Alternate History

Timeline (Magnam Europae)

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Welcome to the timeline for the Magnam Europae ATL, presented in an abridged format. The timeline spans the time and events that transpire between the Point of Divergence in 802 AD to the Present Day. It explores the events allowing Irene of Athens' marriage to Charlemagne and the ramifications of their union, including the unification of the Frankish Empire and the Byzantine Empire, the survival of Irene of Athens, and ultimately the formation of a powerful nation in Europe following the unification of the Carolingian Union.

8th Century and Previous

  • 3rd Century - The Franks establish power in an area described in the Panegtrici Latini as an area east and north of the Rhine.
  • 476 - The Western Roman Empire falls.
  • 509 - Clovis I, who consolidated the Frankish Kingdoms, establishes the Merovingian dynasty.
  • 687 - The Merovingian dynasty ends when Pepin of Herstal assumes power.
  • 714 - Pepin of Herstal dies. Francia falls into disarray.
  • 730 - Arab invaders move into Gaul, forcefully capturing territory as they go.
  • 732-737 - Charles Martel turns the tide against the Arab invaders.
  • 741 - Charles Martel dies. The kingdom is split between Aquitaine, Bavaria, and Francia, led by Hunoald, Odilo, and Pepin the Short/Carloman respectively.
  • 743 - Pepin the Short leads a campaign against Bavaria.
  • 751 - Carloman retires. Pepin the Short becomes the sole King of the Franks, establishing the Carolingian Empire.
  • 754 - Pepin the Short enters an alliance with the Pope.
  • 768 - Pepin the Short dies, leaving his throne to Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman III. The latter soon abdicates and dies relatively quickly.
  • 772 - Charles leads a campaign to conquer Saxony. Francia expands to the edge of the Elbe river.
  • 774 - Francia, led by Charles, conquers the Lombards to protect the Papal States.
  • 780 - Leo IV of the Byzantine Empire dies. Constantine VI takes power, with his mother, Irene, as regent.
  • 788 - Bavaria rebels against the Franks. The rebellion is quickly put down. Furthermore, this led to a wave of Frankish expansion into southeast Europe that lasted for eight years.
  • 797 - Constantine VI is imprisoned and blinded in a conspiracy led by his mother. Irene of Athens becomes the Empress of the Byzantine Empire.

