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The Death of Prince Casimir
The Teutonic Order attempted to take Brześć Kujawski after standing all day in the sun. The German army from the Teutonic Order had 7,000 men, and was opposed by a Polish army of 5000 men. On September 27, 1331 one-third of the Teutonic Order's force of knights under Dietrich von Altenburg left the blockaded peasant town of Płowce. The Poles, under Wladysław I the Elbow-high and his son Casimir, immediately attacked in a frontal assault. They were immediately joined by Polish detachments hiding in a forest to the left of the town. Reportedly, during the first phase of the battle Prince Casimir was ordered to depart so as not to deprive the Polish Kingdom of the presumptive heir, Casimir told his father that he will stay at the battle and help his father and he stayed at the battle, however Prince Casimir died in action and was defeated by the Teutonic Knights, the news of the death of Prince Casimir was heard by the King but the Polish army won but Wladyslaw the Elbowhigh was left heirless by the battle and the body of Prince Casimir was found in the battlefield and was buried in Krakow.The King of Bohemia and Poland, John who was recognized by Masovian and Silesian duchies knew about the death of Casimir III in October of 1331,with help of the Teutonic Knights and Masovian and Silesian Piasts and John of Bohemia and Poland, and the union of Gniezno was made and the archbishop of Gniezno recognized John of Bohemia as the King of Poland and Bohemia formally and was coronated there as the King of Poland, Wladyslaw heard the news of Greater Poland being seized by John of Bohemia and John of Bohemia is crowned as the King of Poland and their next target was Krakow, the capital of the Polish Kingdom, Krakow was sacked by the armies of John the King of Bohemia and Poland, Wladyslaw the Elbowhigh fled to the husband of his daughter, Charles Robert of Hungary and died the following year, Aldona and her daughter Elizabeth went to Pomerania where Aldona of Lithuania went to the court of Boguslaw, a prince in Pomerania, the Masovian dukes made a pact of inheritance with the Kings of Bohemia and Poland.Jutta, the daughter of John of Luxembourg was married to the future John II of France on 28 July 1332 at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun. She was 17 years old, and the future king was 13. The name for Jutta (or Guta) translatable into English as Good, was changed by the time of marriage to Bonne (French) or Bona (Latin). Upon marriage, Bonne was the wife of the heir to the French throne, becoming Duchess of Normandy, and Countess of Anjou and of Maine. The wedding was celebrated in the presence of six thousand guests. The festivities were prolonged by a further two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. Duke John of Normandy (as King John II was known as a prince) was solemnly granted the arms of a knight in front of a prestigious assistance bringing together the kings of Luxembourg and Navarre, and the dukes of Burgundy, Lorraine and the Brabant. In 1333, Aldona of Lithuania said to Boguslaw V let's start a battle against the Luxembourgs, Bogislaw V said to Aldona of Lithuania that he does not want to start a battle that would drain their military and that a war with Poland-Bohemia will drain their resources and lose the battle and they always have petty wars with the Teutonic Order, Aldona became calm and talked to him to and betrothed her daughter to him.Blanche of Valois gave birth to a son whom his father named Wenceslaus in June 3, 1334, Charles of Bohemia came to Pomerania to seek the hand of Elisabeth of Poland for her to be pledged to Wenceslaus, the son of John of Bohemia, something that irritated Aldona and she disagreed, she was enraged by the proposal and she expelled Charles of Bohemia from Boguslaw's court, Elisabeth of Poland was instead betrothed to Boguslaw IV who sheltered Aldona, Aldona herself was married Prince Otto of Denmark in 1335, it was in no way that Boguslaw IV can support Elisabeth of Poland's weak claims to the throne of Poland but the betrothal pushed through in order to protect herself from the Luxembourgs, Blanche of Valois and Wenceslaus of Bohemia were sent to Krakow.The marriage of King John of Bohemia and Beatrice of Bourbon was solemnized in the Château de Vincennes in December 1334. But because the two were related in a prohibited degree (they were second cousins through their common descent from Henry V, Count of Luxembourg, and his wife Margaret of Bar), Pope Benedict XII had to give dispensation for the marriage, which was granted in Avignon on 9 January 1335 at the request of Philip VI.Beatrice de Bourbon arrived in Bohemia on 2 January 1336.On 25 February 1337, Queen Beatrice gave birth in Prague to her only child, he was named Henry.Shortly after her coronation as the Queen of Bohemia and Poland, in June 1337, Beatrice left Bohemia leaving her son behind, and went to live in Luxembourg. After this, she rarely visit the Bohemian Kingdom.In 1339 the attention of the Luxembourgs was changed, Elisabeth of Poland was not important anymore because another heiress to Wladyslaw the Elbowhigh from Swidnica, The infant Grand daughter of Henry II of Swidnica, Kunigunde of Swidnica is betrothed and pledged to Wenceslaus and Wenceslaus was assigned by his own grandfather to be the Highduke of Poland, the direct ruler of Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and the overlord of Silesian and Masovian duchies and the Duchy of Wroclaw once he comes of Age.In 1340, the Duke of Kuyavia, Wladyslaw the White was betrothed to Margaret of Bohemia. Wladyslaw made peace with the Teutonic Knights and along with his recognition for John of Bohemia as the King of Poland. The Szlachta were granted privileges by John of Bohemia.
