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16th century

  • 1574 – The invasion of the Tondo Kingdom's Hanyang Bay Area and the Huangdom of Pangasinan would end in a massive failure as Lin Feng dies during the invasion. The briefness of the battle meant that much of the Tondo's navy would remain intact, and many of the pirates chose to settle in Hanyang.
  • 1578Castilian War occurs over disputes in Hani's central islands, and ends in a Spanish victory. This triggers a split in Tondo-Bruneian diplomatic ties, the end of the personal union, an end to Bruneian presence in Han politics, and the return of Tondo to its thalassocratic power status it had previously enjoyed.
  • 1578 – The Muslim House of Rajah Sulayman is ousted from power upon the news of Bruneian defeat and are deported to Brunei. The personal union between Namayan, Manila, and Tondo ends. The Tondo dynasty led by Magat Salamat are restored to power, and after a brief battle with Muslim royalists, reconsolidate control over its territories.
  • 1579 – Tondo establishes formal diplomatic and trading relations with the Spanish, bringing a dozen ships and weaponry to show their maritime prowess and to show their power.
  • 1579 – Tondo reaffirms its relationships with the Ming dynasty in an attempt to ward off any Spanish expansionist ambitions. The Tondo adopts Buddhism and Hinduism as its two state religions while banning Islam and repressing native animist beliefs. The beginning of mass-Chinese settlement begins, along with the gradual process of sinicisation.
  • 1580Ma-i adopts the Ma surname, and proclaims the Ma dynasty.
  • September – December, 1583 – Driven by the fear of both Spanish and/or Bruneian subjugation, as well as the threat of piracy from Japanese pirates (who sought to enjoy the same trading rights), the Tondo dynasty initiates the unification of Rōsan, seizing Ma colonial outposts just located south of Hanyang. The sudden attack means that there is little resistance and the battle ends in Tondo's favour.
  • April, 1585 – March 1586Marishima, along with the Northeast coast of Mindōrō, is quickly incorporated into the Tondo dynasty. The imperial court is split on whether to join the Tondo or to remain independent and resist annexation.
  • October 1587 – The Ma dynasty finally capitulates to the Tondo dynasty, and under the basis of being of the same ethnicity, the Ma royalty is absorbed into the Tondo royalty. The northern portion of Parawōn is discovered and annexed under the Tondo dynasty.
  • 1591–1596 – Tondo invades Pangasinan, though while most of the lowlands were conquered within a year, there was heavy resistance within major population centres and mountains; excessively prolonging the war effort and causing the Tondo dynasty to briefly lapse into financial malaise.
  • 1598–1602 – Tondo invade the Ifugao and the Igorot. The mountainous terrain proves to be an obstacle, but the technological disparity and the guaranteed promise of autonomy makes the annexation easy. It also invades the Cagayan and the Ilongol city-states, which upon hearing of military successes in other kingdoms, quickly surrender.

17th century

  • 1602 – Rusan is unified by the Tondo dynasty.
  • 1617 – With an increasing amount of Chinese settlers and their descendants (though to constitute more than a third of the total population in important areas), they are excluded from the caste system.
  • 1620 – The caste system is completely abandoned, though its effects still remain, and elitism remains rampant on Han society.
  • 1621 – Chinese culture continues to displace the previously predominantly Indian culture, a result of Chinese settlers intermarrying with local people and the growing influence of what was once the Ma royalty. The Tondo royalty drops the use of Indian clothing in favour of Chinese-style clothing.

18th century

19th century

20th century

21st century

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