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Timeline (The High King)

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The timeline of the story, starting a few years before the POD in 1171.

Timeline

Twelfth Century

The Norman Invasion (1169)

Dermot MacMurrough lands in Wexford. His army of Norman, French, and Flemish soldiers quickly regains Leinster. Waterford and Dublin fall under Anglo-Norman control. The Earl of Pembroke, Richard de Clare, marries MacMurrough's daughter and is named the heir to the Kingdom of Leinster. King Henry II of England, fearing a rival Norman state in Ireland, sets out to claim Ireland.

The English King (1171)

King Henry II landed at Waterford in 1171 and became the first English king to set foot on the island. He planned to re establish his authority over the Anglo-Norman territory. Soon after he arrived, however, Strongbow was killed at the Battle of Kildare.

Irish Reclamation (1171-1173)

After Strongbow dies, the power structure of southeastern and afterward northern Norman-controlled Ireland is in shambles. The Kingdom of Leinster is still under Norman control, and Henry II sends an army from England to fortify his position on the Island. Rory O'Connor defeats the Normans in Western areas of the island but doesn't get as far as Dublin.

Henry's Invasion of Ireland (1171-1174)

King Henry's army fortifies the Kingdom of Leinster and Dublin. He fights in northern areas of the island but is met with heavy resistance. The Anglo-Norman-controlled land is divided into the provinces of Leinster, Wexford, Waterford, and Dublin. Waterford becomes a part of the province of Leinster and Dublin is declared a royal city. The Kingdoms of Leinster and Wexford are declared, and the local Anglo-Norman rulers swear loyalty to the English king.

Richard ascends to the Throne (1173-1175)

After a less successful Ireland campaign, Henry II consolidates his kingdom in western France. He divides his land among his children, and they join in revolt against him. The crowned Henry the Young King is killed and Henry II also dies in the conflict. Richard the Lionheart inherits the empire.

Richard's War against Phillip II (1180-1187)

As he didn't need Philip's help in defeating his father, Richard never made an alliance with him. Instead, he sought to increase the Angevin Empire. He quickly moved his forces to rebel regions such as Angoulême and prepared to fight Phillip. By 1180, he stopped paying homage to Phillip. Phillip demanded that Richard pay homage, and Richard promptly declared war. The Angevin-French war ended in 1187 with the start of the Third Crusade. By the end of the war, Richard had not only captured more territory but was no longer the vassal of Phillip. Richard ruled his land on both the island and the continent as one kingdom, the Angevin Empire.

The First Crusade (1187-1194)

Richard declares tentative peace with the Kingdom of France to set out on the Fourth Crusade. He is able to conquer the islands of Greece and Constantinople. Norman forces defeat the Byzantine Emperor Alexios II in 1191 and establish the nominal "Latin Empire," a part of the Angevin Empire under control of the Angevin Emperor.

The Battle of Maqueda (1196)

A battle between an alliance of Almohads and King Alfonso VIII of Castile results in a decisive Almohad victory. The Almohad caliph then easily captures Toledo. The Kingdom of Castile is considerably weakened.

Thirteenth Century

Castile Falls (1201-1205)

Toledo is captured, and the Almohads move north. With Castile in disarray, the Almohads swiftly conquer much of the south of the kingdom. In 1205, Burgos is captured. Alfonso VII flees to Leon.

Kingdom of Thessalonica (1210)

A rebellion in Thessalonica deposes the Piedmontese ruler.

Leon Falls (1214)

After they conquer Castile, the Almohads are attacked by Leon, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal. They fare far better on the Leonese front, and are able to capture much of the kingdom. Aragon, however, proves to be more difficult to defeat. The Almohads had not fortified eastern Castile yet, and face several defeats against Aragon. A treaty in November 1214 ends the war. Al-Andalus is established as the most powerful kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula.

Byzantine Treaty (1215)

Angevin Emperor Richard II signs a treaty with the Byzantine successor states of Nicaea and Thessalonica. His son Henry III is married to Euphrosyne, daughter of the Nicaean emperor Theodoros I.

Irish Uprising (1230-1237)

The rebellion in the Irish territories of the Angevin empire intensifies. The people of the two vassal kingdoms, Leinster and Wexford, now have an Anglo-Irish identity and depose English-appointed governors. The kings of Leinster and Wexford flee to England. King Richard II sends a large army to Ireland, quickly quelling the rebellion. He begins to conquer land previously lost after the first Norman invasion. The uprising ends in 1237 with most of the territory under Angevin control. The Kingdom of Uí Néill is established in the northeast.