Lost at Crecy
Edward III was not content with the peace agreement made in his name, but the renewal of the war with Scotland originated in private, rather than royal initiative. A group of English magnates known as The Disinherited, who had lost land in Scotland by the peace accord, staged an invasion of Scotland and won a great victory at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332. They attempted to install Edward Balliol as king of Scotland in David II's place, but Balliol was soon expelled and was forced to seek the help of Edward III. Jutta, the daughter of John of Luxembourg was married to the future John II of France on 28 July 1332 at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun. She was 17 years old, and the future king was 13. The name for Jutta (or Guta) translatable into English as Good (in the feminine case), was changed by the time of marriage to Bonne (French) or Bona (Latin). Upon marriage, Bonne was the wife of the heir to the French throne, becoming Duchess of Normandy, and Countess of Anjou and of Maine. The wedding was celebrated in the presence of six thousand guests. The festivities were prolonged by a further two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. Duke John of Normandy (as King John II was known as a prince) was solemnly granted the arms of a knight in front of a prestigious assistance bringing together the kings of Luxembourg and Navarre, and the dukes of Burgundy, Lorraine and the Brabant. The English king responded by laying siege to the important border town of Berwick and defeated a large relieving army at the Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward reinstated Balliol on the throne and received a substantial amount of land in southern Scotland. These victories proved hard to sustain, however, as forces loyal to David II gradually regained control of the country. In 1338, Edward was forced to agree to a truce with the Scots. The French carried out raids on English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale French invasion. In 1337, Philip VI confiscated the English king's duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu. Instead of seeking a peaceful resolution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, the way his father had done, Edward responded by laying claim to the French crown as the grandson of Philip IV. The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected his claim. Instead, they upheld the rights of Philip IV's nephew, King Philip VI (an agnatic descendant of the House of France), thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War. Edward III allied with the Holy Roman Emperor In 1338, Louis IV named Edward vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire and promised his support. These measures, however, produced no results. The Battle of Crécy happened on 24 August 1346 near Crécy in northern France, and was one of the most important battles of the Hundred Years' War. The smaller English army won against the much larger French army. New tactics and weapons make this an important battle in the history of warfare because the English used longbows to win against French knights. The longbow was a faster weapon to fire than the French and Genoan crossbow and could send arrows farther than the crossbow could and could send an arrow through a suit of armour. Before this battle during the Middle Ages, knights had been the most important part of an army. Because of this change some historians call this battle the beginning of the end of chivalry.In the battle, the French knights, protected by chain mail re-inforced with metal plate, were nearly exhausted by charging several miles into the battle (against their king's wishes). Their horses had to walk through deep mud and charge up a hill into English and Welsh arrow storm. They were cut down. Many French nobles died. The knights' horses were barely protected at all. The storm of arrows killed or disabled the knights' mounts, and left the knights floundering in the mud on foot beneath a hail of arrows.The bolts (heavy arrows) of the hired Genoese crossbowmen at the forefront of the battle could not reach the English. They fell short because the crossbow strings were wet. The archers had also misjudged the range and shot too early and too low. The English, controlling the high ground, were able to run a short distance down the hill and pick off the Genoese with volleys of arrows. As the Genoese attempted to retreat, they were cut down by the French knights, who thought the withdrawal was cowardly. This wasted the first charge of French cavalry, and left them disorganized for the charge on the English.In a strong defensive position, Edward III ordered that everyone fight on foot. He split the army in three divisions, one commanded by his sixteen-year-old son, Edward, the Black Prince. The archers were set in a 'V-formation' along the top of the hill. While they waited, the English built a system of ditches, pits and caltrops, to hurt and bring down the enemy cavalry.But they were surprised by the new batch of French and an addition of Polish knights who were led by John of Luxembourg who defeated the English army due to the exhaustion of the English knights in the earlier battle, half of the English knights and the Holy Roman knights in the side of England perished because of the battle because of that Edward the Black Prince experienced a humiliating defeat against the French and their allies. Because of the defeat Edward III gave up his claims to the French throne and made homage to King of France for Aquitaine but Edward did not really give up his claims to the French throne he just changed his own strategy, he just changed his strategy in acquiring it.
