401 - Cyrus the Younger leads a revolt against his father Artaxerxes II but fails, resulting in his death.
400 - The death of Cyrus ensures his Greek mercenaries have to fight all the way back to Greece, which they manage to accomplish. The feat astounds the Persians and the Greeks both.
400 - 300 B.C.
396 - Rome conquers the city of Veii.
395 - War breaks out between Sparta and Corinth, Athens, Argos, and Thebes, beginning the Corinthian War.
390 - The Gallic tribe known as the Senones begins its migration south into Italy, allegedly to serve as mercenaries. The Romans are barely able to defeat them at the Battle of the Allia.
387 - The Corinthian War ends with a victory for Sparta.
383 - Sparta establishes a pro-Spartan government within the city-state of Thebes.
379 - The Thebans drive out the pro-Spartan government and restore the democratic Boeothian League.
371 - Thebes defeats Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra, replacing Sparta as the dominant Greek city-state.
369 - Athens and Sparta form an alliance against Thebes.
366 - Thebes makes peace with Sparta and begins preparing for war with Athens.
363 - Epaminondas launches his campaign against the maritime states allied with Athens.
362 - Sparta declares war on Thebes. Epaminondas defeats Athens and Sparta at the Battle of Mantinea but dies in the process. Peace is established in Greece but no city-state has a hegemonic level of power any longer.
360 - Rome defeats another Gallic invasion.
359 - Philip II comes to power as King of Macedonia.
358 - Rome re-establishes its control over the Latin League.
350 - Rome defeats another Gallic invasion with the assistance of the Samnites.
345 - Fall of the Kingdom of Magadha and the rise of the Nanda Empire in its place.
343 - The city of Capua requests Roman aid in beating back the Samnites, spreading Roman control south.
340 - The outbreak of the Latin War, between Rome and the Samnites against the various Latin city-states.
338 - The conclusion of the Latin War. The Latin League is dissolved and many of the city-states are annexed by Rome.
338 - Philip II defeats the Athenians and Thebans at the Battle of Chaeronea, becoming the most powerful man in all of Greece.
337 - Philip II forms the League of Corinth to solidify his dominion over Greece and to prepare a force to invade Lydia.
336 - Philip II is assassinated and his son Alexander III succeeds him to the throne. Alexander puts the plans to invade Lydia on hold and focuses on the other Greek states.
336 - Alexander the Great defeats a revolt by Thracians and Illyrians.
335 - Athens and Thebes revolt against Alexander and are promptly defeated. Sparta declares war on Alexander.
335 - Alexander defeats Sparta at the Battle of Tegea.
335 - Alexander conquers Crete.
334 - Alexander conquers Syracuse, becoming Hegemon of the Greeks.
334 - Alexander conquers Lydia after defeating the Lydians at the Second Battle of Thymbra.
334 - Alexander and his army defeats the Persians at the Battle of Issus, entering Syria.
332 - Alexander defeats the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela, entering Persia.
330 - The Persian heartland has been conquered by Alexander by this point.
329 - Alexander reaches his farthest point east, in Bactria and Sogdia.
327 - Alexander and his army return to Babylon.
327 - The Samnites capture the city of Neapolis, only to be evicted by the Romans shortly afterward.
326 - The Second Samnite War begins between Rome and the Samnites.
326 - Alexander's horse Bucephalus dies while Alexander is ill. Alexander founds the city of Bucephala on the Orontes River in his honor.
324 - Alexander conquers Egypt, founding the 29th Dynasty, and establishes the city of Alexandria in the Nile Delta.
323 - Alexander conquers the Sinai and the Nabataean Kingdom.
322 - Alexander the Great dies in Bucephala. Most ancient sources point to illness as the cause of death, while a few mention the possibility of poison. Seleucus carries out his campaign in India, achieving limited success past the Indus River.
320 - Maurya defeats the Nanda Empire and establishes his Maurya Empire in its place.
