Alternate History

Timeline (One-Term Limit)

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1792: President Washington decides not to seek re-election and Vice President John Adams is elected President over George Clinton and Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Pinckney is elected Vice President.

1795: Former Chief Justice John Jay negotiates a treaty with Great Britain in order to prevent a war between the two nations. In spite of opposition from the Democratic-Republicans Adams signs the treaty and the Senate confirms it.

1796: Vice President Thomas Pinckney is elected President to succeed Adams. However, Thomas Jefferson was elected Vice President instead Oliver Ellsworth, Pinckney's choice.

1799: President Pinckney signs the Alien and Sedition Acts in response to threats from the French government. This action gives new strength to the Democratic-Republicans but is largely popular among the country at large.

1800: Charles Cotesworth Pinckney wins the Federalist nomination for President over former New York Governor John Jay. Rufus King is nominated as Vice President. Thomas Jefferson wins the Democratic-Republican nomination with Aaron Burr as his running mate.

In the general election the Jefferson/Burr ticket defeated the Pinckney/King ticket. However, Jefferson and Burr tied in electoral votes and Burr refused to yield (this problem would be fixed by the 12th. Amendment in 1804). After 35 ballots in the House of Representatives, Jefferson was elected President on the 36th. ballot.

1803: President Jefferson signs the Louisiana Purchase which more than doubles the size of the nation and earns Jefferson a place as one of the greatest presidents in American history.

1804: In early 1804 the Democratic-Republican Congressional Caucus meet to chose a nominee to succeed Jefferson. NY Governor George Clinton, Vice President Aaron Burr, and Secretary of State James Madison were considered the front-runners with some supporting James Monroe as a possible compromise candidate. Jefferson hated Burr and made sure that Burr was denied nomination. After several ballots, Madison received the presidential nomination, with George Clinton receiving the VP slot, on a promise from Madison to support Clinton for the presidency in 1808. The Federalists countered by nominating Charles Cotesworth Pinckney for President again with Rufus King as his running mate. In election later that year Madison defeats Hamilton.

1808: President James Madison decides against signing an embargo against foreign goods and instead pushes a bill to triple the size of the U.S. Navy and Draft all able bodied men into their state militias. Later that year Vice President George Clinton is elected President over Rufus King.

1810: After many attempts at peace with Britain, Clinton realizes that America must assert its rights and asks Congress for a declaration of war on June 1. Soon after the war began, American forces invade Canada and begin the conquest of the country.

1811: American general William Henry Harrison captures Quebec and ends British opposition in Canada. Harrison will become a national hero and be known hence forth as Old Tippecanoe and the Conqueror of Canada.

1812: In January, a British force lands in New Orleans but are defeated by an American army under Andrew Jackson defeats the British and forces them to retreat in total defeat.

Because of the war in the Iberian Peninsula the British decide to end the war in America and sign the Treaty of Ghent. The treaty specified that (1) America would be awarded Oregon in exchange for $2,000,000 (2) Florida from Spain for $2,000,000. (3) Impressment would be stopped.

In July, President Clinton dies and Vice President James Monroe becomes president.

In the 1812 presidential election, President James Monroe defeated NYC Mayor DeWitt Clinton for the nomination of the Democratic-Republican party. Later that year, Monroe defeated DeWitt Clinton (who had entered the race as an Independent Republican) and Federalist candidate Rufus King.

1816: President Monroe issues the 'Monroe Doctrine' which states that America will no longer tolerate European powers interfering in North or South American affairs.

Later that year William Harris Crawford defeats John Quincy Adams for the Democratic-Republican nomination and defeats Rufus King in the general election.

1820: Vice President John Quincy Adams is elected President over Henry Clay and DeWitt Clinton.

1824: Secretary of War Andrew Jackson wins a plurality of the electoral vote over Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins and Speaker of the House Henry Clay. In the House of Representatives, Jackson wins on the third ballot.

1828: By this time, the era of good feelings has come to an end and the new Democrat party led by Jackson, Calhoun, and Van Buren and the Republican party led by Clay, Webster, and Harrison.

In that year's election John C. Calhoun was elected over Henry Clay.

1832: Vice President Martin Van Buren wins the Democratic nomination while Henry Clay wins the Republican nomination. Later that year, Van Buren defeated Clay by a considerable margin but the Republicans retained control of the Senate.

1834: The Republicans gain control of both houses of Congress.

