1762 – Frederick II of Prussia shot himself after the defeat of his last army. Prussia was completely occupied by Russian, Austrian, Swedish and Saxonian troops. French and Austrian armies invaded Hanover.

1763 – Treaty in Paris ended Seven Years War. Prussian kingdom was destroyed – East Prussia goes to Russia, Silesia and Kleve – to Austria, Western Pomerania – to Sweden, Mark – to France, Hale and Cottbus – to Saxony, Ostfriesland – to Oldenburg, Ravensberg, Lingen and Minden – to Hanover. Frederick’s heir, Henry, now was only margrave of Brandenburg. Great Britain have to withdraw its troops from French and Spanish colonies in America and India.

In Russia in this time died Catherine, wife of the heir to the throne, prince Pyotr Fedorovich. It was rumored that she was poisoned because of his adultery with the Horse Guards officer Orlov.

1764 – death of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. Pyotr Fedorovich came to the throne (as Pyotr III).

1766 – Pyotr III declares war to Denmark to return Schleswig – his ancestral domain. He personally led Russian army in this very unpopular in Russia . 26.09.1766 – he died in battle near Flensburg. His heir, Pavel I, was only 13 years old, so regency – Imperial Council, leaded by count Panin, was formed.

1767 – Sweden declares was to Russia (king Adolf Frederick accused members of the Imperial Council of his relative Puotr III’s murder).

1768 – Turkey declares war to Russia.

1770 – Russian-Swedish war ends without annexations.

1773 – Russian-Turkish war ends with Russian victory. Russia annexed Black Sea coast, Crimea declares independence from Ottoman rule. Pavel I dissolves the Imperial Council and began to rule on their own.

1783 – Crimea was annexed into Russia.

1789 – French Revolution start. Louis XVI of France have to convene the Estates General – Estates representative body.

1790 – III Estate proclaimed himself the National Assembly and refuse to obey the king. Louis send army to scatter the Assembly. Street fighting started in Paris between forces of the King Louis and the Paris Commune National Guard. At the end, King was captured, imprisoned and soon executed. French Republic was proclaimed.

1791 – Austria, Spain, Saxony, Netherlands and Naples declared war to France. War of the First Coalition started. At first time, French Republic Was in a difficult situation – surrounded by enemies and with social troubles inside. But to 1793 new French army under generals Joubert and Moreau defeated interventionist troops and invade Germany.

1792 – Great Britain joined the anti-French coalition and occupied Canada and Louisiana.

1793 – Belgium was annexed into France, Cisrhenian republic was proclaimed in Western Germany.

1796-1797 – French generals Jean Victor Moreau and Napoleon Bonaparte invaded and conquered Western Germany, Netherlands and Italy. Now France was in circle of puppert republics – Cisrhenian, Teutonic (former Hessen), Batavian (former Netherlands), Cisalpine (former Piedmont), Helvetic (former Switzerland), Etrurian (former Toscana), Parthenopean (former Naples), Roman (former Holy See). Austria was forced to conclude a peace treaty. However, it would be only a temporary respite.

1799 – War restarted. Now anti-French Coalition was bigger – UK, Russia and Ottoman Empire joined it. At the first time, joint Russian-Austrian army headed by hero of Russia-Turkish war Alexander Suvorov ousted French out from Italy. But soon conflict between Russian Emperor Paul I and Holy Roman Emperor Franz II led to the collapse of the coalition. Russia and Turkey left the war, and Moreau finally defeats Austrian army in battle for Hohenlinden in 1800.

1800 – Jean Victor Moreau makes a coup in Paris and proclaims himself First Consul of France. His enemies (most notable general Bonaparte) must to flee from France.

1805-1807 – War of the Third Coalition. Moreau’s army finally defeated Austrian, Saxonian and Bavarian forces. Holy Roman Empire was replaced by new French puppet – German Union.

1809 – Moreau intervened into the Polish Civil War to support the radical republicans-unionists. This intervention leads to war with Russia.

1810 – French army invaded Russia. Moreau can took Moscow, but, during the next winter, huger, cold and space ended his army. After destruction of the main French army, war in Europe restarted.

1811 – Moreau died in battle near Leipzig. New First Consul Joseph Fouché agreed to peace treaty.

1812 – Congress in Vienna formulated the requirements for peace – France had to withdraw from Germany, Italy (in this regions local monarchies will be restored), Belgium (which will go to Netherlands) and Northern America (to Britain). Fouché agreed to this requirements, but they caused uproar in Paris. Fouché was deposed, and new Consul, Joachim Murat, restart war.

1814 – Paris falls to the Coalition. Murat was executed, French Republic ended, and King Louis XVII (brother of Louis XVI) restored at the throne. In the Second Congress in Vienna Holy Roman Empire also was restored. Rzeczpospolita was divided into 2 parts – Kingdom of Poland under Saxonian Wettin rule and Grand Duchy of Lithuania (not only Rzeczpospolita’s subject with this name, but also 3 Ukrainian Voivodships of Poland) – autonomous state in Russian Empire. All European monarchs formed the Holy Alliance against the further revolutions.

1819 – death of Pavel I of Russia. His second son, Dmitry Pavlovich, come to a throne.

1820-1832 – North American Independence War. Strange union of Carolinian and Georgian plantations owners, whom afraid for his slave-owner status, New England merchants, who want to have equal rights with there London colleagues, and Canadian and Louisianan Frenchmen, who simply hate English rule, fight against the British rule. After a long time, war go into stalemate – UK forces effectively control coastal line, while interior was in rebel’s hands. War ended with treaty of Hague – Britain recognizes independence of 11 colonies – Canada, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, but still control New England colonies, which was reorganized into self-government dominion, Newfoundland and western half of Hudson Bay Company lands.

11 colonies create loose confederation – so-called United States of America with famous rebel general Andrew Jackson as first president.

1826, May, 26 – during the Russian Army exercises near the Belaya Tserkov, group of the radical republican-minded officers lead by Colonels Paul Pestel and Sergey Muravyov-Apostol make the revolt and killed Emperor Dmitry and his heir Grand Prince Nicolas, presented there, and raise forces of 3 army corps in revolt. 2 June – rebel army capture Kiev, where Pestel proclaimed Russian Republic. Russian Civil war start.

1827 – Kiev government officially abolished serfdom in Russia.

1828 – Russian Civil war ended with Royalist victory. New Emperor Mikhail II agree to official abolish serfdom in Empire to prevent peasants revolts.

1837 – Ernst-Augustus of Hanover crowned as king of Great Britain.

1839-1842 – Great Lakes war between Canada, Louisiana, Virginia and Georgia for the Northwest territory – first from different wars, which ended USA unity.

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