320 - Perdiccas, the regent of the Alexandrian Empire for Alexander's son Alexander IV, is assassinated. The empire fragments amongst Alexander's generals follows soon afterward. Roxana and her two children flee to Macedonia.
316 - Emperor Sun Bin is assassinated by his general Pang Juan, ending the Kǎi Dynasty and giving rise to the Xin Dynasty.
316 - Carthaginian King Bomilcar defeats the Greeks in the Battle of the Himera River, conquering the island of Sicily.
314 - A revolt in Sicily is crushed by the Carthaginians, who tear down the walls of Syracuse.
313 - Aeascides of Epirus dies and is succeeded by his brother Alexander, who acts as regent for Aeascides' son Pyrrhus.
309 - Malchus II is murdered by the Carthaginian state council, who install Hasdrubal Barca in his place.
305 - Seleucus launches his second invasion of India.
304 - End of the Second Samnite War, effectively in a draw.
303 - Maurya and Seleucus enter into an alliance, providing the Seleucids with war elephants and the Maurya with the Indus Valley and portions of Bactria.
302 - Pyrrhus of Epirus takes the throne and prepares to invade Macedonia to reunite Alexander's Empire.
301 - Establishment of the Xin Dynasty of China by the Ying family.
300 - 200 B.C.
299 - Pyrrhus invades Macedonia, part of the Antigonid realm.
298 - The Antigonids are driven from Macedonia and most of Thrace by Pyrrhus. Much of Greece is also conquered.
298 - Start of the Third Samnite War between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, Etruscans and Umbrians.
290 - Concerned with Alexander IV's rising power, Pyrrhus departs from Athens to invade Ptolemaic Egypt.
290 - Roman victory in the Third Samnite War, Samnium and Umbria annexed.
285 - Pyrrhus drives the Ptolemaic forces from Egypt and installs Alexander IV as his puppet. This ultimately fails, and Alexander IV asserts his independence upon Pyrrhus' death.
281 - A group of migrating Celts led by a chieftain named Brennus is defeated by Pyrrhus.
281 - Battle of Dioclea, the same group of Celts is destroyed by a coalition of the Attalids, Antigonids, and Ptolemy, preventing them from settling in Central Anatolia.
280 - Pyrrhus arrives in southern Italy to defend them against the Romans and Carthaginians, after the Greek cities there threatened to rebel against Aeacid authority if he did not.
280 - Rome and Carthage enter into an alliance to protect their domains from Pyrrhus.
278 - Pyrrhus reclaims Syracuse from the Carthaginians.
276 - The Pharos of Alexandria, put on hold during the Aeacid invasion of Egypt, is completed.
275 - Battle of Kroton, Pyrrhus is forced to withdraw from Italy after suffering huge casualties.
272 - The last independent Greek city in Southern Italy, Taras, falls to the Romans.
271 - Southern Greece erupts into revolt against Epirote control.
270 - Pyrrhus lays siege to Sparta.
270 - Battle of Thyrea, Pyrrhus defeats a coalition of Spartans, Athenians, Corinthians, and Argives, but dies shortly after as a result of his wounds.
262 - Battle of Agrigentum, Romans gain the upper hand in the Sicily War.
260 - End of the Sicily War between Rome and Carthage, annexation of Sicily by Rome.
c. 250 - The Chavin Culture of Peru has died out by this time.
240 - Outbreak of the Mercenary War between Carthage and its former mercenary army. Corsica and Sardinia are seized by Rome.
238 - Defeat of the mercenaries by Carthage's new semi-professional army.
238 - Conquest of Parthia by the Parni tribal coalition, establishing the Arsacid dynasty.
c. 230 - Sabaea takes control over Najran, pushing north.
218 - Start of the Punic War between Rome and Carthage, over disputed influence in Spain.
217 - Hannibal crosses the Alps and arrives in Northern Italy.