War with France (1245-1270)

Louis IX of France claims territory east of Normandy. In France, the continental territory of the Angevin Empire is largely considered French territory. He demands that Richard II either returns it or pays homage to him as the king of the continental Kingdom of France. Henry III then claims the throne of France, and Louis IX declares war. The Angevin conquest of France begins. The overwhelmingly more powerful Angevin army has trouble in more heavily-fortified areas of France. This long war ends in 1270 with the Treaty of Chinon, where Angevin Emperor Henry III is declared King of France.

Icelandic Expedition (1275-1277)

Icelandic explorer Sigur Ísleifsson finds Leif Ericsson's "Vinland" while exploring land west of Greenland. News is brought back to Iceland, and then to the rest of Europe. Angevin Emperor Richard III becomes interested in the find, and summons Ísleifsson to his court. He funds a second voyage, and sends some of his English knights along with Ísleifsson.

Treaty of Chinon (1278)

In early 1278, disputes between several French and German dukes result in battles. Soon the conflict escalates and a war between the two European empires seems inevitable. In June 1278, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III sends envoys to Chinon. He manages to negotiate a peace treaty.

Vinlandic Colony (1279)

News of the "New World" discovered West of Iceland starts attracting explorers and immigrants.

Romano-Angevin War (1281-1290)

The ambitious Richard III sees an opportunity to expand the empire. The Angevin Empire is by far the most powerful state in Europe, and though it is territorially comparable to the Holy Roman Empire it has many more resources. Richard amasses an army in eastern France in April 1281. By May, the Romano-Angevin War begins. The HRE is caught off at first, and the Angevins are able to capture important castles and towns. The Angevins push past the Rhine and advance on Nuremberg. The tide of the battle shifts in 1282, and the HRE mounts a fierce resistance. The Angevins are held back for some time, and their advancement in more eastern territories. They are able to capture key cities in the Italian peninsula by 1285, however. The war ends with the Battle of Prague in 1290 when Emperor Frederick III is killed, some Angevin historians say by Richard himself. Richard is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in November 1290.

Fourteenth Century

See Maps of Europe

The Steam Engine (1301)

An Andalusian scientist, Yusuf al-Muzaffar, invents an early form of the steam engine.

Vinland (1304)

The Vinlandic colony becomes a province of the Angevin Empire.

The Iberian War (1307-1312)

Al-Andalus sets out to conquer the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. Leon is conquered within the first year of the campaign. For the first time, the Iberian Catholic kingdoms call out to the Angevin Empire for help. Angevin Emperor Richard III has ambitions to conquer the Iberian peninsula and agrees to send help. The Angevins gain control of Navarre and Aragon as Portugal falls. They begin to push into Andalusian territory, but by 1308 the Andalusians push back into Aragon. They use unexpected experimental war machines, some of which can be described as "tanks." Many of these machines are powered by the steam engine invented by al-Mazaffar. The numerically superior but vastly technologically inferior Angevin army is overwhelmed. They are pushed back into southern France. The seemingly unstoppable Andalusian army marches toward Chinon. The Emperor is evacuated to London. Chinon is captured in 1310. The Angevin Empire is a weakened state, and rebellions across the Empire begin. By early 1311, however, an Angevin army mainly from Italy lands in Almería. The city is captured, and as much of the Andalusian army is in the north, they are able to quickly overtake cities on their way to Córdoba. Several months later another Angevin army lands in southern Al-Andalus. Córdoba is captured in late 1311 and talks of a peace treaty begin.

Treaty of Bordeaux (1312)

The Treaty of Bordeaux is signed in 1312. The Angevin Emperor and the Andalusian Caliph agree to retreat from each others' capital cities. The Angevin army is to leave Andalusia and the Andalusian army is to leave southern France. However, Al-Andalus keeps the territory gained during the war, except for Aragon which becomes an Angevin province.

Vinlandic Exploration (1315)

Vinlandic explorers discover most of OTL eastern Canada. Several new colonies are set up.

Manned Flight (1317)

Andalusian inventor al-Muzaffar performs the first successful manned flight in a glider-like machine. The test is performed just outside Istanbul.

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