1860 (U.S.A.)- South Carolina secedes from the Union. Abraham Lincoln is elected president.
1861 (Germany)- Frederick William IV dies; Wilhelm I becomes King of Prussia.
1861 (U.S.A.)- In February, while travelling through Baltimore en route to his inauguration, president-elect Lincoln is shot by southern sympathizer Cipriano Ferrandini. This makes Lincoln the first president to be elected but not inaugurated. In March, Hannibal Hamlin is inaugurated as President of the United States. In his inaugural address, he openly opposed slavery and threatened the secessionists with war. In April, Confederate forces attack Fort Sumter; war begins. President Hamlin quickly sends forces into the South. Hamlin declares it a war to end slavery by making the Emancipation Proclamation. The Union forces of George B. McClellan overrun Northern Virginia. Confederate President Jefferson Davis hurriedly moves the capital to Atlanta. The Army of the Potomac begins an unsuccessful counter-offensive. Late that year, the Union fails to secure the pivotal Shenandoah Valley. However, Union troops take large parts of Virginia. Thus, the state of West Virginia is declared in December.
1862 (U.S.A.)- The Confederacy, with their inexperienced army, begin the Fredericksburg Campaign in Virginia. Shockingly, the 45,000-man force takes the area. The C.S.A. further surprises the North by invading Kentucky. The gamble pays off, but both sides suffer heavy damage. Hamlin is criticised for not taking heavier action. Thus, the Union begin their naval campaign. By the end of the year, the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina are in northern hands. The Confederate Navy is in shambles. Meanwhile, the forces of Ambrose Burnside attempt to find a route into southern territory via the Mississippi River. With the highly experienced Admiral David Farragut, the CSN is almost completely destroyed. The U.S. is stopped at the Tennessee River, where trench warfare begins.
1863 (U.S.A.)- Robert E. Lee makes a further push in Virginia. The Union takes a heavy toll, and loses much land. The C.S.A. attempts to invade Maryland. The plan is an utter failure. Retreating Confederate forces are stopped and destroyed in Chancellorsville. In the west, Burnside's army breaks the Confederate line and takes large portions of Tennessee. By November, southern troops in Kentucky all surrender. At the same time, the Union begins funding black guerrillas. This leads to high damages to infrastructure in the Deep South.
1863 (Japan)- Western powers intervene against the Tokugawa Shogunate, deeply damaging it.
1864 (U.S.A.) Under Ulysses S. Grant, the Union pushes the C.S.A. out of Virginia. North Carolina is overrun, too. This massive success leads to Hamlin's re-election. Meanwhile, the U.S. begins a rapid advance through the Confederate heartland. Though they are stalled at battles like Chickamauga and Chattanooga, in October they reach Atlanta. President Davis signs an unconditional surrender. The Union is victorious. President Hamlin begins an occupation like of the south through 15 military districts. On December 2nd, the 13th Amendment is ratified, ending slavery in the United States.
1865 (U.S.A.)- Beginning of reconstruction. John Wilkes Booth is arrested at the doors of Ford's Theatre for attempting to bring a gun inside, thwarting an assassination attempt on Hamlin. In the south, racist groups like the Knights of the Golden Circle and the Ku Klux Klan are suppressed. The Union-funded black groups who helped destroy the South from within become dangerous elements. Former landowners are killed, and property is burned down. Most military governors like Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman begin pacifiying these groups. This works to an extent.
1866 (Germany)- Prussia makes large territorial acquistions following victory over Austria.
1867 (Japan)- Emperor Komei dies; he is succeeded by Meiji. The shoguns defy Meiji's policies.
1867 (U.S.A.)- Secretary of State William H. Seward proposes buying Alaska from the Russian Empire. Caught up in economic troubles on the mainland, congress refuses.
1868 (Japan)- The Boshin War ends, officially ending the Tokugawa Shogunate. The Empire of Japan is established. The beginning of the modernization and industrialization of Japan.
1868 (U.S.A.)- Hannibal Hamlin is barely re-elected over Horatio Seymour.
1869 (U.S.A.)- President Hamlin brings the southern occupation to an end. The region's economy is industrialized, with the aristocracy destroyed. Special gubernatorial and congressional elections are held.
1870 (Germany)- Outbreak of war between France and Prussia.
1871 (Germany)- Napoleon III surrenders; Prussia annexes the Alsace-Lorraine. Wilhelm I convinces several other German states to unite, founding the German Empire. Nationalist feelings run high, as Germant asserts itself as major European power.
1872 (U.S.A.)- Ulysses S. Grant, war hero and stern former military governor, is elected president. His presidency marks the true end to the reconstruction, but also the beginning of American militarization. The army is vastly expanded as Grant stresses the importance of a strong armed forces. The ideology of "A Greater, Stronger America" becomes popular.
1876 (U.S.A.)- President Grant is re-elected over Samuel J. Tilden.