216 - Carthage and Epirus form an alliance to oppose Rome. Rome makes alliances with the Antigonids and the Argolid Hegemony in response.
213 - The last Emperor of the Xin Dynasty, Ying Ziying, outlaws the philosophical practice of Confucianism and arrests some of its prominent adherents, fearful of their influence within Chinese society.
209 - Start of the Dazexiang Rebellion against the Xin Dynasty.
207 - Epirus is conquered and divided between the Hegemony, the Antigonids, and Rome.
206 - Rome completes its conquest of Carthaginian Spain.
202 - Battle of Zama, Hannibal is defeated by Scipio Africanus, end of the Punic War.
201 - Scipio Africanus is made Consul-for-Life, acting as a powerbroker within the Roman Senate.
200 - 100 B.C.
200 - Defeat of the Sakas by the Yuezhi, forcing the Sakas to migrate further south.
197 - Fall of the Xin dynasty, succeeded by the Qiang dynasty in China.
187 - Collapse of the Maurya dynasty in India and its division into three successor states.
183 - Scipio Africanus dies.
181 - Artumparus defeats the Attalids at the Battle of Malos, saving Cappadocia from Greek dominion.
167 - Jewish riots occur in Jerusalem at the instigation of local priest Mattathias over Ptolomaic demands to worship the Greek pantheon.
166 - Under Judah Maccabee, Jewish forces drive the Ptolomies from Judea, establishing a new kingdom.
163 - The Greek pretender Timarchus seizes control of Mesopotamia from the Ptolemies, beginning a civil war.
159 - Start of the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage.
158 - The Cappadocians are victorious at the Battle of Antiokheia, pushing south.
158 - Timarchus is assassinated by the Ptolemies, returning Mesopotamia to them.
157 - The city of Carthage falls to Rome, ending the Second Punic War.
155 - The start of the Lusitanian War, with Lusitanian rebellions against Roman authority.
155 - The Ius Punici and Ius Graeci are passed by the Roman Senate, giving limited citizenship to parts of Carthaginian and Greek society in the form of property, marriage, and legal rights.
154 - The start of the Numantian War in Hispania.
151 - The Antigonid realm in Macedonia is annexed by Rome after the Battle of Pydna.
147 - Roman forces defeat the Argolids at the Battle of Copae, pushing into southern Greece.
146 - Roman victory at the Battle of Tenea, fall of the Argolid Hegemony and all of mainland Greece to Rome.
140 - The Great Southern Campaigns of the Qiang dynasty, conquering much of what is now southern China and northern Vietnam.
139 - Scipio Aemilianus dies.
133 - Tiberius Gracchus is assassinated.
133 - End of the Numantian War with a Roman victory.
129 - Arsacid conquest of Ecbatana and Media, end of the Seleucid realm.
121 - Marcus Gracchus is assassinated.
121 - Roman forces conquer the Greek city of Messalia and push into Transalpine Gaul.
113 - The Cimbri and Teutones cross the Danube River, beginning the Cimbrian War against Rome.
108 - The Qiang dynasty conquers what is now northern Korea.
107 - Roman Consul Gaius Marius passes the Marian Reforms, drastically reforming the Roman military.
104 - War of the Heavenly Horses begins as China pushes into nomadic territories and Tocharian city-states.
101 - Victory of the Qiang Chinese in the War of the Heavenly Horses.
101 - Victory of the Romans in the Cimbrian War with the annihilation of the Cimbri and Teutones tribes.
100 - 1 B.C.
91 - Start of the Social War in Italy.
89 - Start of the Cappadocian Wars as Cappadocia invades the final cities of the Attalids, an ally of Rome.
88 - End of the Social War and the institution of rights for local Italian allies of Rome.
88 - The first of the Republican Civil Wars known as the Sullan War, as Sulla marches his forces against those of Marius in Rome.
88 - Tigranes the Great of Armenia launches his campaign against the Parthians, conquering the northern regions of Mesopotamia and Media.
