Overview Timeline



  • 1810: Alexander Hamilton passes the Improvement Acts, which include provisions to raise tariffs, fund construction of roads and canals, fund construction of public schools and universities, and create a larger navy.
  • 1811: In the War of the Sixth Coalition, Britain, Spain and Russia join together to fight France. France has been suffering from economic failures due to a British blockade, and at the Battle of Bruges Napoleon loses and is captured by the British.
  • 1812: With Napoleon defeated, Spain sends ships and troops to quell the Mexican rebellion. However, Spain allies itself with the Creek and Seminole Indians in Florida and Georgia, and attacks on Natives by the American and Spanish Army both go past the border. After an American ship near Florida is sunk by a Spanish ship, Alexander Hamilton declares war on Spain. Battle of New Orleans is won by the US. Also, Alexander Hamilton defeats Elbridge Gerry in the Election of 1812
  • 1813: First Battle of St. Augustine is won by Spain. Battle of Pensacola is won by the US. Spain wins the Battle of Oaxaca against Mexico.
  • 1814: Mexico wins the Battle of Acapulco. The US wins the Second Battle of St. Augustin. Spain wins the Battle of Havana. The US wins the Battle of Nacogdoches. At the Treaty of Porto, the US gains control of all of Spanish Florida and Mexico is granted independence, among other terms.
  • 1815: Alexander Hamilton implements the Hamilton Doctrine which states that foreign intervention in the Americas will not be tolerated, as a way of ensuring independence for revolting colonies. The Doctrine was devised by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams.
  • 1816: In the Election of 1816, Alexander Hamilton runs for President against James Monroe, but Monroe narrowly wins the election after winning the contested swing state of Pennsylvania.
  • 1817: James Monroe helps establish a colony in Africa for freed slaves called Liberia.
  • 1818: Monroe vetoes the proposed Canal Act, which was a package of funding for several canals including the Erie Canal, Wabash-Michigan Canal, and the Alabama Canal.
  • 1819: The Panic of 1819 occurs as a result of slowing industrial growth, foreign economic troubles following the Napoleonic Wars, and increased importation due to low tariffs.


  • 1820: After Missouri applies for statehood as a free state, a debate ensues, resulting in the Missouri Compromise.
  • 1820: In the Election of 1820, John Quincy Adams defeats James Monroe. 
  • 1821: Federalist Vice President Henry Clay's American System, several bills advocating for high tariffs, industrial improvements, educational funding, and high land prices, passes congress and is signed by John Quincy Adams. This allows the Federalists to pay off much of the national debt, though they also assume the state debts.
  • 1823: Quincy Adams' bill to have a National College fails to pass the Senate.
  • 1824: In the Election of 1824, John Quincy Adams defeats William H. Crawford to win a second term. 
  • 1825: The Erie Canal is completed, connecting the Northwestern US to the Atlantic. 
  • 1826: Texan settlers in Mexico make their first attempt to secede, the Fredonia Revolt, but it is quelled.
  • 1828: In the Election of 1828, Andrew Jackson defeats Richard Rush. Jackson runs on the "Democratic" ticket for the first time, instead of Democratic-Republican.
  • 1829: The Georgia Gold Rush begins.


  • 1830: The Indian Removal Act is signed into law. Andrew Jackson makes begins Indian removal in Georgia with the Cherokee, who he relocates west of the Mississippi along the Trail of Tears.
  • 1831: The Nat Turner slave rebellion in Virginia scares many southerners. Also, Andrew Jackson vetoes the re-chartering of the Bank of the United States.
  • 1832: The Nullification Crisis causes issues within the Democratic Party between the advocates of States Rights and the advocated of Jackson's policies. Henry Clay defeats Andrew Jackson in the Election of 1832.
  • 1833: Henry Clay passes a bill chartering the Second Bank of the United States. Furthermore, Clay ends the Nullification Crisis by signing his own Compromise Tariff.
  • 1835: Texas declares independence from Mexico.
  • 1836: In the Election of 1836, Henry Clay is re-elected, defeating Martin Van Buren. Also, the Federalists regain a majority in both houses.
  • 1837: John Sergeant becomes the Chief Justice after being nominated by Henry Clay.
  • 1838: Henry Clay passes the Federal Railroad Act of 1838, which allows the Bank to build railroads and charge use of the railroads as a tax. This creates a great source of income for the government and boosts the American economy.
  • 1839: Congress authorizes construction of the Raleigh and Richmond railroad and the Pittsburgh and Buffalo railway. They also agree to have the same number of federal railways in the North and the South.


