: Danish wars; Denmark establishes a colony in Estonia, conquers Swedish Finland, takes the Faroe Islands, Iceland (The population of which is greatly decreased due to disease and warfare), and Greenland.
1221-1233: John, king of England dies, and Henry III assumes the throne. First Phase of 20 Years’ War begins; Henry III conquers most of France, Phillip II dies in battle, and Louis VIII flees to Toulouse.
1229-1234: Venetian Voyages to China bring gunpowder to Europe, where it is eventually synthesized.
1233-1240: Second Phase of the 20 Years’ War (This phase is also known as the Toulousian War); Toulouse is conquered, Louis is killed, and Henry III is recognized as the King of France by the French Nobility as Henry II.
September 1235: Venice constructs the first European ship designed to incorporate cannons, the Medici, and uses it to lay siege to Zadar.
December 1235: One hundred Medici-class warships are purchased by the Byzantine Empire
1237-1248: The Byzantine Empire retakes Anatolia, and annexes the Crusader States of Cyprus, Antioch, and Jerusalem with little resistance.
1240-1245: Venice conquers the Adriatic Coast that is neither Neapolitan nor Byzantine.