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- March — Ivan Kuskov, on behalf of the Russian-American Company, selects an area in Spanish California to become the home of a Russian settlement.
- August — Fort Ross is competed. Ivan Kuskov encourages his men to permanently settle within the new colony.
- September 4 — The Russian Empire proclaims territorial sovereignty over Northwestern North America north of the 51st Parallel and the Slavyanka River Watershed.
- March 9 — (Battle of Fort Ross) Spanish forces are unsuccessful in capturing Fort Ross. The Russian Empire declares war on Spain, beginning the Russo-Spanish War.
- July — The Russian Empire proclaims their support for the Mexican Empire. A Russo-Mexican alliance is established.
- August 20 — The Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed between the Russian Empire, the Mexican Empire, and the Kingdom of Spain. Spain relinquishes all of its territorial claims (north of the 42nd Parallel) over to Russia and recognizes the independence of Mexico.
- March 15 — The Russian Empire and the United Kingdom ratify a treaty which defines the boundaries of the two nations in North America. The Columbia River (until reaching the northernmost bend) will be the border between British Columbia and Russian Oregon. It is agreed to jointly administer the territory north of the 51st Parallel and south of the 54th Parallel and 40 Minutes (colloquially known as New Caledonia).
- January 12 — The Russian Empire and the United States of America ratify a treaty which establishes the Great Divide as the boundary between the two nations.
- December — Dmitry Zavalishin, on behalf of the Russian-American Company, is able to convince the Mexican Empire to sell its territory northwest of the Sacramento River.
- February 10 — The Russian Empire takes over the administrative duties of Russian America from the Russian-American Company. The territory is organized into four oblasts: Cisalaska, New Russia, Oregon, and Transalaska.
- January 24 — Employees of Johann Sutter (a German-born Mexican pioneer) discover gold. New of the discovery sparks the California Gold Rush.
- September 9 — The Oblast of Sonoma is established.
- March 8 — The State Duma of Russian America formally declares the independence of the Alaskan Republic from the Russian Empire.