- Spain: The slaughter of more than ten thousand Spanish soldiers in Morocco during the Rif War by the Moroccan Berbers at the so-called 'Disaster of Annual' leads to a parliamentary investigation of the incident.
- Spain: The Picasso File (Spanish: Expediente Picasso), written by General Juan Picasso, blames some military high commanders of the Disaster of Annual. According to the file, responsibility reaches even the king himself. To avoid the Parliament releasing the results of the investigation into the public domain, General Miguel Primo de Rivera leads a military uprising and establishes a dictatorship with the support of the king, Alfonso XIII.
- Spain: Dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera abandons his post as head of the government of Spain. He is succeeded by Dámaso Berenguer.
- Spain: Dámaso Berenguer fails to continue with the dictatorship and is succeeded by Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar-Cabañas. Aznar-Cabañas calls for local elections to take place in April 12th. The polls are closed with an evident republican victory. The Republic is declared in Spain and king Alfonso XIII flees the country.
- Germany: The National socialist party takes power in Germany and initiates its period of iron fist rule.
- Spain: In February, elections are celebrated and won by the leftist coalition Popular Front. In July 17, the Army of Africa, led by General Francisco Franco Bahamonde, rebels against the Republican government. The failure of the coup at many parts of the country lead to the beginning of a violent civil war. Soon, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy give their support to the Nationalist side. The majority of the democratic countries of the world refrain from intervening, looking at how Republican Spain fights alone against the Fascist hordes. Only Mexico gives its support to the Republican cause. Later, the Soviet Union sends help to Republican Spain as well. The International Brigades are established and thousands of people from all over the world join their ranks to help in the battle against Fascism. The Nationalist side, led by General Franco and General Mola, fail to take Madrid. As it would be later known, Franco wanted a long war, where he could 'kill all the republicans he could', because he did not want to 'have a country full of republicans'. The government flees the capital and relocates to Valencia.
- Spain: The Nationalist side takes control of northern Spain.
- Spain: The Ebro Offensive fails and the Nationalist side makes an advance to the Mediterranean, thus capturing Aragon and rounding Catalonia, effectively isolating it from the remainder of the Republican territory.
- Spain: Francisco Franco's army enters Barcelona. After an uprising of Madrid's defenders, Madrid falls to the Nationalist side as the defenders try to negotiate their surrender. Francisco Franco soon takes control of the entire country and, in April 1st, he declares victory. The president of the Republic, Manuel Azaña, flees to France. He dies the following year.
- Germany: In September 1st, the Wehrmacht enters Poland. World War II begins. In September 3rd, Great Britain and France declare war on Germany.
- Germany: After a seven month period of total military inactivity in continental Europe known as the Phoney War, Germany invades France. The British Expeditionary Force sent to France to help in the fight cowardly flees France after being encircled by the Germans in Dunkirk.
- Spain: Francisco Franco's government expresses the German government its will to join the war along with the Axis powers. In late October, a meeting between Hitler and Franco takes place at the Hendaye train station at southern France, close to the Spanish border. Franco's requests of raw materials and help in exchange for the Spanish entry into the war are deemed too high by Hitler. He leaves the meeting dissatisfied.
- Soviet Union: Operation Barbarossa begins. Nazi Germany initiates the invasion of the Soviet Union.
- Spain: The Francoist government send a unit of 'volunteers' to Russia, the Blue Division. They are going to help Germany in the invasion of the Soviet Union.
- Germany: In June 6th, a combined British-American and Canadian force lands in Normandy, France. It marks the beginning of the end of the Nazi reign of terror over Western Europe.
- Germany is defeated.
- Potsdam Conference: An Allied conference takes place in a palace in Potsdam, close to Berlin. Joseph Stalin, furious for Spain's participation in Operation Barbarossa, pushes Truman and Churchill to support an Allied invasion of Spain. Both leaders accept and the invasion date is set for late December.
- Spain: Operation Minced meat, the allied invasion of Spain, begins on December 14th. An allied invasion force composed of American and British forces pass through the Pyrenees and enter Spain. Meanwhile, two Soviet army corps land in the Bay of Cadiz.
- Operation Minced meat: In early March, the military forces of the Spanish State fall to the military might of the allied force. Spain is occupied. Francisco Franco leaves Spain. He will spend the remainder of his life exiled in Peron's Argentina.
- Spain: Spain is occupied and a provisional native civilian administration is set up. Miguel Maura is appointed Governor General of the temporary Spanish Administration.
- Germany: The Soviet Union initiates a long blockade on the Western portion of Berlin. Joseph Stalin, feeling himself in a stronger position to negotiate, demands the French portion of West Berlin to be handed over to the Soviet Union. The Allies, fearing a Soviet occupation of the city, accept.
- Spain: Elections are celebrated and won by Miguel Maura's party, the Republican Centre Party. Maura becomes President of the restored republic. Allied troops start gradual withdrawal from Spain.
- Spain: A country wide communist uprising takes place after election success. The Communist Party of Spain, with support of Soviet MGB (Ministry of State Security) agents, manages to take control of the country. A federal, socialist and republican system is established.
- East Germany: An Uprising takes place in East Germany in June 16th. It is violently crushed by the Soviet army and the Volkspolizei.
- Hungary: The Hungarian revolution against the People's Republic of Hungary and the Soviet Union is violently crushed by Soviet forces.
- European Economic Community: The Treaty of Rome is signed by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The European Economic Community is thus established.
- European Defense Initiative: The successful launch of Sputnik 1 into space, as well as the violent crushing by Soviet forces of the Hungarian revolution in the previous year, forces the Treaty of Rome signatories to celebrate a high profile meeting in Koblenz about common defense. The threat of a violent Soviet invasion, and the fact of being enclosed at the other side of the continent by another communist country,forces Italy, West Germany, France and the Benelux countries to sign the Koblenz Treaty, establishing the European Defense Initiative.
- Balearic Islands declare independence from Spain.