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Timeline (Rule, Britannia!)

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Timeline for Rule, Britannia!

11th century

  • 1016: The Danes and English engage in battle at Assandun. Canute of Denmark is killed and English victory is proclaimed. The English then proceed to drive the Danes from England.
  • 1051: Edmund II and is succeeded by his son Edward (the Exile OTL).
  • 1053: Margaret of Scotland marries Malcolm III of Scotland..
  • 1065: Edward the Peacemaker is succeeded by his son Edgar the Æþeling (Æthelin) after his death.
  • 1066: William, Duke of Normandy (the Conqueror) attempts the First Norman Invasion of England. At Hastings, Edgar defeats William and sends him back across the Channel.
  • 1071: Edgar dies without children. His nephew, Edgar of Scotland attempts to press his claim to the throne, but William of Normandy begins the Second Norman Invasion and defeats and kills Edgar. William is proclaimed King of England.
  • 1087: William dies and is succeeded by his second son Richard in England and his eldest son Robert in Normandy.
  • 1090: Robert Curthose, with the help of his younger brothers William Rufus and Henry Beauclerc, seizes the throne of England from Richard. Richard is exiled from England and Normandy, and dies in Hungary the same year.
  • 1096: The First Crusade is launched. Among its leaders are Godfrey of Bouillon and Robert I. Robert dies during the Siege of Antioch. The English end up separating from the rest of the Crusaders. Antioch is abandoned and the army collapses soon after.
  • 1096: William Clito returns from the Crusade and is coronated as William II of England (III of Normandy).

12th century

  • 1107: William III invades Wales and is killed. The English leave Wales and William Adelin becomes King.
  • 1151-1155: The Second Crusade is launched. Throughout the Crusade, the Muslims are expelled from Lisbon and are reduced to southern Iberia. In the Middle East, the Crusaders re-establish the County of Edessa (the only Crusader state of the First Crusade). They also establish the Principality of Antioch and the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • 1153: Robert, son of William IV, dies in the Battle of Jerusalem.
  • 1157: The Pope gives the King William IV of England overlordship of Ireland.
  • 1159: William IV dies and is succeeded by his nephew Henry I.
  • 1160s: Henry I of England expands his territories on the continent and Ireland.
  • 1171: Salah ad-Din creates the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt.
  • 1189-1194: As a result of the Muslim attacks on the Crusader states, the Third Crusade is launched. Henry II of England and Philip II of France unite to fight, as well as Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Under Barbarossa's leadership, the Crusaders recapture Jerusalem from the Muslims. King Henry, however, dies during the attempt to retake Antioch. He is succeeded by his brother Arthur. Barbarossa later died during the Siege of Acre, resulting in Arthur taking control of the Crusader army. The King of France refused to cooperate with him, and the French slowly left for home. Arthur led the remaining English and German forces in an assault on Jerusalem. After they retook Jerusalem, the newly arrived Leopold V of Austria backed Conrad of Montferrat for the title of King. However, Arthur supported the former King Guy. Eventually, Guy became king, with Conrad to inherit upon his death. This arrangement later became irrelevant, when a Muslim army led by Saladin's brother Al-Adil took Jerusalem back, resulting in the death of Conrad. As the Crusaders retreated, they were pursued by Saladin, who took Arthur capture. In the end, the Crusaders maintained control of Antioch and Edessa, as well as the newly created County of Tripoli. Arthur's sister Joan was married to Al-Adil as part of the negotiations. Upon his release, however, Duke Leopold had him arrested because he suspected him of causing Conrad's death during the retreat from Jerusalem. Both sides claimed victory, despite also having faced heavy casualties and other great losses. The Kingdom of Cyprus was established, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem continued to exist, despite not controlling the actual city.

13th century

  • 1202-1206: Arthur the Lionheart invades Wales, inifiltrating the Welsh Wars. He conquers several more Welsh territories that his predecessors had not before Gwynedd, led by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth the Great, threw him back and took back large swaths of land from him. In 1206, Richard met Llywelyn at Caernarfon, killing him and solidifying English control over Wales. He invested his son Edmund with the title Duke of Wales, a title that would become that of the heir apparent.
  • 1202-1206: The Fourth Crusade, after installing Alexios IV Angelos as Byzantine Emperor, proceeds to the Holy Land and succeeds in capturing the city of Jerusalem. Arthur, King of Cyprus and son of King Arthur of England, is named King of Jerusalem.
  • 1206: In Mongolia, Genghis Khan is proclaimed Great Khan of the Mongols.
  • 1213: King Arthur I of England dies and is succeeded by his brother John, usurping the throne from the Duke of Wales, who at the time was in the Holy Land.
  • 1213-1221: The Fifth Crusade is launched to expand the territory of the Crusader states. The Count of Tripoli dies and his County is taken over by King Arthur of Jerusalem. Edmund, Duke of Wales, leads a successful assault on Damascus. However, their gains are quickly reversed by the Muslims and the Fifth Crusade ends with little to no land changing hands.
  • 1215: John of England is forced to sign the Magna Carta.
  • 1221: The Duke of Wales returns to England at the end of the Fifth Crusade and takes the throne back from his uncle. He agrees to honor the Magna Carta.
  • 1228-1229: The Sixth Crusade is launched to break the power of Egypt. The Crusade fails and Antioch is lost.
  • 1248-1254: The Seventh Crusade attacks Egypt and fails again.
  • 1258: Baghdad falls to the Mongols. Egypt effectively becomes the dominant force in Islam.
  • 1260: Kublai Khan becomes the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
  • 1270-1273: The Eighth Crusade takes Antioch back.
  • 1275: The Mongols conquer Japan. Japan becomes a vassal and pays tribute to the Mongols.
  • 1282: Aragon conquers Sicily.
  • 1283-1285: Andronikos II calls for a Ninth Crusade against the Turks. Arthur III of Jerusalem comes to his aid. The Pope never acknowledges the Crusade, but many Germans and French travelled to fight the Turks. The Ninth Crusade was a major success for the Byzantines. Andronikos and Arthur both expand their territory.