  • 1840: In the Election of 1840, Federalist Daniel Webster defeats Democrat Richard Mentor Johnson.
  • 1842: Secretary of State William Henry Harrison dies while negotiating a Treaty with Britain regarding several borders with Canada. Talks of a treaty fall through. Webster then sent John Quincy Adams to negotiate with Britain, but the deal that he makes is blocked by the Democrat-controlled Senate. 
  • 1843: Following the success of the 1839 railroads, Congress agrees to fund four new railroads: Charleston and Augusta, Louisville and Nashville, Boston and Providence, and Dayton and Detroit.
  • 1844: In the Election of 1844, James K. Polk defeats Daniel Webster for President.
  • 1845: The United States annexes Texas. However, after natives who support Britain in the Pacific Northwest attack Fort Walla Walla, the US moves an army under Winfield Scott into the Oregon Country.
  • 1846: With the Bank of the United States increasing in wealth, Polk offers a large amount of money to Mexico in exchange for much of the OTL Southwestern United States. Mexico agrees so long as the US also pays for Texas. This becomes the Treaty of Galveston.
  • 1846: While the treaty with Mexico passes congress (by a hair), Britain declares war on the US, starting the British-American War. In Maine, Britain wins the Battle of Fort Fairfield, but loses the Battle of Calais. In the Great Lakes region, Britain holds off American invasions at Windsor and Kingston, though the US won the naval battles of Mackinac and Kelleys Island. In the West, the US wins the Battle of Fort Okanogan and the Battle of Oregon City.
  • 1847: The US wins the Battle of the Aroostook and the Battle of Buffalo, but loses the Battle of Akwesasne. The US also takes over Nassau in the Bahamas, and wins the Battle of the Bay of Fundy. They do, however, lose in the West at the Battle of Fort Langley and the Battle of Fadalgo Island. 
  • 1848: Early in the Year, the US captures fort Victoria, and wins the Battle of St. Catharines, giving it a path to Toronto. As a result, Britain and the US agree to the Treaty of Halifax, which ends the war, sets the boundary for Oregon at 49 degrees and 20 minutes, until the Fraser River, and at the 49th parallel for Vancouver Island. The United States gains control of several small islands in the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy, all of the Bahamas, and a Compromise border is made for Maine.
  • 1848: In the Election of 1848, Federalist Zachary Taylor defeats Democrat Levi Woodbury.
  • 1849: California applies for statehood, leading to additional debate and sectionalism over slavery.


  • 1850: Zachary Taylor dies. His Vice President, John M. Clayton, takes over as president, though debate occurs about the constitutionality of this as Taylor is the first President to die in office. The result is further sectionalism and unrest in the wake of debates. Unlike in OTL, Henry Clay is not a senator because he had already been President. After long debates, Stephen Douglas' proposal, with some amendments, becomes the Compromise of 1850. California is admitted as a free state, with popular sovereignty taking over in the territories and a stronger Fugitive Slave Act.
  • 1851: As a result of expenses from the war, payments made to Mexico in exchange for land, and the switch from a National Bank to an Independent Treasury, causes the Panic of 1851. This causes more sectionalism and more cause for the Federalist economic policy.
  • 1852: A bill to recharter the Bank of the United States fails to pass the Senate. Furthermore, bills to raise tariffs fail the Senate, as do bills to build ten additional government-owned railroads, with only one railroad bill passing, which built the Chicago and St. Louis Railway and the Montgomery and Savannah Railway. The publishing of Uncle Tom's Cabin also causes partisan and sectional divides.
  • 1852: In the Election of 1852, the Federalist Party nominates William H. Seward for President, and the Democrats select Lewis Cass. By nominating Seward, the Federalists alienated a large portion of southerners in the party. In one of the closest elections ever, Lewis Cass wins the close state of Pennsylvania, allowing him to win.
  • 1853: After giving an impassioned anti-slavery speech, Charles Sumner is caned and almost dies. Meanwhile, violence occurs in several territories regarding whether or not to accept slavery.
  • 1854: The Ostend Manifesto is written and sent to Congress, asking for the purchase of Cuba from Spain. This caused further sectionalism regarding the expansion of slavery, and it becomes a key topic of debate going into the 1854 congressional elections.
  • 1855: The country's economy returns to steady growth for the first time in four years, though the North's economy is hurt more than the South's.
  • 1856: In the Election of 1856, the Federalist Party nominates Nathaniel P. Banks for President, while the democrats nominate Lewis Cass. However, with the increasing violence in the territories and Cass' refusal to purchase Cuba, the Southern Democrats form their own convention, and nominate Jefferson Davis for President. Nathaniel P. Banks is elected President.
  • 1857: The state of South Carolina secedes from the Union, and Alabama, Texas, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana secede from the Union. The Civil War begins with the Confederate victory at Fort Sumter, prompting more states to secede. 
  • 1858: The Confederacy wins the Battle of Manassas, and both sides claim victory in the massive Battle of Hanover. Britain and France recognize the Confederacy.
  • 1859: The Confederacy wins the Battle of Annapolis, the largest battle of the war, and they capture Baltimore. Spain recognizes the Confederacy.


