Alternate History

Timeline (Panama Inferno)

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Main Page: Panama Inferno



  • Ten Million Years Ago: Meteor Hits Indian Ocean, Panama Landbridge forms, first Ice Age in Europe, Africa begins drying up (POD)
  • Five Million Years Ago: First Bipedal Hominids Appear
  • Three Million Years Ago: Ongoing volcanic activity in Panama widens the growing Isthmus.
  • Two Million Years Ago: Brain Size Increasing alongside first stone tools
  • One Million Years Ago: First Hominids leave Africa
  • 700,000 Years Ago: Speciation occurs in Europe, East Asia, and South Africa
  • 5-300,000 Years Ago: Massive volcanic eruptions in Panama, large displacement of oceanic water, start of massive ice age, acceleration of hominid speciation due to increased genetic isolation
  • 200,000 Years Ago: Three hominid species coexist in Eurasia and Africa, one of which approximates Homo sapiens sapiens in appearance
  • 150,000 Years Ago: Homo sapiens sapiens begin exhibiting modern behavior
  • 100,000 Years Ago: Modern humans emerge from Africa and begin colonizing the Middle East and South Asia along the coasts
  • 50,000 Years Ago: Modern humans contact Asian species in Southeast Asia and China; begin moving northward along coasts
  • 35,000 Years Ago: Modern humans enter Europe and contact European species; mutual avoidance due to extreme cold and competition with native species
  • 30,000 Years Ago: Modern humans arrive in Siberia and encounter the Bering Road; some begin entering the Americas
  • 25,000 Years Ago: Ice Age ends, glaciers start to melt and sea levels rise; coastal flooding in Southeast Asia leads to mass die-off of Asian species populations as niches and homes lost; species eventually rendered extinct within 30,000 years due to competition with modern humans; European species soon follows
  • 20,000 Years Ago: Climate change stabilizes, with modern map in place.
  • 15,000 Years Ago: First farming communities form in Mesopotamia, China, and Andes; wheat and barley in Mesopotamia; rice and millet in China; potatoes and beans in Andes


