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This timeline elaborates on the alternative history of the Pax Columbia world. All other historical events are basically assumed to have a parallel event.

Height of Holy Roman Empire

  • 1508: Failed League of Cambrai. Venice under Leonardo unites Northern Italy. Pope Julius II dies. This dramatically decreases the foreign influence of the Pope and the Papal States.
    Pope Julius II

    Pope Julius II (The "Warrior" Pope)

  • 1532: The Papal Crusades. Papal States fall to Ottomans who destroy the Vatican.
  • November 5, 1605 The Gunpowder Plot is successful in England, killing King James I. With the aid of Spain, an English Catholic cabal destroys the House of Parliament. The incompetent King James I of England is killed. James’ 9-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia, a catholic, is installed as Queen.
  • 1611: The Queen Elizabeth Bible is first printed.
  • 1629: Through Royal Marriage the Brandenburg
    Coat of arms of Brandenburg

    Brandenburg coat of arms.

    ’s begin control of Poland and their vassal Lithuania.
  • 1690: Teacup War. The Russian East China Company successfully provokes the first Sino-Russian war which takes place over tea, ceramics, and silk trade, which had been restricted by the Qing Dynasty.
  • 1704 Marlborough and Eugene invade Vienna. Burgundy Prince George of Darmstadt with Welsh, Scottish, and Irish allies invade Wales.
  • 1709 French and Bavaria win in the battle of Malpaquet. Welsh withdraw from the United Kingdom.
  • 1710 With the lack of Tory representation the Whigs retain control of the House of Commons. Queen Anne is urged to continue war with France and Spain.
  • 1713 Treaty of Utrecht: Phillip, Duke of Anjou recognized as King of Spain and rights to the French Throne. Venice receives Sicily. Naples receives sovereignty over lands between Amazon and Oyapock river in Brazil. Formerly partitioned island of Saint Kitts ceded to Spain. Trade with far Indian and Iroquois were restricted to French and Spanish.
  • Wales succeeds as independent country with Spanish and French support. Scotland remains free from British rule. Spanish Hegemony is solidified. The Balance of Power concept is abandoned.
  • 1701: War of Spanish-French Succession creates a French-Spanish superpower after the Holy Roman Empire fails to enter the war, too busy in a war with the Ottoman Turks, who occupy Rome.The last Hapsburg king Charles II dies, leaving his grandson, King Louis XIV of France as his successor, creating a French-Spanish superpower. To prevent this: Britain, Burgundy, Portugal, and the Duchy of Savoy go to war to oppose the unification against France, Spain, Bavaria, Scotland and Venice. The grand Alliance does not include The Holy Roman Empire, currently fighting a war with the Ottoman Turks.
  • 1718: War of the Two Crowns. Holy Roman Empire invades Sardinia, provoking a war with Spain. France does not participate.
  • 1720: Holy Roman Empire and Bourbon Spain end war with Spanish Burgundy and Alsace succeeded to the Empire. Naples retains control of Sardinia. Venice gains control of Tuscany. Ottomans leave Italy.
  • 1722: Treaty of Gloucester. Wales and England end war of Welsh Independence. welsh
    Flag of Wales

    Original Welsh Flag

  • 1733: Kurdistan and Timurid independence from Russia.
  • 1750: Treaty of Madrid. Spain and Portugal finally end their half century formal conflict.
  • 1756: Seven Years War breaks up half-century Spanish-French super-alliance. What started as a small regional war ends up involving Prussia, England, Hapsburg-Polish Alliance, Burgundy, and Spain vs. the Holy Roman Empire, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Wales and France. Duke of Berry’s claim to Spanish throne provokes Spain and French involvement. This breaks up half-century Spanish-French super-alliance.
  • 1758: France is now independent. Burgundy consolidates power, takes over Lorraine.
  • 1761: Italian Unification. Congress of Vienna Unifies Republic of Venice with Kingdom of Sicily and Kingdom of Sardinia.
  • 1768: Italy pays 40 million liras to France for the Alps region Côte d'Azur. Napoleon born as an Italian citizen.

Revolutionary Wars period

  • 1774: Foolish Fatherland begins in North American east coast. North American war of Independence from Britain. Constant fighting between federalists and centralists gives rise to prolonged period of instability. Autonomous states start to declare themselves sovereign from each other, breaking up North America.
  • 1780: Revolutionary War. Also known as the Granada War of Independence/South American Revolution. Also known as the Granada War of Independence. Stifling Economic pressures in the state of Venezuela and the Spanish occupation of Cartagena force a revolt in the South American colonies against the Spanish Monarchy. South American Colonists gains support of France, Italy, and Poland-Lithuania, Sweden vs. Spain, Burgundy, Holy Roman Empire, Russia, Denmark-Norway.
  • 1786: Treaty of Paris recognizes Columbian-American Independence.
  • 1786: Federated States of Columbia (FSC). Constitutional Separation of Powers and Bill of Rights are written in Bogotá by the FSC continental congress.
  • 1789-1803: Italian Revolution. Radical political changes collapses the Italian absolute monarchy.
  • 1803: Ohio Republic established.

