1614: The colony of New Netherland is established by the Netherlands.
1625: New Amsterdam is established by the Dutch.
August 27, 1664: The English arrive at New Amsterdam and demand that the Dutch surrender it over to the English; the Dutch oblige. However, this event launches the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
1667: The Second Anglo-Dutch War concludes as the Treaty of Breda is signed. The English give back control of New Netherlands (including New Amsterdam) to the Dutch in return for sugar factories in Suriname.
1673: Several clashes occur between the Dutch and English along the New Netherland and Connecticut Colony border as a result of the Third Anglo-Dutch War back in Europe. The Second Treaty of Hartford is reached between the Dutch and English later in the year that states "no Dutch or English colony may participate in the Third Anglo-Dutch War", which ends the conflict in the Americas.
1693: Dutch settlers arrive in New Netherland in the masses. The New Amsterdam population reaches 5000.
1703: Yellow fever hits New Amsterdam and kills 10% of the population.
1730: The New Amsterdam population reaches 10,000.
1731: The Dutch passenger ship Avontuur catches fire upon arrival in the Hudson Bay, coming from the Netherlands. All but nine passengers perish in the fire or drown, with the total death toll officially at 197.
1736: The Netherlands signs the New Amsterdam Pact (1736) with the British. This pact states that the Dutch colony New Netherland and the British 13 colonies shall not engage in "any sort of warfare". It also states that the colonies shall not join in any fight between the two respective motherlands.