9th Century

Magnam Europae 830 Europe
  • 25 December, 800 - Charlemagne is named Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III due to the lack of a male heir to the Roman throne and his support to the church.
  • 802 - POINT OF DIVERGENCE: Word of a conspiracy against Irene is leaked to the Empress. The ringleader, Nikephoros, and his conspirators, are arrested. Irene stays in power.
  • 803 - Irene of Athens and Charlemagne, who have been pursuing a marriage for quite a while, are married. Charlemagne, to appease the Byzantine empire, refers to himself as King of the Franks and Lombards. He entrusts the Byzantine Empire to his new wife. The Carolingian Union is created.
  • 805- Ravenna is returned to the Byzantine Empire, much to the dismay of Leo III. Charlemagne assures him that it is for the best.
  • 806 - Charlemagne and Irene, wishing to unify their lands further, begin a series of wars on the states separating their empires. Charlemagne orders the invasion of the Braniches, while the Byzantine Empire invades the Zagorechians and the Dragovits. Beginning of the Unification Wars, a series of wars waged against the civilizations separating the Byzantine and Frankish Empires.
  • 807 - Irene of Athens passes away, leaving Charlemagne as the ruling head of the Byzantine Empire and the only remaining heir to the Roman throne. The Byzantine Empire is named a 'realm of power' in the Carolingian Union. While the public is angered by Charlemagne's presence at first, he works on cultural unity between Eastern and Western Europe. Among these changes is his introduction of feudalism into the Byzantine Empire. Furthermore, he continued to stop the wave of iconoclasm sweeping through Byzantium at the time. In the meantime, Krum of Bulgaria invades the Byzantine Empire.
  • 810 - Due to the cooperation between the Byzantine and Frankish Empires, the planned siege of Venice is cancelled, preventing the death of Charlemagne's son, Pepin of Italy.
  • 812- Krum is slain by Pepin of Italy.
  • 812 - The Frankish Empire wars against the Diocleans.
  • 814 - Charlemagne dies. His son, Pepin, is entrusted to rule the Byzantine Empire. Pepin is well-liked by both Byzantine and Frankish peoples, allowing for a smooth transition. Louis becomes the King of the Franks. A sibling rivalry for the crown of Holy Roman Emperor ends with Louis being named Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope for his proximity to Italy and his prolific devoutness.
  • 817 - The Byzantine Empire leads a war against the Serbs.
  • 819 - Bernard of Italy has an affair with a Byzantine noblewoman. Bernard, as the heir to the Byzantine throne, orders her husband's death. Bernard and his mistress marry soon after.
  • 821- The Bulgarian Empire sues for peace against the Carolingian Union.
  • 824 - Louis the Pious puts in place several movements to help fuse the Frankish and Byzantine cultures. This leads to an even more unified Christianity.
  • 831 - Battle of Ras. Frankish and Byzantine troops, for the first time, meet in the Unification Wars. The city of Ras is surrounded and falls shortly thereafter. The rest of Serbia soon follows. The Frankish/Byzantine borders are drawn through Ras. End of the Unification Wars.
  • 837 - Louis the Pious dies. Pepin of Italy becomes the new Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks.
  • 840- Pepin of Italy dies. Bernard of Italy becomes Holy Roman Emperor and Byzantine Emperor. Lothair I becomes King of the Franks.
  • 843- Bernard of Italy dies. Atticus I, his son, becomes Byzantine Empire. Lothair I, however, becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 845 - Ragnar Lodbrok raids Paris. The outraged Franks declare war on Denmark. Beginning of the First Viking War.
  • 846- Battle of Ravning Bridge. The tide turns against the Franks as they begin losing battle after battle with heavy losses.
  • 847- Battle of Sønderborg. The Franks are expelled from Denmark. The Danes begin invading northern Francia.
  • 848- The Rhine Raids begin. The Danes raid important cities along the Rhine, including Utrecht and Cologne, before the Vikings divert their attention to the Meuss river.
  • 849- First Battle of Aachen. Lothair I is killed in battle. After the battle, Atticus I bypasses Frankish customs and traditions to become the leader of the Franks instead of Lothair's heirs. Atticus retakes Aachen in the second battle of Aachen. He is, however, unable to stop the Vikings from sacking Verdun.
  • 850- Rhine Campaigns. The Vikings are defeated in the Battle of Liége, marking the turning point in the war. The year is marked by multiple battles along the Rhine.
  • 851- Frisian Campaigns. The Danes are pushed out of the Rhine, though multiple battles occur in the Frisian islands around the Wadden Sea. The Franks reign victorious.
  • 853- Battle of Hammaburg Castle. The Vikings, which had taken the castle in their campaigns south, are expelled from the castle. Ragnar Lodbrok is slain by Atticus I. Atticus earns the title Atticus Baitelle. Meanwhile, Rastislav of Great Moravia invades Francia. Beginning of the Moravian War The war effort in Jutland is suspended for a short time while Frankish and Byzantine armies attack Moravia.
  • 855- Frankish and Byzantine troops encounter Rastislav. While his fortifications are formidable, the Carolingian troops eventually overcome this obstacle and put an end to Rastislav. Moravia is subjugated and becomes the Duchy of Bohemia. End of the Moravian War
  • 856- Danish campaigns. Now able to focus fully on the Danes, the Franks pour into Jutland.
  • 858- Atticus leads the Franks to Ravning Bridge again. The bridge, however, is destroyed. The Franks are able to enter Vejle and siege it. The city finally falls after an almost year-long battle.
  • 861- Jutland has been completely taken by the Franks at this time. The various Danish islands remain under Danish control.
  • 863- Atticus I falls ill and is taken back to Aachen. There, the Treaty of Aachen is signed, stating that the Franks and the Byzantines would from then on share a king rather than the empire be split every time a king died. Atticus I dies later this year. His son, Atticus II, assumes the throne. In the meantime, the Danes surrender to the Franks, though attacks from the Swedes continue.
  • 864- The Swedes sign the Treaty of Hammaburg. The Swedes will cease their attacks on the Franks and, for fifteen years, pay reparations to the Franks. Jutland becomes a subkingdom under Francia, but in name only. End of the First Viking War.
  • 869- Atticus II dies. Constantine VII becomes Emperor of the Byzantine and Frankish Empires. He is crowned Holy Roman Emperor later this year.
  • 871- A powerful Danish kingdom rises in Zealand. Its influence over the island begins to grow.
  • 879- Constantine VII dies, bestowing his rule upon his son, Carloman. Later this year, however, Carloman goes missing. After a month of regnant rule, Carloman is proclaimed dead. His eight-month-old son, Christophorus, is crowned Emperor of the Byzantine and Frankish Empires.
  • 882- Workers along docks in Constantinople begin using a trade language that fuses Greek and Frankish. This language will eventually evolve into Romaïn.
  • 884- The Bulgarian Empire invades Byzantine lands. The Carolingian Union responds with force. Beginning of the Bulgar War. Francia invades Bulgaria from Bohemia and Eastern Francia. The Byzantines use the distraction to push the Bulgarians out of their territory.
  • 887- The Magyars assist in the Bulgar War, raiding Pliska. Their leader, however, is killed by Jammouth of Bulgaria during the Battle of Prut Field.
  • 889- The Byzantines siege Pliska. King Jamouth of the Bulgarians is killed in the attack.
  • 892- Bulgaria surrenders. End of the Bulgar War.  The Theme of Bulgaria is created.
  • 893- In order to centralize the Carolingian Union's power, the Magnam Europae charter is signed by both the Byzantine and Frankish Empires, officially and completely merging the two nations into the Carolingian Empire. Frankish sub-kingdoms and Byzantine themes become Provinces. The Pope, however, refuses to accept this, stating that he alone has the right to crown Holy Roman Emperors. The title of Holy Roman Emperor is revoked from Christophorus.
  • 894- The Carolingian Empire invades the Papal States. Beginning of the Italian Wars. Christophorus himself invades Rome to absorb it into the Carolingian Empire. Following the capture of Rome, the Carolingian Empire places John IX as the new pope. Spoleto begins attacking Carolingian supply lines in an attempt to expel them from the Papal States.
  • 895- The tide once again turns in favor of the Carolingian Empire, Spoleto suffering an invasion by this point.
  • 897- First Battle of Spoleto. The state of Spoleto surrenders as Carolingian troops pour into the city. Many Italian states, fearful of the Carolingian Empire, form the League of Napoli to counter the Carolingian Empire's expansion into Italy. Southern Ravenna is invaded.