1880 (U.S.A.)- James Garfield is elected President over the increasingly unpopular Ulysses S. Grant. Garfield, who survives an assassination attempt in 1881, brings forth a more liberal outlook to the U.S.
1884 (U.S.A.)- Grover Cleveland defeats President Garfield in the election. He opposes imperialism and attempts to un-militarize the country. His attempts, and popularity fall short along with the economy.
1884 (Germany)- Colonization of Namibia as German South West Africa, northeastern New Guinea as German New Guinea, and Cameroon as Kamerun and Togo as Togoland (German West Africa).
1885 (Germany)- Colonization of Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika as German East Africa.
1888 (Germany)- Wilhelm I dies; he is replaced by Frederick III. However, he passes as well (just three months later). Wilhelm II is crowned Emperor of Germany.
1888 (U.S.A.)- Benjamin Harrison is popularly elected over President Cleveland.
1889 (Japan)- The Meiji constitution is promulgated; Ito Hirobumi becomes Japan's first Prime Minister.
1890 (Germany)- End of the chancellorship of Otto von Bismarck decorated statesman, nationalist and so-called "Iron Chancellor". He dies eight years later.
1892 (U.S.A.-) Harrison is re-elected over Populist candidate James Weaver. The Democratic Party falters.
1893 (U.S.A.)- Harrison dies in office of the flu. He is replaced by Vice President Levi P. Morton. However, he proves ineffective and the U.S. further suffers economic hardship.
1894 (Japan)- A war for the control of Korea erupts between Japan and China. The much more modern Imperial Japanese Army proves very effective, showcasing the military effects of the Meiji Restoration.
1895 (Japan)- The Qing dynasty of China surrenders. They cede Taiwan, Penghu, and the Liaodong Peninsula to Japan. Also, the Japanese gain significant influence, but not control, over Korea. Meanwhile, Japan must use force to assert control over Taiwan, where republican troops try to withstand their new overlords. This establishes Japan as a regional power.
1896- (U.S.A.) William McKinley is elected president. His reforms make him very popular, as the economy begins to go back up.
1898 (U.S.A.)- The U.S.S. Maine is destroyed in Havana Harbour. The U.S. threatens force against Spain, who allegedly perpetrated the attack. On April 25th, war is declared. The U.S.A. sends troops to Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam (which is captured in two days). Through a vigorous land campaign, the U.S. takes control of Cuba by August. The Philippines, encroached by naval operations, falls to America in June. Puerto Rico is caught up in an inconclusive battle. The Treaty of Paris is signed. The U.S. gains all of those territories. Also, Hawaii is annexed as a territory. In Alaska, gold is found. McKinley blames the Hamlin Administration for not buying the land years earlier. Russia gains a major economic boost, but the royal family spends it on luxuries.
1899 (U.S.A.)- The Philippines declares itself a republic under Emilio Aguinaldo. President McKinley urges military action against the rebels. The U.S. send in troops led by Jacob H. Smith. He brings with him martial law and a promise to eradicate the Philippines of anti-American revolutionaries. The Democratic Party merges with the Populist and Liberal Republican Parties to become the Democratic Union Party.
1899 (Germany)- Samoa is colonized.
1899- The Boxer Rebellion erupts in China, as monarchists try to push out foreign influence. All three countries take part in the Eight-Nation Alliance.
1900- (U.S.A.)- McKinley is re-elected over DUP candidate William Jennings Bryan.
1901- (U.S.A.)- President McKinley is shot by a Polish anarchist while attending the Pan-American Exposition. Theodore Roosevelt becomes president. He quickly becomes known for his imperialist platform reminiscent of Ulysses Grant.
1901- The Boxer Uprising ends in Chinese disaster. Nanjing is sacked, as Empress Dowager Cixi abdicates. She is replaced by General Yuan Shikai, who now leads a weak Qing Dynasty. The Osaka Conference hosted by Meiji give large territorial concessions to foreign powers. The Russian Empire takes control of Xinjiang, and Greater Mongolia. British take Tibet and a large section of south-central China and Hong Kong. France take the very southeastern provinces. Germany the Shantung region (except the Japanese-held Liaodong Peninsula). The U.S.A. is given Macao. Japan expands to parts of Manchuria and Fujian province. Remaining portions of land are the new, in-shambles Chinese Empire.
1902 (U.S.A.)- Filipino rebels finally surrender. However, the U.S. Army sanctions genocide against the Moro people. In Cuba, the United States' lease on the country expires. Military governor Leonard Wood asks congress to extend it. In what was considered a stab in the back to the Cuban people, the U.S. violated the Treaty of Paris and decided to occupy the country indefinitely.
1903 (U.S.A.)- The U.S. takes over the construction of the Panama Canal. They set up the Panama Canal Zone, a U.S.-controlled territory around the proposed canal area. This eliminates the idea of a Nicaragua Canal. Also, the first U.S. insertion into Honduras.