1836: William Henry Harrison wins the presidential election over Democrat Richard M. Johnson.

1840: Henry Clay wins the Republican nomination over Daniel Webster, Frances Granger, and Winfield Scott. Former President Martin Van Buren wins the Democrat nomination and chooses James K. Polk as his running mate. That November, Clay defeats Van Buren and becomes the fourteenth president of the United States.

1844: Former Tennessee Governor James K. Polk defeats Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster by a 51% to 49% margin.

1846-1848: America defeats Mexico and gains control of California and the south-west in the Mexican-American War.

1848: Mexican War hero Zachary Taylor defeats Vice President George M. Dallas and former President Martin Van Buren 48%-45%-7%.

1850: President Taylor dies in office leaving Vice President Millard Fillmore to assume the presidency.

1852: Former New Hampshire Senator Franklin Pierce defeats U.S. Army Commanding General Winfield Scott in the presidential election.

1856: Former Secretary of State James Buchanan defeats former California Senator John C. Frèmont by a margin of 3 electoral votes and 5,500 popular votes.

1860: Abraham Lincoln wins presidential election over Stephen A. Douglas and John C. Breckenridge 46%-35%-19%.

1861: 10 southern states secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America.

1864: Although Lincoln wanted a second term, party leaders convinced him that a break from tradition would be to much for voters. General John C. Frèmont wins the Republican nomination over William Seward, that November Frèmont defeats Democrat George B. McClellan and pledges to finish the work of winning the war and winning the peace.

1865: President Frèmont is shot and killed by the John Wilkes Booth and Vice President Andrew Johnson inherits the presidency.

1867: President Johnson does manage to win the war by 1866 but does such a poor job on reconstruction that he is impeached by the House and Senate in 1867. Because he did not have a Vice President, Benjamin F. Wade is the new President.

1868: President Wade is defeated for re-nomination by U.S. Grant who in turn defeats Democrat Horatio Seymour.

1872: With President Grant's retirement, the Republicans nominated Ohio Governor Rutherford B. Hayes over House Seaker James G. Blaine, and others. Hayes would go on to defeat Democratic candidate Charles Frances Adams by a wide margin.

1876: With Hayes' honesty and integrity on their side, the Republicans easily won the 76' elections with the election of Blaine as president.

1880: The Republican ticket of Garfield/Arthur defeats the Democrat ticket of Hancock/English.

1884: After 24 years out of power, the Democrats retake the White House when NY Governor Grover Cleveland defeats Illinois Senator John A. Logan.

1888: In spite of his popularity with most Americans, President Cleveland loses his re-election bid to former Indiana Senator Benjamin Harrison VIII.

1892: With the economy in bad shape, former President Grover Cleveland defeats President Harrison in presidential election.

1896: After the Panic of 1893, the Democrats nominate William Jennings Bryan for president. Bryan in turn loses to Ohio Governor William McKinley.

1900: After American victory in the Spanish-American War, Ohio Senator Mark Hanna easily beats Bryan in the presidential election.

1904: After having become president with the death of President Hanna in 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt is re-elected over Alton Parker by a landslide.

1908: With President Roosevelt's popularity still very high, the Republicans nominate Vice President William Howard Taft for president. Taft easily beats Democrat William Jennings Bryan.

1911: In what is known as the "Year of Amendments," Congress passes amendments that (1) limits presidents to one term unless they have succeeded to less than two years of their predecessor’s term, ratified in 1912; (2) Establish an income tax, ratified in 1913; (3) Direct election of senators, ratified in 1913; (4) move the beginning and ending of the terms of the President and Vice President from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3. It also has provisions that determine what is to be done when there is no President-elect, ratified in 1913;

1912: Former President Roosevelt is nominated again by the Republicans and defeats Democrat Woodrow Wilson in a close race.

1915: After the sinking of the Lusitania, President Roosevelt calls for a draft and more naval funding. Congress passes a limited draft bill and expands naval funding by 50%. Over the next 18 months more 2,500,000 men are added to the U.S. Army and National Guard.

1916: Democrat Woodrow Wilson narrowly defeats Republican Charles Evans Hughes. Wilson runs as the peace candidate.

Shortly after the election, President Roosevelt announces that Germany, Austria, Britain, and France have agreed to negotiate an armistice with the US, Sweden and Switzerland as arbitrators. TO BE CONTINUED

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