Napoleonic Wars

  • 1803-1815: Napoleonic Wars. Ultimately this resulted in the dissolution of the Prussian Empire and the strengthening of the Holy Roman Empire, as the Roman Empire. It sowed the seeds of nascent nationalism in Roman Empire and Poland. Meanwhile the global French Empire began to unravel as Italian occupation of France weakened French hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in French America. As a direct result of the Napoleonic Wars the Spanish Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, thus beginning Pax Españia.
  • 1804: Coronation of Napoleon I as King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1805 Napoleon I named First Consul of France.
  • 1809: Capital of FSG moved to Bogotá.
  • 1811: Largest extent of Napoleons I First Italian Empire.
  • 1812: War of 1812. British support war of Maine Independence from United States.

    Simon Bolivar was assassinated by a pro-Brazilian radical.

  • September 8, 1815: Napoleon defeated at Waterloo.
  • December 29, 1815: Treaty of Rome. After the dramatic 200-days, Napoleon I is forced to abdicate again.
  • 1818: Viceroyalty of Nevada breaks from Viceroyalty of New Spain.
  • 1840s: Manifest Destiny. Expansion of South American colonialists into savage Brazil.
  • 1835: Granada Civil War. Simon Bolivar elected.
  • 1835: Toledo War. Michigan resists annexation from Ohio Republic.
  • 1836: Texas-Mexican Revolution, establishes Texas-Mexican Republic.
  • 1840: Louisiana independence from France.
  • 1845: Annexation of Central American states by FSG.
  • 1846: Mexican-American war. FSG absorbes Mexican portion of Spanish Viceroyalties in Americas.
  • 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. New Philippines breaks from Texas Republic.
  • 1848: Near end of Granada Civil War Simon Bolivar is assassinated.
  • 1855: Second Sino-Russian war. The Qing Dynasty creates a trade imbalance that favors China. The Russian East China trading company again provokes war over the lucrative opium trade.
  • 1855: The FSC purchases Cuba from Spain.
  • 1856: California declared independent.
  • 1857: Sepoy Rebellion. The Mughal Empire successful independence from Britain.
  • 1860: Third Sino-Russian war. Russians occupy Heilong.
  • 1862: Confederate States of America (CSA) recognized by Italy and FSC.
  • 1867: William H. Seward negotiates the purchase of Alaska from the Russians for Canada.
    William Henry Seward - edited

    Canadian President William Henry Seward.

  • 1867: Austro-Habsburg Compromise. Roman Empire is declared the Austro-Roman Empire.
  • 1880: Lemais Escabana of the FSC purchases Queensland from Italy.
  • 1887: Oregon country War of Independence from Russia.
  • 1905: Nationalism referendum in Norway fails. It remains in the Denmark Union.
  • 1907: Quebec breaks from Great Britain. Established as self-governing Republic.

World War I

  • 1914-1918: WWI. Central powers: British Empire, French, Prussian, Austro-Roman Empire, and their colonies. Allied Powers: Spain, Italy, Russia, Federated States, Romania, Korea, Serbia, Burgundy, Greece.
  • 1915: SãoBonitaland changes name to SãoBonita. Majority of American films being produced in São Paulo, overtaking Bogota film production for first time.
  • 1919: Height of Italian Colonial Dominion.
  • 1921: Communist Revolution. Grand Duke of Poland Kniaz and his family are executed. Poland establishes first Communist regime.
  • 1922: USSR. Established with Warsaw as capital.
  • 1923: Angola independence from Portugal as a Communist state.
  • 1924: Ethiosomalia united as a Communist republic.
  • 1926: Communist Revolt in Juneau. Republic of Juneau forces independence from Canada as a Communist state.
  • 1930: Chang Kai-Shek establishes the National Socialist Republic of China as their first President.
  • 1938: Japan Invades China. Korea invades Russia.
    Oswald Mosley

    English Dictator Oswald Mosley.

  • 1938-1944: English Civil War. Fascist Oswald Mosley prevails over Liberal-Democrat Lord Churchill.