1904 (Germany)- In German South-West Africa, the beginning of the Herero and Namaqua genocides.
1904 (U.S.A.)- Roosevelt is elected over Alton B. Parker in the largest majority (70.8%) in U.S. electoral history.
1904 (Japan)- As Russia attempts to enlarge its sphere of influence in the Far East, Japan feels threatened. War is declared as Japan hopes to keep her Korean possessions.
1905 (Japan)- The Russian navy surrenders as the empire falls into revolution and disarray. Japan is given part of Sakhalin Island (Karafuto) as compensation. This establishes Japan as a world power with a sophisticate military.
1906 (U.S.A.)- The first set of upheavals in Cuba. The U.S. doubles the amount of soldiers stationed on the island.
1907 (U.S.A.)- A conference is held between several fruit companies and the U.S. Army about the situation in Honduras. Little progress is made concerning the anti-American rebels in the country.
1908 (U.S.A.)- Theodore Roosevelt is elected to his third term in office. He is seen as the personification of the modern America; the one who will lead his imperialist country to greater conquests.
1910 (U.S.A.)- The Socialist Party merges with the DUP, becoming the Democratic Socialist Union Party (DSUP).
1910 (Japan)- Korea is annexed into the empire.
1911 (Mexico)- Revolutionaries oust Porfirio Diaz from power in Mexico. Francisco I. Madero becomes the new president, speaking out against American imperialism.
1912 (U.S.A.)- Theodore Roosevelt wins his 4th term as president of DSUP candidate Eugene V. Debs. In the same year, the Republican Party merges with the Progressive Party, reflecting Roosevelt's own progressive thinking. Also, just weeks before the election, President Roosevelt becomes distraught with an increase to company damage in Honduras. He decides to send in the army. Roosevelt also begins preaching anti-immigration and sets up laws regarding it. He believes that "hyphenated Americans" are unpatriotic and should be limited. Shortly after, Roosevelt ordered that the U.S. Army invade Nicaragua. Marines secure the country by February of next year.
1912 (Japan)- Emperor Meiji dies at the age of 59. As the country mourns, he is succeeded by Emperor Taisho. However, Taisho suffers from neurological problems, and has less charisma than his father. Prime Minister Yamamato Gonnohyoe (and later Okuma Shigenobu) becomes increasingly powerful.
1913 (Mexico)- President Madero is assassinated. He is replaced by the even more anti-imperialist military officer; Victoriano Huerta.
1914- Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, starting the Great War (World War I). Germany and Japan go to war the same year. The U.S. proclaims neutrality at first, deciding to focus on its Latin American conquests instead. In China, Japan decided to increase its sphere of influence. Germany retaliate by attacking the crucial port of Tsingtao. Supported by British ships, the attack is repulsed. German forces in the region decide to focus on defending their Chinese borders instead, an act that nearly sparks war in China many times. As U.S. volunteers pour into Europe, Roosevelt decides to make tougher sanctions against German submarine activity. In Europe, Germany advances through the Benelux and France. However, Allied forces stopped it, leading to trench warfare. In the east, Russia attempts to invade East Prussia. This ultimately fails and Russian troops retreat. As German forces attempt to advance behind them, they face defeat in the Russian-secured region of Galicia.
1914 (U.S.A.)- As uncertainty in Europe becomes a major topic in congress, U.S. sailors were confronted by armed Mexican troops. Fearing Mexican support for rebels in U.S. territories, America controversially declares war. The Caribbean port of Veracruz is attacked and occupied by the U.S. Navy. Though no further action is taken, relations break down and the U.S. seems ready to invade at any moment. President Huerta is seen as powerless, and Mexico yet again plunges into revolution. Huerta is exiled to Jamaica, and the new president is the pro-American Eulalio Gutierrez.
1915 (U.S.A.)- The U.S. stages an invasion of Haiti to protect the interests of the Haitian American Sugar Company. The poorly equipped Haitian army falls quickly. As American troops storm Port-au-Prince, Haitian president Vilbrun Guillaume Sam is captured and executed. The Haitian people's reaction is at first glad, as Sam was seen as an oppressive tyrant. Also, angered by German actions in American waters. Roosevelt declares war. An expeditionary force is sent onto the Western Front. In Mexico, President Gutierrez flees the capital as revolutionary hero Emilian Zapata takes control of Mexico City. His legitimacy is quickly questioned. Roosevelt considers sending troops into Mexico, but feels the war in Europe is more important. After a string of short-time presidents, Zapata declares himself leader.
1915 (Germany)- The German Army decides to transfer the bulk of its force onto the Eastern Front. The advance causes the Russian Army to retreat from Poland. Germany asserts control of the region, proclaiming victory. In western Europe, the war fell into a stalemate. Allied forces rattled German positions with artillery, but the Central Powers stood their ground. Nevertheless, Germany was beginning to suffer heavy casualties.