  • 14,000 Years Ago: First non-canine animals domesticated: camelids and guinea pigs in Andes; pigs and silk worms in China; and goats, sheep, and cattle in Mesopotamia
  • 13,000 Years Ago: First cities emerge accompanied by population explosion
  • 11,000 Years Ago: Domesticated crops appear in North America in Northeast coast and Mesoamerican highlands
  • 10,000 Years Ago: Cities emerge in Egypt, Persia, Greece, India, and Central America
  • 9,000 Years Ago: First trade occurs between Andean and Mexican highlands and between Mesopotamia and India; cities spread along trading routes and beyond
  • 8,500 Years Ago: First writing appears in China, Mesopotamia, and Mesoamerica, alongside the first wheels
  • 8,200 Years Ago: First skirmishes between cities in Eurasia and Andes alongside trade routes; first forts constructed within a few decades
  • 8,100 Years Ago: First metalurgy appears in central Andes, Mesopotamia, and China. Beginning of Bronze Age; use of bronze spreads to adjacent areas in Eurasia and Americas
  • 7,800 Years Ago: First Kingdoms emerge in Andes, China, and Mesopotamia; skirmishes scale up into wars of conquest; Warring States Era in all three centers
  • 7,500 Years Ago: China and Andes unified, Warring States Era ends; Mesopotamian wars slow down due to attrition and low supplies
  • 7,200 Years Ago: Horse domesticated on American grasslands, revolutionizing warfare; native tribes begin expanding their range alongside raiding settlements along Mexican coast and highlands; natives form local confederation to protect themselves;
  • 6,800 Years Ago: Iron Age begins in Europe, Northern China, and Mexican highlands; slowly spreads to nearby areas along trade routes.
  • 6,700 Years Ago: Mesopotamia and Egypt conquered by Persians equiped with Iron armor and weapons; Central Mexican Confederation expands and conflicts with Andean Empire; China begins declining through corruption and stagnation
  • 6,600 Years Ago: China erupts in civil war; new dynasty emerges through use of iron technology; conquers Korea and Taiwan following consolidation of empire; mass exodus into Japan and Southeast Asia. Persian Empire conquers Indus River Valley in India; adopts use of elephants in warfare. Mesoamerican Confederacy adopts horses and begins pushing up into northern Mexico.
  • 6,500 Years Ago: Persians conquer Greece following Battle of Thermopylae; bloody pacification campaign follows; mass exodus from Greece into Italy and Europe. Wars between Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations peeters and an uneasy truce develops between the two. In the north, skirmishes continue between Mesoamericans and the nomadic horsemen.
  • 6,400 Years Ago: Greece completely pacified by Persia; Greek language and culture forgotten by natives. Meanwhile, New Greece grows and develops in Italy, but constrained by Native Celts in North and Central Italy. In Mexico, settlers come across what is now Arizona and establish a frontier post to prospect for metals and investigate the possibility of settlement.
  • 6,000 Years Ago: After Persia consolidates its hold on Greece, Celtic Wars as Persian Empire attempts to expand into Balkan Europe; bloody guerrilla campaign over three centuries as Celts slowly give ground. China attempts conquest of Indochina, but bogged down by incessant guerrilla attacks and forced to withdraw. The Mesoamerican settlement in Arizona grows into an agricultural and pastoral colony.
  • 5,700 Years Ago: Celtic Wars in Europe reach a peak as Persian Empire attempts to push beyond the Danube River. Bogged down by thick forest and foreign climate. China forgoes a third conquest of Indochina to invade Tibet. Long guerrilla war ends with Chinese Pyrrhic victory though in lieu of territorial exchange, the Chinese accept an annual tribute as compensation for the war. Settlers from the Arizona colony expand along the rivers to form new posts and colonies. In South America, the Inca overthrow the reigning Andean civilizations and unite the Andes under their banner.
  • 5,200 Years Ago: China descends into civil war as foreign subjects rebel against imperial rule. Three rival dynasties emerge that fight to consolidate the empire; lasts for another seven centuries due to logistical difficulties. After consolidating their gains, the Inca begin expanding north and south, eventually contacting Mesoamerica, and a peace is established.
  • 4,800 Years Ago: New Greece encompasses all of South and half of Central Italy; in constant conflict with nearby Celts, who slowly begin to acquire Greek culture, and vice versa. Horses and camelids, domesticated in Central Asia, allow nomadic horsemen to expand outward into western China. Western Dynasty toppled by nomadic chiefs, replaced by a new dynasty by the marriage between a Chinese princess and a nomadic prince. Native Dynasty in India gains power in Deccan Plateau and begins to spread across the subcontinent.
  • 4,700 Years Ago: Dynastic war racks subcontinent as Southern dynasty gains control over central regions and battles with kingdoms in northeast and northwest. New Greece comes to dominate all of Italy up to the Po River and begin settling colonies on Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Come into contact with North African traders and commence commerce.
  • 4,500 Years Ago: Southern Indian Dynasty conquers all of subcontinent. Northern royal families integrated into dominant dynasty. Consolidation of Empire begins. Meanwhile in China, the Western "Barbarian" Dynasty commences a campaign of reunification, assisted by thousands of horse-archers, armored horsemen, and chariots, quickly decimating their slower infantry based armies and revolutionizing warfare.
  • 4,400 Years Ago: Korea, Taiwan, and Indochina conquered by new Chinese dynasty, though guerrilla resistance in latter persists for another fifty years. Indian dynasty eventually conquers the whole subcontinent. The growth of these imperial powers forces Tibet to send envoys to negotiate a peace, introducing both to each other. China and Indian dynasties clash over control of Tibet. Neither side able to gain strategic advantage, though Chinese armies more effective over Indians in battle. Uneasy truce established and Tibetan neutrality and sovereignty recognized by both empires.

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