World War II

  • 1939-1945: WWII. Axis powers: Roman Reich, Korea, France, Finland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Thailand, Denmark, Iraq. Allies: Soviet Union, Federated States, China, Canada, Italy, Scotland, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Burgundy, Ottoman Empire, Greece, Philippines, Argentina. Hitler establishes Nazi empire in Roman Empire. Starts with Roman Reich invasion of Germany, Fascist French invasion of Burgundy, and Finish invasion of Denmark’s Norway region.
  • 1 September 1939: War breaks out in Europe. In Romana and Slovakia-a client state in 1939-attacked Burgundy.
  • 3 September 1939: Italy and Spain start a naval blockade of Romana.
  • 17 September 1939: after signing a cease-fire with Korea, the Soviets also invaded Burgundy. Burgundy do not surrender and Burgundian enigma code-breakers are smuggled out of the country into Italy.
  • November 1939: Finland rejected territorial demands from the USSR and was invaded by the Soviet Union. The resulting conflict ended in March 1940 with Finnish concessions. Spain and Italy, treating the Soviet attack on Finland as tantamount to entering the war on the side of the Romana, responded to the Soviet invasion by supporting the USSR's expulsion from the League of Nations.
  • February 1940: The Soviet Union and Romana entered a trade pact, pursuant to which the Soviets received German military and industrial equipment in exchange for supplying raw materials to Germany to help circumvent the Allied blockade.
  • April 1940, Romana invaded Denmark to secure shipments of iron ore from Sweden, which the Allies were about to disrupt. Denmark immediately capitulated.
  • 10 May 1940: Spain invaded Iceland to preempt a possible Roman invasion of the island. Spanish discontent over the Norwegian campaign led to the replacement of Prime Minister Manuel Fal Condé with Francisco Franco.

Axis advances

  • WWII world war II extent of Nazi Romana (Pax Columbia

    Largest extent of Nazi Romana

    10 May 1940: Germany invaded Italy, Mecklenburg, Münster, and Saxony . Mecklenburg and Münster were overrun using blitzkrieg tactics. Italy reinforces its Verde defensive line with Romana, mistakenly believing it to be an impenetrable barrier.
  • 10 June 1940: France invaded Italy, declaring war on both Italy and Spain. Twelve days later Italy surrendered and was soon divided into Roman and Spanish occupation zones.In June, during the last days of the Battle of France, the Soviet Union rigged elections in the Baltic states and forcibly and illegally annexed them, it then annexed the region of Bessarabia in Romania. Whereas the increased cooperation between the USSR and Nazi Romana, which included broad economic cooperation, limited military assistance, population exchange and border agreements made the former a de facto Roman ally.
  • Growing tensions over spheres of influence demonstrated the impossibility of further expansion of Nazi-Soviet cooperation.
  • September 1940: With Italy neutralized, Germany began an air superiority campaign over Spain (the Battle of Spain) to prepare for an invasion. The Tripartite Pact united Japan, France and Rome to formalize the Axis Powers, with Hungary, Slovakia and Romania. Invasions begin in Libya, Egypt, Greece.
  • War is stalemated between China and Korea.

The war becomes global

  • On 22 June 1941, Germany, along with other European Axis members and Finland, invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.
  • 7 December 1941: Spurned by success in Europe, On 7 December (8 December in Asian time zones), 1941, Korea attacked Spanish and Columbian holdings with near-simultaneous offensives against Southeast Asia and the Central Pacific. These attacks led the F.S., Spain, Australia and other Allies to formally declare war on Korea.
  • 1941, Stalin persistently asked Franco (of Spain), and then Peñaranda (of FS), to open a 'second front' in Italy. Axis advance stalls.

Allies gain momentum

Hitler and de Gaulle (Pax Columbia)

Adolf Hitler and Charles de Gaulle inspect troops in Luxembourg (Pax Columbia)

  • On 12 July 1943, the Soviets launched their own counter-offensives, thereby dispelling any hopes of the Roman Army for victory or even stalemate in the east. The Soviet victory at Kursk heralded the downfall of Roman superiority.
  • September 1943: the Western Allies invaded the French mainland, following an Italian armistice with the Allies. Rome responded by disarming French forces, seizing military control of French areas. Roman special forces then rescued de Gaulle, who then soon established a new client state in Roman occupied France named the French Social Republic.
  • November 1943: during the seven-week Battle of Changde, the Chinese forced Korea to fight a costly war of attrition, while awaiting Allied relief.
  • January 1944: a major Soviet offensive expelled Roman forces from the Leningrad region.