1916 (Germany)- In the east, Germany faces problems with the defiant Romanian army. Though they are defeated, Germany begins transferring soldiers back into France to reflect the large casualties there. After the battles of the Somme and Verdun, Germany began retreating from the Hindenburg Line. An Allied victory seemed imminent.
1916 (U.S.A.)- Roosevelt wins the wartime election, but the Republicans shockingly lose their majority in congress. Roosevelt's popularity begins to decline thanks to the countless wars he sponsors. Meanwhile, fearing German invasion, the U.S. Army decides to "secure" the Dominican Republic. On the Mexican border, the revolutionary forces of Pancho Villa attack American border towns. The U.S. sends a military expedition to capture Villa and his men. This sets up a virtual occupation of the province of Sonora and the Baja California.
1917 (Germany)- An official victory on the Eastern Front is achieved as Russia falls into Bolshevik revolution. Vladimir Lenin and his communist comrades take control of the country. It was very different on the Western Front. An Anglo-American offensive pushed Germany to the brink. In winter of that year, Allied troops entered Germany. On Christmas of that year, German forces surrendered.
1917 (U.S.A.)- As U.S. troops were being further relocated to Europe, Roosevelt called the Pancho Villa Expedition off. However, some U.S. troops remained in Sonora and Baja California to "secure stability to the region". Meanwhile, Emiliano Zapata's forces are expelled from Central Mexico by the armies of Venustiano Carranza. He proclaims himself president, and reopens relations with America. Carranza also introduces U.S.-based agrarian reforms. In Cuba, another uprising by the independence movement sends shock waves through the country.
1918- The Treaty of Versailles was signed in France. The German, Ottoman, an Austro-Hungarian Empires were dismantled. Germany lost her Chinese possessions, which were joyously returned to the Republic of China. Chinese president Sun Yat-sen declared it a step to reuniting China and expelling foreign armies. Germany's African and Pacific colonies were also given away. New Guinea was transferred to Britain, and Samoa to the Americans. All other Pacific Islands went to Japan. German South-West Africa was absorbed into the Union of South Africa, Kamerun was partitioned between France and the U.K., Togoland went to France, and German East Africa was divided between Belgium and England. The whole German nation was left in rubble as Bavarian socialists declared communist revolution; inspired by Russia. In the U.S., Theodore Roosevelt begins to lessen his activities due to illness. In Russia, Allied troops are sent in to intervene against the Bolsheviks. Also, the League of Nations (an inter-governmental world organization dedicated to preserving peace and democracy) is founded.
1918 (Germany)- Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates. Revolution grips the country, which is now a republic without a leader.
1919 (Germany)- In January, the Social Democratic Party breaks with the centrists and encourages the revolution. As right-wingers attempt to establish a republic, Germany becomes a socialist state. The Freikorps rejected the new government's legitimacy, and Germany falls into civil war. Uprisings of armed workers occurs around the country. Strikes are held nation wide as left-wingers battle right-wingers in the streets. By August, the Freikorps surrenders due to lack of support. Frederich Ebert becomes president of the so-called Weimar Republic.
1919 (U.S.A.)- Theodore Roosevelt, U.S. president for 18 years, dies in office. Vice President Leonard Wood succeeds him.
1920 (U.S.A.)- Elections are held. Leonard Wood upstages DSUP's Woodrow Wilson, but the Republicans still lose valuable seats in congress.
1920 (Germany)- Nationalists attempt to overthrow the socialist government in the Kapp Putsch. The coup fails, but anti-Communists begin to feel a sense of hope. At the same time, Germany begins experiencing severe financial difficulties.
1920- The armies of the Allies exit Russia, where the war has been arguably won by the communists.
1921 (U.S.A.)- An important electoral reform is passed, declaring a president may only serve two terms unless congress votes otherwise.
1921 (Japan)- As the Russian Civil War sees its twilight, the country's Chinese possessions are taken over by the sadistic Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg. Japan, the only country which still has troops in Russia, barters with the communist government. Japanese troops help in the arrest of the Mad Baron, and all Russian concessions are sold to Japan. The Chinese government unleashes an angry backlash, but is powerless against the regional power's imperial desires.
1922- Benito Mussolini comes to power in Italy. His Fascist views are seen as a threat to European stability, but he inspires fellow fascists in countries such as Germany.
1923 (Japan)- An earthquake devastates Tokyo. The government is criticized for their slow response. Many people begin to doubt the emperor's efficiency, looking towards Prime Minister Gonnohyoe for guidance instead.
1923 (Germany)- The whole country is in the middle of a recession. President Ebert decides to simply print more money. This causes astronomical inflation and destruction of the German economy. In Bavaria, the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP, or Nazi Party) rebels in the Beer Hall Putsch. Though the aim of completely overthrowing the Weimar Republic isn't realised, Nazis take control of the old communist heartland. The Bavarian Free State is proclaimed in Munich by its new Chancellor: Adolf Hitler. Allied troops stationed in western Germany see their ranks inflate. The Ruhr and Rhineland regions becomes Franco-British military frontiers. Many Germans seek refuge in both Bavaria and the occupied areas.