  • 1860: The PS Sea Nymph is sunk by American ships in the Cape Island Affair. Britain wins the Battle of Boston Harbor and the United States agrees to negotiate peace. The Treaty of Wilmington is signed. Both sides, but especially the South, immediately face a recession. West Virginia votes in favor of staying loyal to the Union.
  • 1860: In the 1860 US Presidential election, Nathaniel P. Banks announces that he doesn't seek a second term. After the Republican Party nominates Salmon P. Chase, who favored an end to slavery but had different economic policies, the party splits and a second convention nominates William Seward. The Democratic Party nominates John A. Logan. William Seward is elected President.
  • 1861: Jefferson Davis meets new President Seward in Washington. He sells the United States a small portion of land in Missouri back, as well as a small portion of the New Mexico Territory, which is part of OTL Nevada, in exchange for half a million dollars and several prisoner exchanges. This money is used to help pay off war bonds. The Thirteenth Amendment is passed, freeing all slaves in the Union.
  • 1862: In the Confederate Election of 1862, political parties form for the first time. The Democratic Party nominates Virginia Senator Robert M.T. Hunter. The Confederate Party nominated South Carolina Representative Robert Rhett. Humphrey Marshall was nominated by the Constitution Party. Robert M.T. Hunter wins the election.
  • 1863: In both the Confederate and American congresses, there are proposals to move the capital. In the United States, the sides agree to buy land to construct a new capital on the Ohio River, where the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia meet. The town of East Liverpool already existed in this location, and the name of the new capital and federal district remained the same. The city of Washington, Maryland, kept its name, too.
  • 1864: The Democrats lose their majority in the Senate in the Confederacy, and the Confederate Party gains a plurality in the House of Representatives. Also, William Seward is elected to a second term ahead of Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock. The recession completely ends for the North, but continues in the South.
  • 1865: The capital of Maryland is moved from Annapolis to Washington, and the Annapolis battlefield is dedicated as a national cemetery. However, Congress still meets in Washington, Maryland as the new capital has not yet been completed.
  • 1866: In the Confederacy, the economy, which had been steadily recovering, takes a hit again in the Panic of 1866. In the congressional elections, the Confederate Party loses their plurality in the House of Representatives and their majority in the Senate. Meanwhile, the United States passes the 14th and 15th amendments.
  • 1867: Robert M.T. Hunter passes a series of laws to help the recession, and receives extreme hate from the Confederate Party. These included the Veterans Act of 1867 and the Rives-Graham Tariff, though the Mississippi River Fee Act was fully agreed upon. 
  • 1868: In the Confederate elections, Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown is elected President from the Confederate Party, defeating Democratic Governor of South Carolina James Chestnut and North Carolina Senator William Alexander Graham of the Constitution Party.
  • 1868: In America, Secretary of State Charles Sumner negotiates a purchase of Alaska from Russia. This was considered a big mistake at the time, but partially was to regain some land for America. In the elections, Henry Wilson defeats Democrat John A. Logan for President.
  • 1869: Joseph E. Brown, as President, passes a massive tariff reduction, plunging the Confederate economy back down again. To stop this, Joseph E. Brown installs a giant fee for foreign ships using the Mississippi River, greatly upsetting the United States, and creating a new market for Confederate middlemen selling to the US.