85 - Aretas III of Nabataea seizes Damascus from the crumbling Ptolemaic Kingdom.
84 - End of the First Cappadocian War with a Roman victory and the establishment of the Roman provinces of Ionia, Caria, and Lycia.
83 - Armenia under Tigranes the Great invades the Ptolemaic Kingdom, leaving the Argeads of Egypt as the last Diadochi state.
81 - End of the Sullan War and the consolidation of Sulla as Dictator-for-Life.
80 - Argead King Alexander VII murders his popular mother and is lynched to death in Alexandria; he is succeeded by his infant son Alexander VIII, who develops little interest in anything but art.
79 - Sulla resigns his position and retires to his villa.
78 - Sulla dies a natural death.
76 - Aretas III pushes the Nabataean Kingdom south with successful campaigns past the city of Hegra.
74 - Start of the Second Cappadocian War due to political intrigue between Rome and Cappadocia.
64 - End of the Second Cappadocian War with Roman expansion into Bithynia, Phrygia, Paphlagonia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Syria.
62 - Nabataea becomes a client state of Rome.
60 - Secret formation of the Roman First Triumvirate between Julius Caesar, Licinius Crassus, and Pompeius Magnus.
60 - Alexander VIII is assassinated by an unknown assailant.
59 - Former Roman provinces in Anatolia are consolidated into the provinces of Ionia Graecia and Anatolia following local revolts.
58 - At the behest of the Senate, Julius Caesar intervenes in the Argead Civil War, overthrowing the unpopular and incapable child Alexander IX and installing his older sister Cleopatra to the throne. Egypt is effectively a client state of Rome.
58 - Birth of Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra.
58 - Following his successful victory in Egypt, Caesar is chosen to lead the conquest of Gaul, beginning the Gallic Wars.
52 - At Caesar's bequest, Caesarion is sent to study Roman culture and government.
52 - Effective end of the Gallic Wars, leading to Gaul's annexation into the Roman Republic.
52 - Crassus is victorious at the Battle of Carrhae, looting the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon and capturing northern Mesopotamia for the Roman Republic.
49 - Under the influence of Pompey, the Senate orders both Crassus and Caesar to leave their armies and return to Rome. Suspecting treachery they both refuse, leading the Tripartate Civil War.
49 - Caesar crosses the Rubicon River and marches on Rome, taking the city as Pompey's supporters flee to Greece.
48 - Start and end of the Third Cappadocian War, establishing Cappadocia, Bosphorus and Armenia as client states of Rome.
47 - Pompey defeats Crassus, leading to his defeat and the transfer of Syria and Mesopotamia to Pompey's sphere of influence. Crassus commits suicide.
46 - Caesar defeats Pompey in Greece, establishing Caesar as the principal player in Roman politics. Pompey also commits suicide.
43 - End of the Tripartite Civil War as small holdouts of pro-Pompey forces are defeated in Spain and Anatolia.
42 - Julius Caesar is assassinated soon after taking the titles of Consul-for-Life and Dictator-for-Life.
42 - Caesarion, now a young man, travels to Rome and learns that he is the sole heir in Caesar's will and earns the loyalty of Caesar's legions.
40 - Caesarion defeats the last of Caesar's assassins, leaving him the strongest man in Rome at the age of eighteen.
38 - Caesarion integrates his birth realm of Egypt into the Republic.
37 - Judea becomes a client state of Rome.
35 - Caesarion is granted permission from the Senate to use the names of "Augustus" and "Princeps". Taking these names and titles he styles himself as Imperator Caesar, establishing the Roman Empire.
34 - A disastrous military defeat for Rome during another attempted invasion of Parthia at the Battle of Tagrit.
25 - Roman campaigns in Nubia reduce the Kingdom of Kush into a Roman client state.
24 - First Roman campaign in Arabia Felix, establishing the client state of Sabaea.