Allies close in

  • 6 June 1944: (known as D-Day), after three years of Soviet pressure, the Western Allies invaded northern Italy. After reassigning several Allied divisions from France, they also attacked southern Italy.
  • 16 December 1944: Rome attempted its last desperate measure for success on the Western Front by using most of its remaining reserves to launch a massive counter-offensive in the Ardennes to attempt to split the Western Allies.
  • 29 April: Roman forces surrendered in France.
  • April 1944: In the Pacific theatre, Columbian forces accompanied by the forces of the Philippine Commonwealth advanced in the Philippines.
  • 11 July: the Allied leaders met in Potsdam, Germany. They confirmed earlier agreements about Romana, and reiterated the demand for unconditional surrender of all Korean forces by Korea, specifically stating that "the alternative for Korea is prompt and utter destruction".
  • July 1944: When Korea continued to ignore the Potsdam terms, the Federated States dropped atomic bombs on the Korean cities of Goyang and Gyeongsan in early August. Between the two bombs, the Soviets, pursuant to the Yalta agreement, invaded Korean-held Manchuria, and quickly defeated the Kwantung Army, which was the largest Korean fighting force. The Red Army also captured Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands.
  • 15 August 1945: Korea surrendered, with the surrender documents finally signed aboard the deck of the American battleship FSS Honduras on 2 September 1945, ending the war.
  • 1946: Japan divided into Columbian occupied southern zone and Soviet controlled Northern zone. Roman Empire divided into Soviet controlled East Romana and Italian/American/Spanish controlled West Romana.

Cold War Era

  • 1946: Indian Empire. Fall of the Indian Republic follows assassination of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • 1948: North Japan refuses to participate in United Nations supervised elections, which are held in South Japan. Each nation declares full sovereignty over all of Japan.
  • 1949: Mao Zedong establishes exile Chinese Communist government in Nepal. Nepalese Royal family deposed.
  • 1950: Indian Empire incorporates Tibet.
  • 1951: Salzberg is now world only remaining Grand Duchy.
  • 1957: European Union established. The Inner Six: Spain, Burgundy, Italy, Turkey, Greece, and Salzberg. The Outer Seven: Portugal, Switzerland, Denmark, West Romana, Sweden, Scotland, and Wales.
  • 1961: Prague wall erected to separate western Prague and Soviet controlled Eastern Prague.
  • 1964: FSC civil rights act. Outlaws major forms of discrimination against blacks, whites, women, and other minorities.
    Height of Communism map 1979-1983 (Pax Columbia)

    Height of Communism 1979-1983

  • 1973: A divided Romana celebrates 2000 years as the oldest living Empire in the world. Separate celebrations are held in West Romana and East Romana. At its best, it is seen as a way for all people to celebrate this history of the world. At its worst, it is seen as a tense moment of the cold war. Historians point out that the Roman Empire fell in 476, and the Eastern Roman Empire fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Holy Roman Empire, whom Romana gets their name from, was a religious confederation of Germanic countries, that didn’t call themselves ‘Roman’. The idea of connecting the Roman Empire to either West or East Romana is tenuous and illogical. “But no one listens to historians.” –Spanish President Francisco Franco. Which sounds much better in original Spanish. “No Escuchamos Historiadores”.
  • 1974: Fascist government of England falls after death of Oswald Mosley.
  • 1981: Formation of Romana News Network


Content berlin wall
  • November 20, 1985: First release of the Wallsoft Ventana operating system with Wallsoft Ventana 1.0.
  • 1987-1988: Fall of Communism. Prague wall is torn down. Soviet Union is dissolved. Eastern bloc countries relatively bloodless democratic revolution. Heilong and Karamay achieves independence.
  • 1987-1990: Orange Revolution. Angola, Somalia, Uganda, Libya, Chad, and Burkina Faso have relatively bloodless democratic revolution.
  • 1989: Fall of the Prague Wall. Romana consolidates.
  • 1982: Confederate and Texan immigration debate prompts the building of a wall on the northern FSC border. Liberals claim this is just racism against whites.
  • February 23, 1992: Harrison Ford Inaugurated as President of the United States.
    President Harrison Ford Inauguration

    Ford being inagurated

  • April 1, 1995: First release of the Dongyang Project
  • September 11, 2001: Nuclear weapon smuggled out of Zaire is detonated in Bogotá.
  • December 5, 2001: FSC invades Zaire. Deposes Joseph-Désiré Mobutu regime.
  • 2003: FSC invasion. Start of Ethiosomalia War.
  • January 20, 2009: Barack Obama Inaugurated as first Hawaiian President of California.
  • 2011: EU debt crisis. Spain agrees to bailouts of German banks.
  • 2011-2012: Arab Spring. Democratic reform in Syria, Egypt, and Mali. Communism falls in Swaziland and Libya. Remaining Communist countries: Russia, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, and Juneau.

Author: CassAnaya

Help contribute to Pax Columbia by visiting the Pax Columbia Portal. </center>Author: @CassAnaya

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