  • 1870: The American Capital is moved. Joseph E. Brown vetoes a bill to move the Confederate Capital to Vicksburg, Mississippi. Meanwhile, Charleston, South Carolina establishes itself as the absolute center of Confederate shipping.
  • 1871: Vice President Samuel Pomeroy is investigated for the Crosby Bribery Scandal, in which he bribed delegates to the 1868 Republican Convention to nominate him for Vice President. In the Confederacy, a new law is passed to restrict Underground Railroad activity.
  • 1872: In the Confederate Elections of 1872, Augustus Garland of the Constitution Party wins the election ahead of Confederate Party nominee Zebulon B. Vance, the Secretary of State, and Democrat John C. Breckinridge, former Secretary of War. In the American Elections, Henry Wilson is re-elected ahead of Democrat Salmon P. Chase.
  • 1873: Augustus Garland passes the Tariff of 1873, the Internal Improvements Act, the National Education Act and the Banking Act of 1873. All help "Hamiltonize" the Southern economy and lead to a major economic boom.
  • 1874: Augustus Garland orders the Confederate Capital be moved permanently to Columbus, Georgi which gets renamed Jefferson, District of Dixie. 
  • 1874: Another bribery scandal occurs in the Henry Wilson administration, including Vice President Schuyler Colfax. An impeachment attempt by Democrats fails, but the Republican Party is hurt in the Midterm elections.
  • 1875: Augustus Garland passes the Trans-Confederate Railroad Act of 1875, authorizing the construction of a railroad from Charleston to Tucson. He also passes bills constructing centralized Naval and Military Academies. The Naval Academy is at Pensacola, Florida, while the Military Academy is built at Bowling Green, Kentucky.
  • 1876: In the American elections, Maine Senator James G. Blaine defeats Democratic Governor of New York Samuel Tilden.
  • 1877: The American Government agrees to recognize Cuba as an independent nation to spite Spain and the Confederacy. Spain sells Cuba to the Confederacy, which immediately invades. The United States, having recognized the country, also invades, causing a major proxy war in the Cuban Allegiance War.
  • 1878: Following a British Naval victory at the Battle of Cayo Bragoso and a Confederate Victory at the Battle of Cardenas, the Confederacy annexes Cuba as a territory.
  • 1878: In the Confederate elections of 1878 between Tennessee Senator Isham G. Harris of the Confederate Party, Democratic Governor of Texas John H. Reagan and former Tennessee Governor John C. Brown of the Constitution Party, no candidate receives a majority of electoral votes. The Constitution Party Representatives make a deal with the Democrats to let John H. Reagan become President in exchange for increased investments in education, canals, turnpikes, and railroads.
  • 1879: The Confederacy defeats American and rebelling Spanish forces at the Battle of Cienfuegos. The Treaty of Mobile is signed by the US, the Confederacy, Britain, and Spain, recognizing the Confederate purchase.