14th century

  • Tenth and final Crusade.
  • Beginning of the Renaissance.
  • The Fifty Years' War occurs between England and France.
  • Scotland wins the Wars of Scottish Independence.
  • The Great Schism of the West begins in 1378.
  • The Ming Dynasty comes to power in China and the Yuan Dynasty is restricted to Mongolia.
  • The Ilkhanate collapses.
  • The Kalmar Union is established in 1397.

15th century

  • 1405-1433: Zheng He sails across the Indian Ocean.
  • 1420: Construction of the Forbidden City is completed.
  • 1438: The Incan Empire is founded.
  • 1440s: The Golden Horde collapses.
  • 1450s: Machu Picchu is constructed.
  • 1453: The Byzantine Empire holds off the Ottomans and ensures the survival of the Byzantine Empire for another century. It leads to the Ottomans focusing on the Arabian Peninsula and expanding there.
  • 1478: Muscovy conquers Novgorod.
  • 1493: Cristóvão Colombo lands in what will later be called Atlantis from Portugal.
  • 1495: Castile and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas.

16th century

  • 1500: Castilian navigator  Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters Brasil and claims it for Spain in violation of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
  • 1500: Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brasil for Portugal in order to rival the Castilian claim.
  • 1502: The Ottoman Sultan declares his intent to unite Persia. His goal is never completely realized but the Ottomans expand into northwestern Persia.
  • 1512: Copernicus proclaims the Sun to be the center of the solar system.
  • 1514: Sultan Selim I orders the massacre of Shia Muslims across the Ottoman lands.
  • 1515: The Ottomans take Western Anatolia from the Safavids.
  • 1516-1517: The Mamluks repulse Ottoman attempts to conquer Egypt.
  • 1517: The Modern Schism begins when the German Martin Luther is named Pope Urban VII out of Avignon.
  • 1519-1521: Hernán Cortés attempts to take Northern Brasil in the name of Spain. It results in his death and the abandonment of the Castilian claim to Brasil. The small area that he does conquer eventually becomes Amazonia.
  • 1521: Magellan returns to Spain after circumnavigating the world.
  • 1523: Sweden gains independence from the Kalmar Union.
  • 1524: Giovanni da Verrazzano is the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of Atlantis.
  • 1527: Norway and Sweden recognize the Pope in Avignon.
  • 1531: England recognizes the Pope in Avignon.
  • 1534: Jacques Cartier claims Quebec for France.
  • 1534: The Ottomans capture Baghdad.
  • 1536: Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal.
  • 1541: Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile.
  • 1543: Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and all the other planets revolve around the Sun.
  • 1547: Ivan the Terrible is crowned Tsar of All Russia.
  • 1548: The Ming Dynasty goes to war with Japan due to pirate attacks on China and Japan continuing to ignore the problem.
  • 1550: The Mongols lay siege to Beijing.
  • 1552: Russia conquers the Khanate of Kazan.
  • 1553: The Portuguese found a settlement at Macau.
  • 1556: Russia conquers the Astrakhan Khanate.
  • 1558: England loses Calais to France.
  • 1562-98: French Wars of Religion between the Eastern and Western Catholics.
  • 1565: The Hospitallers defeat the Ottomans at the Siege of Malta.
  • 1567: The Longqing Emperor ascends to the throne of the Ming Dynasty.
  • 1569: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is created.
  • 1572: The Incans hold off the Castilian again.
  • 1576: Sack of Antwerp.
  • 1579: The Union of Utrecht unifies the Northern Netherlands.
  • 1582: Pope Gregory XIII issues the Gregorian calendar.
  • 1584: William the Silent dies and is succeeded by his son Philip William, the future William V of England.
  • 1585-1604: Anglo-Castilian War.

17th century

1600-1649

  • The Ming Dynasty begins to collapse. The Qing dynasty establishes its control in Manchuria.
  • Creation of the Shun dynasty and the southern Ming.

1650-1699

18th century

1700-1749

1750-1799

  • 1775- 1783: Atlantean Revolution

19th century

1800s

  • Napoleonic Wars

1810s

1820s

1830s

1840s

1850s

1860s

  • Atlantean Civil War

1870s

1880s

1890s

20th century

1900s

1910s

  • Great War ends in 1912 with Grand Alliance victory. Austria-Hungary divided into four countries. Creation of Poland from Prussian and Russian territory. Caucasia, Ukraine and Crimea created from Russian territory.
  • Russian Revolution. Massive reform in Russia.

1920s

  • Chinese Civil War

1930s

  • Second Great War

1940s

  • Korean Revolution
  • Beginning of decolonization

1950s

1960s

1970s

  • Ethiopian Revolution

1980s

1990s=

  • Natal Revolution
  • Reunification of France

21st century

2000s

2010s

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