Communist militant Joseph Stalin is killed during a bank robbery while leading a "fighting squad". He would later be immortalised as a hero of the proletariat.
The newspaper Pravda published an article by Lenin calling on the overthrow of the Russian provisional government. The Communist Party is declared illegal within Russia. The Mensheviks, led by Trotsky, cuts off all ties with the Bolsheviks.
Bolshevik uprising occurs in Russia, leading to the downfall of the provisional government. The new regime holds power as the vanguard of the proletariat. The uprising results in a civil war.
Beginning of the Soviet-Polish War with an attempted invasion of Soviet territory by Poland.
Russia recognizes the Persian Socialist Soviet Republic. Due to some internal instability, Russia limits its help to military equipment, fearing that any overt intervention might alienate the local population.
Thanks to the timely arrival of the 1st Cavalry Army of Semyon Budyonny and of the troops under Aleksandr Yegorov, Warsaw is captured ending the Soviet-Polish war
Note: *here* Stalin refused to obey orders before the crucial engagements of the Battle of Warsaw.
After the civil war, the 10th Party Congress adopts the New Economic Policy. This congress also marks the return of the Mensheviks into the fold.
Pyatakov is named general secretary of the Central Committee of the Party. The position is a strictly administrative one. At Lenin's urging, the Communist Party adopted a policy of tolerance toward "Proletarian Nationalism" defined as the legitimate nationalistic aspiration of minority groups. This form of nationalism is considered distinct from the "National-Socialism" of imperialistic countries, which it still condemned.
This policy would later be invoked to justify the "autonomisation" of Russia.
Creation of the All-Soviets Union (ASU). The union is to better co-ordinate military and some external policies between Soviet republics.
Trotsky delivers a speech denouncing the bureaucratization of the Party, and demanding a return to democracy at a local level (election of local representatives by members instead of appointment from the top).
Death of Lenin. The content of Lenin's political testament, at first, was to be known only to the higher echelon of the party. Some, however, opposed this and it was published. Local Soviets, feeling that Lenin was siding with them against an increasing bureaucracy, demanded reforms which they eventually managed to obtain.
As part of these reforms, state-owned factories are turned over to workers co-operative with total autonomy in exchange of a yearly tax based on production level. Local Soviets were also allowed to help set up co-operative and small industries within their area on which they could collect taxes to be re-invested in further industry.
At the 13th congress, a motion calling for "Socialism in one country" (i.e., Russia) is defeated and the objective of a "World Socialist Revolution" is reiterated.
The 15th Party Congress reaffirms its dedication to Worldwide Communism. It also agrees to slowly reduce the amount of prisoners in labour camps.
The Russian government founds itself short of two million tons of grain. As the grain existed, but due to low price, had not been sold by farmers, two possibilities were left to the government - requisition or raising the price. After much discussion, the latter was adopted.
To prevent enrichment of the kulaks through speculation, the government encouraged the setting up of collectives, with the possibility of obtaining a few pieces of farm equipment (such as tractors).
Second famine in ten years due to drought. It affected many areas, but was centered in the Ukraine. An international appeal is sent via the Comintern to encourage donations.
The Comintern openly supports the Spanish Communist Party during the Spanish Civil War, bypassing the republican government.
Victory of the Communists during the Spanish Civil War thanks in part to the presence of the Red Brigades. Spain becomes a Soviet Republic and enter the All-Soviets Union. The United Kingdom refuse to recognize the new government.
Although agricultural output had steadily risen, the Republics of the All-Soviets Union still largely lags behind other European countries in term of industrialization.
The republics of the All-Soviets Union enter the war after the invasion of the Ukraine by the Germans. The Soviet Republics make it clear that they are co-belligerents (i.e., fighting the same foe), but not officially in a military alliance with the Allies.
Although the Soviet Armies have equipment which is out of date, the soldiers can depend on a professional and well trained officer corps.
Founding of the Allied Nations Organisation.