10th Century

Magnam Europae HRE 900AD
  • 902: Napolitan invasions of Ravenna cease. Southern Italy is completely taken by the League of Napoli. The Sicilian Emirate allies with the League of Napoli
  • 909: Second Battle of Spoleto. Spoleto is liberated by the League of Napoli as the Carolingians retreat.
  • 913: The Pentapolis on the Adriatic is invaded by the League of Napoli. Ancona is taken.
  • 914: The League of Napoli successfully defends Ancona before attacking Senigallia and claiming it.
  • 915: Fano is invaded by the League of Napoli and is claimed. Attacks on Pesaro remain unsuccessful for the League of Napoli.
  • 916: Pesaro is invaded by the League of Napoli in March. The Carolingians retake it later this year.
  • 918: Fall of Capua. A sneak attack by the Carolingians results in the occupation of Capua and the death of Landulf. Fano and Senigallia are both retaken by the Carolingians.
  • 920: The Sicilians betray the Napolitans. Ancona is retaken and the Battles of the Pentapolis end.
  • 921: Atenulf III sacrifices Benevento to the Carolingians.
  • 923: Battle of Salerno. The League of Napoli loses its capital and becomes a loose conglomeration of towns and cities rebelling against the Carolingians.
  • 924: The League of Napoli surrenders. End of the Italian Wars. Christophorus spends time making sure the Carolingian economy recovers.
  • 927: Christophorus I marries Alana of Brittany.
  • 930: Robert the Noble of Brittany dies. Christophorus' marriage to Alana results in a personal union with the Bretons.
  • 941: Christophorus discovers that he is dying. He orders the deaths of several officials and people who would prevent his son from being a successful ruler, including Alana of Brittany.
  • 942: Christophorus I dies. Michael I becomes the Carolingian Emperor.

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