• The Morrison incident- Americans try to open up Japan from their isolationist Sakoku policy by attempting to trade with them, but flee after cannons fire upon them.
  • Tokugawa Ieyoshi becomes 12th Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate.


  • Captain Fornier-Duplan leads a unsuccessful trade mission to Japan where he is turned down but with less force.


  • 22 shipwrecked Japanese soldiers are rescued by an American whaling ship the Manhattan and transports them to Edo. He is allowed to stay in the bay for four days where he met and traded with governors of Edo and delegates of the Emperor and is allowed to leave, but is told never to return.


  • American James Birdle tries to open negotiations with the Japanese but is largely unsuccessful.
  • French Admiral Cécille lands at Nagasaki where he is turned down and denied entrance to the bay. However two priests called Father Forcade and Father Ko manage to learn the Japanese language on the expedition.


  • Ranald McDonald pretends to be shipwrecked on the island of Rishiri to gain access to Japan. A ship picks him up and transports him to Nagasaki Harbour where he stays for ten months and becomes a teacher. He later returned to America.
  • American Captain James Glynn and successfully opens negotiation with the "closed kingdom" and returns to America two days later. He then speaks to congress on Japan and says they should "crack" Japan open with the military.


  • The HMS Mariner enters Uraga habour to do Topogeografic surveys with a castaway Japanese translator, Otokichi, who to avoid imprisonment for landing of foreign soil, he dressed as a Chinese diplomat.


  • Takugawa Iesada become 13th Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
  • Mathew Perry enters Edo Harbour with four steamers named Mississippi, Plymouth, Saratoga, and Susquehanna and showed a display of their military might to the Japanese to open trade routes to western countries. They accepted the deal and Japan began to stop the Sakoku policy over their country.


  • Mathew Perry returns to Japan and forces the Shogun to accepted the treaty of peace and amity opening relations with America and Japan.
  • The Anglo-Japan treaty of friendship is signed between Japan and Britain.


  • Tokugawa Iemochi becomes 14th Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate.


  • France send their first military mission to Japan.
  • The Shogun requests a modernization effort from the French to modernized their troops.

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