1924 (U.S.A.)- In an extremely close election, Calvin Coolidge defeats John W. Davis. One of his first acts is the integration of the Dominican Republic as a state: East Hispaniola.
1925 (Germany)- Paul von Hindenburg is elected president of Germany. The field marshal seeks a more conservative path than his predecessor. This betrays the revolution in the eyes of the SDP. Also, Allied troops begin to pull out of the occupied areas in western Germany.
1925- The father of republican China, Sun Yat-sen, dies in office. He is succeeded by his protege, the militaristic Chiang Kai-shek.
1925 (U.S.A.)- Honduras becomes a sate.
1926 (U.S.A.)- Mexicans rebel in U.S.-held territories. Soldiers expel several Mexican farmers and citizens.
1926 (Japan)- Emperor Taisho dies of a heart attack. His pompous son, Prince Regent Hirohito, becomes Emperor Showa. He wishes to reinstate the authority of the emperor in modern Japanese society. Showa decides to limit the powers of the PM and the Diet, causing a deal of controversy among democrats.
1928 (U.S.A.)- Herbert Hoover is elected president against Al Smith. Republicans re-gain their majority in congress.
1929 (U.S.A.)- Hawaii is brought into the Union. As are Baja California (Lower California) and Sonora.
1929- The stock market crashes, sending the world into the Great Depression.
1930 (Germany)- In June, Paul von Hindenburg meets with Bavarian Führer Adolf Hitler in Leipzig. Three days later, the Leipzig Agreement is signed. Bavaria is to be re-integrated into Germany, with President Hindenburg and Chancellor Hitler to form a coalition government between the SDP and Nazi Party. One of the first decrees is that all Allied troops leave Germany. This is reluctantly done, even though the lease on the final occupied territory (Saarland) runs to 1935.
1931 (Japan)- A section of a Manchurian railways blows up. Japanese troops in the area blame Chinese revolutionaries, thus declaring war on China. President Chiang Kai-shek calls out Japan for a war of aggression, denying Chinese involvement in the incident. Nevertheless, China and Japan are at war. The League of Nations is outraged; Japan quits the LON.
1931 (Germany)- An important year in German politics. Parliamentary elections give the Nazis a supermajority in the Reichstag. Through the "Act to Rebuild the Third Reich", Hitler is given dictatorial powers as "Führer", both Chancellor and President.
1932 (U.S.A.)- Herbert Hoover, who sent the U.S. into deeper economic trouble, is defeated by a relative of renowned former president Theodore Roosevelt: Franklin D. Roosevelt. However, FDR is a candidate for the DSUP, giving the party their first government since the 1880s. Roosevelt pursues a different path than the old DSUP candidates. He advocates imperialism, claiming all citizens of the world should live within the glorious empire. FDR quickly begins rebuilding the economy. In Nicaragua, rebel leader Augusto Cesar Sandino is exiled to Mexico; his forces defeated. Governor Joseph Henry Pendleton declares the country stable. In South America, Standard Oil backs Bolivia in their war against Paraguay for the oil-rich region of Gran Chaco.
1932 (Japan)- As war in China rages on, Makoto Saito's election as PM begins the military rule of Japan.
1933 (Japan)- The Imperial Japanese Army marches on Beijing; Chinese forces surrender. As the republic is no more, Chiang Kai-shek flees to Thailand.
1933 (Germany)- Hitler purges the SA, the paramilitary which ensured his leadership in Bavaria. This leads to the incredible rise in power of the SS, the organization exclusively loyal to Hitler. Germany leaves the League of Nations.
1933 (U.S.A.)- Nicaragua is annexed as a state.
1934 (U.S.A.)- Haiti becomes another state: West Hispaniola. Later in the year, Cuba follows suit.
1935 (U.S.A.)- No oil is found in the Gran Chaco. Standard Oil is embarrassed by the scandal, as FDR demands tighter regulations on companies in congress.
1935 (Germany)- The Nuremberg Laws are passed, limiting the rights of Jews.
1936 (U.S.A.)- President Roosevelt is re-elected over Republican Alf Landon. His economic reforms make him arguably as popular as Teddy Roosevelt.
1936 (Germany)- The Berlin Olympics showcase German power and economic success.
1936- Italian forces invade Ethiopia. While Germany funds the Italian war effort, the U.S. and other democracies condemn the action. Also, the Spanish Civil War breaks out. Germany funds the nationalist factions, while American volunteers fight alongside the republicans.
1937 (U.S.A.)- American oil firms take over Mexico's oil industry.
1937- The Great Chinese Revolt. Occupied territories in all of China are subject to riots and military actions conducted by the National Revolutionary Army: Chiang's guerrilla force in the homeland. Though these are quelled, it sends a warning to the occupying powers: the Chinese people are unhappy and ready to fight.