  • 1880: Following a defeat in war, James G. Blaine loses the election of 1880 to Thomas F. Bayard after narrowly losing in New York. In the Confederacy, the Internal Improvements Act of 1880 is passed, giving money to increase investments in canals, roadways, railroads, and schools.
  • 1881: Bayard passes the Slavery Prevention Act of 1881 and the Civil Rights Act of 1881. They state that any African Americans may immigrate from the Confederacy to the United States and immediately become Confederate citizens. They also crack down on pro-slavery sympathizers.
  • 1882: Bayard passes the Gold Standard Act of 1882, which more strongly tied the US to the gold standard. He Also passes the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, restricting immigration from China, and the Pendleton Civil Service Act, reforming patronage.
  • 1883: The Confederate Capital is permanently moved to Jefferson (formerly Columbus), District of Dixie.
  • 1884: In the Confederate election of 1884, the Democrats nominate Speaker of the House John G. Carlisle, the Constitution Party nominates North Carolina governor Thomas Jordan Jarvis, and the Confederate Party nominates Alabama Senator John T. Morgan. Again, no candidate gains a majority, with Morgan one electoral vote short, but he is elected President by the House of Representatives.
  • 1884: In the American election of 1884, Thomas F. Bayard defeats Ohio Senator John Sherman after debates on tariffs and internal improvements, Chinese exclusion and silver.
  • 1885: President Bayard vetoes a proposal for more internal improvements, as does John T. Morgan.
  • 1886: Morgan mobilizes troops against the Navajo Nation in the Arizona Territory, and defeats them.
  • 1887: John T. Morgan negotiates with Colombia for control of the land to build a canal. Morgan agrees to pay $10 million in exchange for the land, and orders construction of the canal. The move, however, alienates some members of the Confederate Party.
  • 1888: In the American election of 1888, Indiana Senator Benjamin Harrison defeats Vice President Grover Cleveland in a landslide.
  • 1889: Harrison passes a high tariff on imported manufactured goods, and spends lots of money on internal improvements. In the Cuyahoga Railroad Strike, Harrison mediates between the management and the workers, but the approach takes time and slows the economy. 
  • 1890: With a stagnant economy and a lack of inflation due to the strict use of the Gold Standard, along with the high tariff, foreign imports nearly completely stop, and the Panic of 1890 results, one of the worst recessions yet. The Confederacy lowers tariffs on imported goods, allowing them to import goods from Europe cheaply.
  • 1890: In the Confederate election of 1890, Kentucky Governor Simon B. Buckner is nominated by the Constitution Party, Former Speaker of the House John C. Carlisle is again nominated by the Democrats, and the Confederate Party nominated Florida Governor Francis P. Fleming. Buckner wins an outright majority, and the Confederate Party loses a large number of seats in Congress, and Fleming only carries Florida and South Carolina.
  • 1891: Buckner passes more internal improvements, and reforms to improvements, including a requirement that all state codify school laws. Buckner vetoes another tariff reduction, and a proposal of bimetalism following the American Panic of 1890. Buckner also passes a parole system for federal criminals, and makes the final Civil War prisoner swaps. Buckner passes a bill for a second Trans-Confederate Railroad, from Richmond to Tucson, through Memphis.
  • 1892: In the American election of 1892, Grover Cleveland wins a plurality of votes against Benjamin Harrison and populist James G. Weaver. Cleveland is awarded President by the new congress.
  • 1893: Cleveland lowers the tariff, but refuses to purchase silver. Also, when another railroad strike occurs, he sends in federal troops to stop it.
  • 1894: Simon B. Buckner is assassinated while opening a new federal railroad line between New Orleans and Columbus. Vice President Clifton R. Breckinridge becomes the next President. Also, in the Confederacy, a Supreme Court case rules that income taxes are unconstitutional.
  • 1895: Breckinridge agrees to an official alliance with Britain and France, becoming known as the Cotton Alliance. In response, Grover Cleveland issues the Cleveland Doctrine, stating that only countries in the Americas may intervene in the Americas.
  • 1896: In the Confederate Elections, the party system changes, and the main issues are tariffs, silver, internal improvements, reform, and foreign policy. The Constitution Party nominates President Clifton R. Breckinridge, who favored a small income tax to reduce the tariff and defense of the gold standard, as well as a calculated foreign policy. The Democrats nominated Thomas E. Watson, who favored anti-corruption reform, silver, expansion, nativism, and a larger, graduated income tax. Watson wins a close election, as do the Democrats.
  • 1896: In the American elections, Richard P. Bland gets the nomination ahead of Grover Cleveland after his refusal of bimetallism. William McKinley is nominated by the Republicans. McKinley wins the election, though Bland is able to pick up some support and start modern campaigning.
  • 1897: Watson proposes and supports an amendment to directly elect senators, in addition to one allowing a federal income tax, and both pass in Congress. He also uses federal money to purchase existing railroad lines and telegraph lines, using the profits to purchase new companies, on a path to federal ownership.
  • 1898: Watson passes a new set of reforms. This includes Rural Free Delivery, a law restricting poll taxes (so that poor people, who favored th Democratic Party, could vote), and most importantly, he passed the Butler Silver Purchase Act, which purchased silver and promoted bimetallism. Meanwhile, the US annexes Hawaii.
  • 1899: Watson passes an inheritance tax and the First amendment to the Confederate Constitution is passed, allowing income tax. Watson passes a graduated income tax, which includes a minimum payment of 1%. He also establishes the main Confederate stock exchange to be in New Orleans, similar to the New York Stock Exchange.


  • 1900: Watson passes an increased tariff on crops and food, but a tariff decrease on most other items, helping Confederate farmers. In the American election of 1900, William McKinley is reelected, defeating Adlai Stevenson.
  • 1901: William McKinley is shot, and Theodore Roosevelt becomes President. He immediately begins putting in reforms, especially environmental reforms.
  • 1902: In the Confederate elections of 1902, Former North Carolina Senator Marion Butler is nominated by the Democratic Party, while the Constitution Party nominates Louisiana Governor Murphy J. Foster. Butler wins in a very close election.
  • 1903: Marion Butler passes many laws reforming railroads. This includes a requirement that all cities with one railroad have two cities accessible, to make it easier to enter and leave, another bill requiring federal ownership of all railroads leading to the capital, increased federal power to break up railroad monopolies, and federal purchase of the New Orleans and Nashville railroad line.
  • 1904: Marion Butler opens the Panama Canal. Meanwhile, the Dogger Bank incident brings the United Kingdom into the war between Russia and Japan. In the American elections of 1904, Theodore Roosevelt defeats George B. Mclellan, Jr in one of the biggest landslides ever, with Roosevelt carrying every state but West Virginia and Maryland.
  • 1905: France and the Confederacy declare war on Russia. China then joins the war on the Russian side, as do Germany and Austria-Hungary (though Italy agrees to remain neutral). However, the Ottoman Empire also joins the war against Russia. This becomes World War I, and the United States stays neutral.

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