Ottoman Reform and Revolution
1821-1832 - Greek war of independence. Greece is made independent.
≈1780-1860 - Agricultural revolution in the Ottoman Empire, especially affecting the Balkans.
≈1850-1900 - Industrial revolution in the Empire. Serious reforms to curb corrupt government are enforced.
1877-1878 - The Russo-Turkish war. The Ottomans lose Kars and Bessarabia to Russia, and Romania and Serbia become independent.
1905 - Oil discovered in Ottoman territory. Quickly a law is passed that only Ottoman companies can extract it to sell to other countries. Vast profits are made.
The First World War
1914 - Outbreak of WWI. The Ottoman Empire stays neutral, as it does not want a war affecting industrialization and development in the country.
1917 - End of WWI. Decisive Allied victory. 1919 - Arab revolt in the Ottoman empire - greater autonomy given to Arab regions.
The Inter-War Years
1920 - Moderate recession in the Ottoman Empire. It is far worse worldwide, especially in Germany and other defeated countries.
Faraj Mohammed becomes Grand Vizier. Through public speaking and the 'disappearance' of opponents, he gains great popularity.
Rapid industrialisation begins, as well as a massive rise in Turkish birth rates.
1933 - Adolf Hitler is sworn in as chancellor of Germany, as dictatorships start to increase in popularity.
1936 - In a rousing speech, Faraj Mohammed calls for the empire to grow to 17th century size.
1937 - The Ottoman Empire joins the Axis. Plans are drawn up to divide up eastern Europe between the Ottomans and the Third Reich. With the Ottomans invading from the south, more German troops would be free on the eastern front.
The Second World War
1939 - Outbreak of WW2 as Poland is invaded by Russia and Germany. France and Britain declare war on Germany.
Unexpectedly, the Ottoman Empire pushes south into Arabia. It is, however, hard for them to go farther than Mecca, so they halt there.
Russia begins and invasion of Finland known as the 'Winter War'.
1940 - Rationing is introduced in Britain.
The war between Finland and Russia ends with Finland handing over important territory.
Germany attacks Denmark and Norway. Denmark surrenders, and Norway is conquered within two months.
The Ottoman Empire begins an invasion of Romania, which takes three months.
Russia invades and illegally annexes the three Baltic states.
Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister of Britain on the same day Germany invades France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.
Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom, helping Germany complete the invasion of France.
The Battle of Britain commences. The campaign will fail by September.
Italy invades and divides British Somaliland and Egypt with the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire, Italy, Japan and Germany sign the Quadpartite Pact. Hungary and Slovakia later join.
British forces attempt a counterattack against Italy in Africa, but fail.
1941 - Yugoslavia is invaded by the Ottoman Empire and Germany following a coup there.
The Ottoman Empire intervenes in the Anglo-Iraqi war by attacking British forces. A tough battle ensues, ending with Iraq asking for protection under the Ottomans in return for being annexed and lending soldiers.
The German flagship Bismarck is sunk by British forces in the Atlantic.
An over-extended Ottoman army means conscription for all men over 18 to 45 is introduced, taking advantage of a large population.
Germany and the Ottoman Empire launch Operation Barbarossa, aiming to rid Russia of valuable resources. The campaign is successful, as the Tsarist forces are much weaker. The Ottomans are able to use the Caucasus Mountains as a useful defence against any Russian counter attack.
Britain and the USSR begin an invasion of Axis friendly Iran, to gain control of oil fields and to end the stalemate with the OE. The invasion is conducted with ease in the east, but they are halted by Ottoman forces in the oil-rich west.
1942 - In the Pacific, the Japanese continue their expansion into Borneo, Java and Sumatra. The 'unassailable' British fortress of Singapore falls.
The Battle of Midway ends in a Japanese defeat.
A major battle between German and Russian forces seriously mauls the Red Army.
1943 - Russian forces are driven back from Volgograd.
The Allies are routed at several battles in Africa and chose to retreat from the north.
The effect of blockades on Britain means that it can no longer fight a war. It surrenders and agrees to hold peace talks in Paris.
Aftermath and Tensions
1944 - Hitler declares this year "the beginning of a new age for the German race". Meanwhile, in Turkey, crowds cheer Faraj Mohammed as he returns home from peace talks. In Italy celebrations are the same. These mask, however, tensions between and within the countries. In a talk with Hitler, Mussolini is clear to voice his complaint over the fact that he wants to build a Roman Empire, but the Ottomans are in the way.
Japan agrees to a ceasefire with China and to end its imperialist advances, millions of deaths after the war started.
Subtle "education" begins in French and British schools (and propaganda elsewhere). In British schools, children are taught that the governments who fought against the Germans in the two world wars were traitorous and ended many years of a special bond between the two countries. The French are taught of the magnificent Nordic alliance they are part of.
Germany and the Ottoman Empire begin bombarding their conquered areas with sheer numbers of people, evicting the locals.
1945 - As the first reparations come in, France and Britain's economies fall.
Mussolini unexpectedly dies in suspicious circumstances. A prime minister takes power and begins to clearly show his intentions; "The proportion of reparations to the Italian fallen is an insult to Italian greatness. If Germany chooses to take the path it is taking, then Italy will have no choice but to cease friendly relations and leave the Axis". Hitler responds with another angry speech, the other Axis members make no comment.
1946 - A diplomatic crises emerges as, in two separate incidents, Italian ships are denied access to the Suez Canal.
The US mentions that, if a new war breaks out, the US would fight on the Italian side. This does more harm than good, as before war hadn't even been thought of.
Greece is completely flooded with Turks, a feat never before seen. The native population are evicted and flee to various other countries.
The Governments of both France and Britain assure Germany (secretly) that they would fight on the side of the Germans if the need to pay reparations is withdrawn. The British public are not so sure, but after being assured by the government they are slightly more encouraged. They are assured further after a public message from the King (who is effectively controlled by the Germans).
Italian troops occupy the Suez canal. They are given a week to pull out, which they laugh off. Italy believes the German troops are too tired and pre-occupied to fight another war. He is surprised when Britain and France join the war, but the entrance of the US is welcomed.
The Italian War
Hitler warns the US that if they do not exit the war, "their cities will become Germany's new testing ground." The USA is bemused and laughs this off.
1947 - Fighting begins as Ottoman troops attempt to push the Italians back to Libya. Gains are little and slow, but the Italians are at last driven out when troops move in from Cairo.
Poorly set-up Italian defences are broken through in Bolzano, but resistance is heavy elsewhere. French forces capture Nice.
Italian forces start counter-attacking as the first US forces begin to arrive in Rome.
US forces are bloodily repulsed at Montreal.
The German navy (comprised of many ex-British and French ships) defeats the American navy near Gibraltar, thus it is unlikely any more troops will arrive this way.
US forces capture Toronto.
As the first German soldier is killed by an American troop, an adapted Lancaster takes off from Montreal with an escort of several other planes, carrying the first nuclear bomb. This is dropped just outside the town of Bedford, on the outskirts of New York. Civilian casualties are minimal but the message is clear.
A second bomb is dropped outside Washington. The US government is terrified and confused, and goes into talks with the Nazi government.
1948 - Italian troops, now again on their own, fall back as the Germans and French begin to gather pace.
A British blockade of Rome is put in place.
The first Ottoman troops land at and capture Brindisi, albeit with heavy casualties.
Riots break out in Rome against the Fascist regime.
The last major Italian defences are broken through, the road to Rome is now clear.
By the end of the month, Italy surrenders and peace talks begin.