1938 (Germany)- The Third Reich annexes Austria in the Anschluss. Later that year, the major European powers meet in Munich. The Munich Agreement is signed, giving Germany the right to annex Sudetenland (German-speaking parts of Czechoslovakia). In Germany itself, Kristallanacht ends with the destruction of several synagogues and Jewish businesses. Germany secretly funds Finnish weapon plants in their war against Russia.
1939 (Germany)- In secret, the German atomic research program is started. In March, Hitler's troops march into Prague; Czechoslovakia falls to German rule. In August, Joachim von Ribbentrop travels to Moscow to sign the Non-Aggression Pact. This ensures the USSR and Germany don't go to war with each other. Hitler demands the control of the Polish port city of Danzig. As the Anglo-French alliance with Poland collapses on the spot, the Kriegsmarine enters the city harbour.
1939- Italy invades Albania, adding to the growing "New Roman Empire" of Mussolini. As Europe seems on the edge of war, the Wehrmacht enters Poland. France and England declare war. The now-mobilised Russian forces enter via the east (while the Winter War in Finland fails). Hitler orders U-Boats to attack neutral ships. Roosevelt signs the Neutrality Bill, stating that the U.S. will remain neutral unless her territories are attacked. The bill also allows Allied armies in Europe to purchase American weapons. The bombing of Britain begins.
1940 (U.S.A.)- As the war in Europe continues, FDR is re-elected (with congress permission) to a third term over Wendell Willkie. An envoy is sent to Europe to possibly negotiate peace. This abruptly fails.
1940- As German forces overrun Denmark and Norway, British PM Neville Chamberlain resigns. He is replaced by E.F.L. Wood, Lord Halifax. Meanwhile, Blitzkrieg continues into France and the Low Countries. Britain occupies Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Italy attacks British colonies in the Horn of Africa. However, in June, the Dunkirk evacuation has all British troops leave France as Belgium surrenders. Germany occupies the Channel Islands, as Operation Sealion (the top secret plan to invade the U.K.) is on the horizon. Also, the Nazi regime blockades America. That same month, German soldiers enter Paris. Philippe Petain takes over as PM and asks for an armistice. Germany grants it, and the southern portions of France are given to the puppet Vichy Regime. The Baltic States fall into Soviet hands. In August, Luxembourg and the Alsace-Lorraine are annexed by Germany. The Battle of Britain officially begins. In September, the Tripartite Pact establishes the Axis Powers: Italy, Germany, and Japan. Spain and Portugal refuse to sign. Axis troops invade Greece shortly after. In November, Slovakia becomes a puppet state and Hungary joins the Axis. London is destroyed in a massive air raid while Operation Sealion is called off. Lord Halifax, worried about the damage to British infrastructure, asks Germany for an armistice. Negotiations begin on December 31st. In Japan, the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (a military junta headed by General Hideki Tojo) forms the new Japanese government.
1941- On February 7th, the Peace of Calais is signed. The U.K. is forced to hand out its colonies in exchange for peace. In Africa, Italy gains Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, and Egypt. Germany regains her pre-World War I colonies and present-day Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi. Control of the Congo, which is Belgian, is technically German now. France's African/Middle Eastern colonies are virtually Axis governed as well. Iceland and the Faroe Islands are also in German hands. The Reich however gives up the Channel Islands and leads all German naval activity away from British ships. In the Asia, Japan is given the rest of China (which was occupied by Britain/France), except for American Macau. French Indochina, India, Ceylon, Burma, and Indonesia are transferred to Japan. On February 18th, The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere is created; a coalition of Japanese-loyal governments in these new territories. Shortly after, Stalin signs a neutrality pact with Japan. Bulgaria joins the Axis. In the Middle East, Iraq and Britain's Arabian territories become German. Palestine is granted independence as a joint Arab-Jewish controlled state. By April, Yugoslavia is invaded by Germany. In June, Romania joins the Axis. Next month, the Nazi Party convinces Hitler to not invade the USSR. In August, control of Iran is split between Germany and Russia. Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Turkey are the last free countries in the Middle East. In December, seeing the situation in Europe is sound, FDR authorises the American invasion of Mexico.
1942- In January, civil war breaks out in Palestine. Germany invades, claiming they are arbiters of peace. Instead, the SS is sent down to establish concentration camps in the world's most Jewish-populated country. Gandhi marches against Japanese occupation in India. He is imprisoned shortly after. The Wannsee Conference is held outside Berlin. Reinhard Heydrich's "final solution" is decided upon. In February, the last Dutch resistance in Indonesia surrenders. Japan claims total control of the island nation. By May, fighting in Yugoslavia is at an all-time high. Reinforcements are sent in from Axis-controlled nations and Germany. On June 1st, American troops reach Mexico City. President Manuel Avila Camacho signs an unconditional surrender. This marks the start of the Mexican insurgency. That same month, Japan begins the shelling of Australia. As Japan captures individual Pacific Islands, U.S. Marines land on the Solomon Islands. War clouds loom in the Pacific. In September, the Warsaw Ghetto is liquidated. Japan considers their part (the southern half) of New Guinea secure. Australia is on the verge of invasion. In November, Partisan forces are defeated in Bihac, Bosnia. This serves as a major blow to the Yugoslav resistance.
