Here lies the sixteenth century in the timeline of The Lion and the Rose. This period of timeline starts from the point of divergence in 1555, and runs until the year of 1599. Due to the Butterfly effect, the world as we know it becomes unrecognizable, and event after event from our timeline does not happen, building up and the result is a vastly different timeline. The timeline only includes notable events.
- 14 April 1555: Mary I of England gives birth to Philip II's child named Henry von Habsburg in Greenwich, Kingdom of England, making a Habsburg the heir to the English throne.
- 16 Jan 1556: Charles V finally abdicates the Kingdom of Spain to his son, who becomes Philip II of Spain.
- 1 Aug 1556: The Ottoman Empire harasses Spain at the port of Oran in Africa, but the assault is unsuccessful.
- 3 Feb 1559: Henry II of France and Philip II of Spain sign the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis.
- 10 July 1559: Henry II of France dies at Place des Vosges in Paris from an eye wound, and the young Francis II becomes King of France.
- 5 Dec 1560: Francis II of France dies in Orléans from an ear condition and his brother Charles IX becomes King of France.
- 3 Jan 1562: The Edict of Saint-Germain is put into effect by the regent of France, Catherine de' Medici, which provided limited tolerance to the Protestant Huguenots in the Roman Catholic realm.
- 1 March 1562: The Massacre of Vassy occurs in France, where Francis of Guise (along with the Catholic League) slaughter Huguenot worshipers in an armed action, starting the First French War of Religion.
- 19 March 1563: The Edict of Amboise is put into effect by the regent of France, which scaled back Huguenot rights from the Edict of Saint-Germain, but still allowed open and unregulated Protestant services in the private households of nobles. This causes the end of the First French War of Religion.
- 1 June 1563: The Ottoman Empire harasses Spain at the ports of Oran and Mers El Kébir in Africa, but the assault is unsuccessful.
- 11 Sep 1565: The Ottoman Empire harasses Spain and Allies on the island of Malta, but the assault is unsuccessful.
- 10 Nov 1567: The Second French War of Religion starts with Anne de Montmorency attacking Huguenots at Saint-Denis; the Catholic Royalists win the Battle of Saint-Denis (Second French War of Religion).
- 23 March 1567 The Peace of Longjumeau is signed, effectively putting an end to the Second French War of Religion between the Catholic Loyalists and the Huguenots.
- 24 July 1568: Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias dies at twenty-three in solitary confinement at the Alcázar of Madrid, making Mary's son Henry the heir apparent of both England and Spain.
- 21 Nov 1568: Elizabeth Tudor, half-sister of Mary I of England flees from house arrest to the court of Scotland to gather support for a revolt against Catholic and Spanish influences in Spain.
- 25 Feb 1569: To strengthen her view as a tolerant politique among Huguenots, Catherine de Medici marries her son, Duke Henry of Anjou to Elizabeth of England. As regent over Charles IX, she also begins aligning herself toward the Huguenots.
- 3 March 1569: The Edict of Nantes is put into effect by Catherine de Medici, which granted Calvinist Protestants substantial rights in France, attempting to open a path for secularism and tolerance.
- 4 March 1569: Duke Henry I of Guise and Leader of the Catholic League in France stages a revolt against the Huguenot tolerant-aligned French monarchy, starting the Third French French War of Religion.
- 7 March 1569: Elizabeth Tudor comes out of the shadows in Scotland, and proclaims that she is the rightful Queen of England, starting the Elizabethan Revolt. With the marriage to Duke Henry of Anjou, Elizabeth de facto joins the Third French War of Religion.
- 24 March 1569: After calls from the Catholic League and Elizabeth Tudor allying herself with the French, Mary and Philip along with the Duchy of Savoy invade France to enforce Catholic principles (making Philip de facto joining the Elizabethan Revolt as well).
- 6 May 1569: Queen Mary of Scotland officially joins the war and moves Scottish troops into Northern England, effectively making the Elizabethan Revolt a stalemate.
- 8 May 1569: King Criomthann of Leinster, due to his belief in Irish independence puts down religious disputes and joins the Elizabethan Revolt for promised sovereignty under Elizabeth.
- 13 Nov 1569: King Criomthann effectively seizes Ireland and proclaims himself King of Ireland. The war on mainland Britain remains a stalemate, but the war in France continues to go successfully for the Spanish and the Catholic League.
- 27 June 1570: The Ottomans start the Fourth Ottoman–Venetian War which ignites a chain of alliances resulting in the Spanish and many Italian states going to war.
- 30 Aug 1570: King Criomthann moves an Irish army onto the English mainland, yet mainly ineffective, it ends the stalemate, and turns the Elizabethan Revolt in favor of Elizabeth. Much of France is occupied by Catholic and Spanish forces.
- 27 Feb 1572: With the fall of Paris to Catholic and Spanish forces, Pope Pius V excommunicates Charles IX and declares Henry of Guise as the King of France. The Third French War of Religion continues, but the Huguenots and the Aligned-Monarchy are at a major disadvantage.
- 11 May 1572: Both Valois brothers (Charles IX & Henry III) are slain in skirmishes around La Rochelle, this severely weakens the Hugenot-aligned belligerents. Henry of Navarre continues an underground movement in southern France.
- 2 June 1572: Henry of Navarre is caught retreating from battle in Nérac. This effectively ends the underground movement and the Third French War of Religion. Henry of Navarre is forced to sign the Peace of Oloron-Sainte-Marie.
- 10 June 1572: Henry IV of France repeals the Edicts of Nantes and Amboise, and in their space passes the Edict of Rouen, getting rid of religious toleration in the Kingdom of France.
- 1 Jan 1573: The Elizabethan Revolt continues in England, but begins to turn in the favor of Mary due to the landing of Spanish troops in Dover.
- 7 March 1573: The Ottomans successfully siege and seize the island of Cyprus, effectively ending the Fourth Ottoman–Venetian War.
- 18 Jan 1574: With the fall of all of their strongholds, Elizabeth and her coalition are forced to sign the Peace of London which officially disinherits Elizabeth and puts England under a stronger Catholic grip.
- 31 Jan 1580: The Death of King Henry I of Portugal leads to the disputed succession between King Philip II of Spain and António, Prior of Crato over the Portuguese Crown.
- 17 April 1581: With the Seizure of Lisbon, Philip II acquires of the Kingdom of Portugal and its colonial possessions forming the Iberian Union.
- 18 July 1585: Mary I of England dies leaving the Kingdom of England to her son, who becomes Henry IX of England. This signals the end of the Tudor dynasty in England, and the start of the Habsburg domination of the kingdom.
- 13 Sep 1598: Philip II of Spain dies due to cancer leaving the Kingdom of Spain to his son, who becomes Henry I of Spain creating a union between the crowns of England and Spain.