The Later reign of John of Bohemia
John of Bohemia visited the French King again in 1341 and visited his daughter Bonne to know what happened to his daughter, Bonne he saw his daughter and her own children with her husband, however her husband was also happy seeing him.
The Galician Boyars invited the Polish Prince Boleslaw Yuri II, a grandson of Yuri I, to assume the Galician throne. Boleslaw converted to Orthodoxy and assumed the name Yuri II. Nevertheless, suspecting him of harboring Catholic feelings, the boyars poisoned him in 1340 and elected one of their own, Dmitry Detko, to lead the Galician state. Euphemia of Lithuania later was remarried to Louis of Hungary months after the death of Boleslaw Yuri. In Winter 1341 Tatars, Ruthenians led by Detko, and Lithuanians led by Liubartas, were able to defeat Hungarians, although they were not so successful in Summer 1341. Charles Robert died at Visegrád, Hungary in 1342. His funeral ceremony - at city of Székesfehérvár - was attended by his lifelong ally Charles of Bohemia and Poland, the son of John I of Bohemia, however, Charles of Bohemia and Louis of Hungary were not in good terms due to what happened to his grandfather, Wladyslaw the Elbowhigh who died 10 years ago, Louis of Hungary was angry that Charles of Bohemia and Louis of Hungary fought but Elisabeth of Poland stopped the fight between the two and sent Charles of Bohemia out of Székesfehérvár.Finally, Detko was forced to accept Hungarian overlordship, as a starost of Halych. After Detko's death, Hungary's King Louis I mounted a successful invasion, capturing and annexing Galicia in 1349. Galicia–Volhynia ceased to exist as an independent state.Only in 1349, after the occupation of Galicia–Volhynia by the Hungarian force, the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia was finally conquered and Galicia-Volhynia was partitioned between Lithuania and Hungary, Volhynia is made a vassal of Lithuania under Liubartas and Galicia was incorporated in Hungary. This act put an end to the relationship of vassalage between Galicia–Volhynia Rus' and the Golden Horde. In 1349 Algirdas died suddenly so Andrew of Polotsk inherited Lithuania and became Andrew of Lithuania started the conversion of Lithuania to Orthodoxy something that made the nobles of Samogitia and Highland Lithuania to revolt so Andrew of Lithuania guaranteed freedom of religion to the Pagan Lithuanians but secretly he sent Orthodox bishops to Pagan Lithuania in order to prosetylize the Orthodox faith and sent emissaries to the Byzantine Empire.
The Treaty of Caen and Afterward
After the war, in the Treaty of Caen in 1347, Edward III was guaranteed the Suzerainty of Gascony and Saintonge as parts of Aquitaine but he would lose Pointhieu and the other parts of Aquitaine, Edward III made a move in order to improve their claim to the French throne, he would have Blanche of Navarre marry Edward the Black Prince, King Edward fetched Blanche of Navarre from Navarre in order for her to get to know Edward the Black Prince in 1348, Blanche of Navarre was very much happy seeing Edward, the Black Prince when she met him, her dowry is Navarre north of the Pyrenees which made her a good marriage prospect for Edward the Black Prince.
The reign of Charles and Wenceslaus III
In 1355, Kunigunde of Swidnica is married to Wenceslaus of Bohemia and they were both crowned as the High Duke and High Duchess of Poland respectively, Kunigunde gave birth to a son named John Boleslaw in October 5, 1356, in 1356, John of Bohemia and Poland dies and Charles of Bohemia becomes the King of Poland and Bohemia.Wenceslaus III established the Voivodeships in Poland, the Voivodeships of Poland that are established are Poznan, Kalisz, Sandomierz,, Krakow and Wroclaw, his son John Boleslaw was betrothed to Elisabeth of Pomerania, the youngest daughter of Elisabeth of Poland, Queen of Pomerania in 1360.In 1360, Krakow revolted against Wenceslaus III of Poland in support of Louis of Hungary. The Cracovian revolt was bloody due to the huge casualties, Silesia ,Sandomierz and Greater Poland remained loyal to Wenceslaus III, Krakow was burnt damaged by the rebellion which caused the people of Krakow to flee. After the Cracovian revolt Krakow was resettled by Poles and Germans but majority of the resettlers were Germans and the capital of the Polish throne was moved to Wroclaw.