1943- At the start of the year, German forces launch Fall Martin: the invasion of Saudi Arabia. The Saudi army is defeated in a week. In March, the U.S.A. barters with the U.K. and takes over control of Belize. Two weeks later, the invasion of Guatemala is launched. In April, the U.S. begins their Caribbean Plan; Britain if forced to hand over all Caribbean colonies. France refuses to do so. In July, French Resistance leader Jean Moulin is captured and publicly executed. In September, Josip Broz Tito and his partisans surrender on the Dalmatian coast to Italian troops. The war in Yugoslavia is over. Tito flees to Turkey. In October, the U.S.A. invades Costa Rica. In November, German Ambassador to the U.K. Herbert von Drisken convinces British authorities to release Oswald Mosley (the leader of the British Union of Fascists). In December, America begins Operation Just Cause: the invasion of Panama.
1944- In January, Panama surrenders. All of Central America and the Caribbean (except French-controlled islands) are now under American control. Soviet Alaska and Canada are the remaining non-American territories/states. In February, Charles de Gaulle (former French general residing in Liberia) creates the Free French Forces, hoping to restart the French resistance. Finland is attacked by the USSR. In March, the IRA begin several German-backed attacks on British businesses. That same month, Germany invades the already peaceful country of Hungary. Japan begins the pacification of China. In April, the U.S. Navy lands in Liberia. Charles de Gaulle is exiled immediately to Brazil. Japan, after months of coordinated bombing, finally invades Australia. In Italy, King Victor Emmanuel III is forced to abdicate by Mussolini. Crown Prince Umberto becomes King Umberto II. In June, Hitler launches Operation Barbarossa (delayed by three years) and invades the Soviet Union. By June, German troops have reached Moscow. In September, Finnish Marshal C.G.E. Mannerheim signs an armistice with Russia. Meanwhile in the south, Germany has captured Caucasian oil fields and are moving up along the Volga. Kiev also falls to the Axis. In October, the Red Army launches a surprisingly successful counterattack in Leningrad. Roosevelt is elected to a 4th term in office over Thomas Dewey. He also selects former DSUP candidate Joseph Kennedy as his Vice President.In November, Australian troops surrender outside Canberra. As the year ends, Stalingrad is besieged.
1945- In January, Sevastapol (the Soviet Union's last Ukrainian stronghold) is besieged and captured by the Germans. In February, amid heavy snowfall, the bulk of the Red Army in Stalingrad surrenders. Stalin declares a state of siege. In April, Russian armoured divisions are destroyed at Kursk. Later that month, Stalin and the Politburo flee the capital. FDR dies in office, Joseph Kennedy is the new president. In June, the summer offensive begins. The Baltic States surrender by the end of July. On August 6th, the Wehrmacht marches into Moscow. In September, Stalin declares the new capital as Novosibirsk. By October, Germany has reached the Ural Mountains. They establish a border there and declared victory on the 24th. President Kennedy applauds the victory. On November 26th, after a year and a half of fighting, Australian resistance fighters surrender. In December, one of the biggest battles of the early Mexican insurgency in Carrizal ends with over 1,000 Americans dead. In December, Japan launches the invasion of Thailand. By the end of the year, most of the country is under Japanese rule. Chiang Kai-shek flees yet again; to Peru.
1946 (Germany)- Early in the year, British PM Lord Halifax resigns after 6 years of extremely unpopular rule. The German government installs fascist Oswald Mosley and begin their British redesigning plan. Several prominent Britons and former European leaders in exile are arrested and shot. Among these are Anthony Eden (Secretary of War), Sigmund Freud (notable psychoanalyst and Jew), Edvard Benes (former Czechoslovak president), and several authors (such as Virginia Woolf and H.G. Wells) and socialists. However, many former politicians (including Lord Halifax's competitor for PM: Winston Churchill) had fled to Canada. Also, George VI forcibly abdicates, as Edward VIII is brought to the throne yet again. In May, Nazi officials persuade a reluctant Hitler to sign Decree No. 66. It states that all African/Asian nations under German control are officially autonomous, but under a German sphere of influence.
1946- In February, German troops cross Afghanistan and reach the Indian border. Japanese troops greet the Wehrmacht as a border of influence is drawn out. The League of Nations is officially dismantled in September. The word is now governed by three major organisations. In Asia, the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere (GEACPS) controls many Pacific Islands, the Indian subcontinent, Australia, New Zealand, South-East Asia, China, and the Empire of Japan. The European Community (established on October 3rd), which includes all European countries (except Switzerland and Sweden) under theoretical German rule, and their colonial/imperial possessions. The United Nations (established December 7th in New York City), which includes all free countries of the world. This includes the Americas, Russia, Turkey, Sweden, Switzerland, and South Africa. However, African/Middle Eastern countries under spheres of influence also take part in UN preceedings as observers. Elsewhere in Europe, Philippe Petain resigns as French President due to ailing health. He is replaced by the even more tyrannical Pierre Laval. On November 23rd, the German government declares France as stable. The whole country falls to the Vichy Regime. In Italy, the fascist government strips King Umberto II of many powers. The Italian royal family is basically there to stand as a powerless sideshow. Mussolini now has full despostic powers. Food rationing is reintroduced in many countries worldwide. In Argentina, the pro-German Juan Peron stands as an anti-American juggernaut in Latin American politics as he becomes president.
1946 (Japan)- Japanese officials declare Manchuria pacified. PM and Chairman of the IRAA Hideki Tojo declares the beginning of the pacification of the rest of China. New Zealand is invaded in March. Violence between Hindus and Muslims increases in India.
1946 (U.S.A.)- President Kennedy makes the U.S. nuclear program public. He also declares the country is officially out of depression, crediting FDR with the act. The Philippines are annexed in July. Puerto Rico follows in October. U.S. Secretary of State Harry Truman claims the United States have liberated the peoples of America from unfair, military rule.
1947 (Japan)- As Muslims and Hindus battle in the streets, Japan partitions in India into Pakistan (Muslim nation under Mohammed Ali Jinnah), Hindustan (Hindu nation under Jawaharlal Nehru), and Khalistan (Sikh nation under Hukam Singh). A month of rioting, forcing these different groups into their new territories, follows.
1947 (U.S.A.)- 79 members of the Screen Actors Guild are convicted as Japanese spies.
1947 (Germany)- Adolf Eichmann gives a secret report to the SS upper echelons, claiming Israel/Palestine has been cleansed of over 80% of its Jews.
1948 (Japan)- Japan establishes the Chinese Insurgency and Terrorist Tribunal to bring NRA leaders to justice. The court's main proceedings end in September, allowing Japanese Minister of Justice Admiral Kantaro Suzuki declares China properly pacified. In India, Mahatma Gandhi dies a political prisoner from a hunger strike. In Korea, the Japanese administration executes communists, including their leader Kim Il-sung.
1948 (U.S.A.)- Kennedy defeats Republican and former general Douglas MacArthur to retain the presidency.
1948 (Germany)- The first big withdrawal of troops from Eastern Europe occurs, as Hitler declares peace if secured in the Reich. In the now-German Czechoslovakia, the military occupation is lifted as Jaroslav Krejci becomes the new Gauletier of Bohmen und Mahren.
1949 (Germany)- Top German scientists announce they've developed a nuclear bomb. In June, Hermann Göring (Hitler's chosen successor) dies in a plane crash over Hungary. The Nazi government blames the Jews for sabotage. Just a day following a massive state funeral, Germany lifts their blockade of the U.S.A. Also, Hitler reforms his new, post-war government. The SA is officially disestablished, new Gaus are created, and the Reichstag now includes representatives from Poland, Denmark, Norway, Russia, and Czechoslovakia.
1949 (Japan)- The elusive Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong is captured and put on trial (later hung) in Yunnan Province. In the Pakistani/Khalistani border, the former province of Kashmir (a place of dispute and violence) is put under military occupation.
1949 (U.S.A.)- The Kennedy administration officially denounces the GEACPS, but recognizes the EC. These recognitions set the stage for the relations of the three powers.
1950 (U.S.A.)'- Senator Joseph McCarthy encourages the government to begin purges of the DSUP. Dwight D. Eisenhower is named the first Secretary General of the U.N.
1950 (Japan)- Japanese troops invade the Russian Far East.
1950 (Germany)- Joachim von Ribbentrop signs the Ribbentrop-Marshall Pact, ensuring the return of former German Pacific colonies
1951 (U.S.A.)- The United States conducts H-bomb tests. Other countries respond negatively. President Kennedy forcefully removes socialistic Henry A. Wallace as Governor of the Philippines.
1951 (Japan)- Uprisings in Vietnam and Tibet destabilize local government. 3000 Hanoi citizens are killed by a group known as Viet Minh. However, major advances are made against Russians in the Far East.
1951- 77 year-old former U.K. politician Winston Churchill (who is residing in exile in Canada) is elected Secretary General of the U.N.
1951 (Germany)- Wehrmacht troops are sent to the Suez Canal after the radical Free French Forces conduct attacks on ships.
1952 (Japan)- Viet Minh declares war against the Japanese occupiers. Japan is now fighting two wars.
1952 (Germany)- German scientists announce they have made their own atom bomb. Meanwhile, in Kenya, black rebels are massacred.
1952 (U.S.A.)- General and diplomat Dwight Eisenhower is elected president.