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Ethelred the Pious
This page is a year-by-year chronicle of every single event in the Ethelred the Pious timeline. Its main use is as a reference for the century pages and the topical pages, which are in a more narrative format. I don't expect anyone to actually read it; think of it as the frame supporting the entire structure.
Events in italics are no longer part of this timeline. They will be removed as the timeline develops in more detail.
|Century Pages for Ethelred the Pious|
- January: At the Battle of Ashdown, Halfdan Ragnarsson leads a great army of Danes into the territory of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Wessex. King Ethelred of Wessex lingers at his morning devotions and his brother Alfred does not take command of the Saxon army, giving the Danes time to seize the high ground and the initiative. The Saxons are routed. Halfdan declares himself King of Lundun and Jorvik.
- March: Ethelred leads a daring counterattack on the Viking army with his remaining troops. Knowing it to be a desperate gamble, he makes sure to avoid another rout and withdraws before things turn disastrous. The attack is unsuccessful, but Ethelred survives.
- June: Danes sack Wareham, the West Saxon capital. Many Saxon nobles flee to the Isle of Wight.
- Winter: Viking army winters in Wareham. It is reinforced by new arrivals from France and Denmark.
- March: In a bold tactic, Ethelred leads the Danes straight into the Somerset swamps, where he scores a surprising victory.
- April: Danes retaliate; Saxon army suffers the first in a series of defeats as it retreats steadily eastward.
- February: Ethelred makes an attack on Lundun, capturing some high-profile prisoners but failing to take the city. Saxons retreat into Kent, backing themselves into a corner.
- May: The Battle of Headcorn is the last stand of the Wessex kingdom, and by extension of the Anglo-Saxon rulers of England. Ethelred is killed. Alfred assumes the kingship and goes underground.
- October: Alfred sneaks into Canterbury to be crowned by the Archbishop.
- 874: Ivar attempts to take possession of Kent and Sussex. His brother cordially throws him out.
- 876: First war between Østangeln and Jorvik. Halfdan defends his conquests.
- 877: Halfdan removes the puppet king Ceolwulf II of Mercia from his throne, adding the remainder of English Mercia to his territory. Mercia is divided among Halfdan's loyal jarls, most of the Saxon earls having been executed.
- 880: Halfdan puts down an attempted coup by Guthrum, the powerful Jarl of Lundun. Scores of executions follow.
- 881: Alfred is captured and killed during a raid on a village in the Jarldom of Djúra-bý, ending major Saxon resistance to Viking rule in England.
- 883: Second war between Østangeln and Jorvik. Ivar dies during the war, although not in combat. Sigfrid Ivarsson becomes king.
- 884: Charles the Fat reunites the Western Roman Empire.
- The Welsh kings of Dyfed, Brycheiniog, and Glywysing submit to Halfdan's overlordship in their fight against Gwynedd, which is supported by Ivar in Østangeln. However, the Welsh resist Halfdan's attempts to enforce his will in their country. Sigfrid takes advantage of his uncle's weakness and occupies Lundun.
- Sigfred of Denmark leads a raiding party against Paris. They are easily driven away by Count Odo.
- 893: Halfdan dies, mourned by few. His 22-year-old son Hogni becomes King of Jorvik. He is remembered as a much saner, less cruel king than his father.
- 894: Hogni re-conquers Lundun for Jorvik. Østanglesk forces are defeated in Wales by rivals from Dublin. Gwynedd's king Anarawd acknowledges King Olaf of Dublin as overlord.
- 895: Hrolfr the Northman settles in England with his band of warriors and becomes Jarl of Devon.
- 897: Hogni Halfdansson proclaims the Angelagen, or English Law, in the southern part of the Kingdom of Jorvik (Mercia, Wessex, and Kent). It preserves many of the Anglo-Saxon legal concepts, including the concept of ruling based on legal precedent.
- 889: Emperor Charles the Fat dies, leaving his adopted son Louis, a child of around 10 years old, as sole heir.
- 889: Louis the Wary defeats his German rival, gaining control of most of the empire.
- Domnall II of Alba is killed in a battle with the Jarl of Norðr-eyjar (Orkney). Constantine II, a first cousin still in his twenties, becomes king of the Picts and Scots.
- Louis the Wary is crowned Emperor in Rome.
- 902: A local rebellion drives out the Viking rulers of Dublin. When Hogni does not grant them land or title in Jorvik, they take possession of Anglesey Isle, part of Gwynedd Kingdom, their former vassal.
- 903: The sons of Ivar, rulers of Østangeln, are driven from the kingdom. Hogni of Jorvik gives them refuge in his capital. The jarls of Østangeln choose a chieftain named Halfdan to be the new King.
- 904: Hrolfr the Northman of Devon conquers the Welsh Kingdom of Kernow/Corwall. He places his 11-year-old son Vilhalmr (William) on the throne.
- 905: Hogni provides Ivar's sons Sigfrid and Sigtrygg with an army to invade Østangeln. Sigfrid is killed in battle, while Sigtrygg is captured. Hogni refuses to pay any ransom for his client and former enemy.
- Winter: Sigtrygg Ivarsson is executed.
- Summer: Eadulf, king of the remainder of Northumbria and the last Saxon ruler in Britain, submits to Constantine of Alba as overlord.
- 910: An attempt at a marriage alliance between Jorvik and Østangeln: Hogni's daughter Raghild marries Halfdan's son Eirik.
- 914: Hogni invades Northumbria and is met by Albian troops. The battle is indecisive. Hogni makes a treaty of friendship and peace with Constantine of Alba. Constantine begins building castles in Northumbria, increasing his control over the small Saxon kingdom.
- 915: Emperor Louis the Wary is killed in battle against Magyar invaders. The empire is divided between Charles the Simple in the west and Arnulf of Carinthia in the east and south. Louis has the imperial title.
- 918: Halfdan of Østangeln is killed and replaced by a nephew, Knut.
- February: Sigtrygg the Squinty, a son of the executed Sigtrygg Ivarsson, departs England with a raiding fleet and lands at the mouth of the Seine in northern France.
- April: Vikings from Jórvík reconquer Dublin, making it a Jórvíkish fief.
- Spring: Haakon, the infant son of King Harald I of Norway and his maid, comes to Jorvik to be raised by King Hogni. He is brought up in the pagan ways.
- Summer: Sigtrygg the Squinty captures the city of Rouen and begins to terrorize the towns and monasteries upriver.
- 922: Another assassination brings Eirik and his wife Raghild to power in Østangeln.
- 923: Cordoban forces sack Pamplona.
- Spring: A Norse army under Geirmund Roundhead capture Pamplona, founding the first Norse state in Spain.
- Autumn: Hogni dies. The jarls and things elect Bjørn I King of Jorvik. Hrolfr of Devon and his son, Vilhalmer of Cornwall, are rivals of the new king; they lose influence within Jorvik and focus their attention on their Cornish domains.
- 925: The Creation of Angelania: Sigtrygg is baptized and takes an oath of loyalty to Emperor Charles. He is made Margrave of the new March of Angelania, or Anguèlènie.
- 927: Sigtrygg dies and is succeeded by his cousin Góröðr (in French, Godefroy). Godefroy marries Ermengard, daughter of the Duke of Burgundy.
- 929: Abd ar-Rahman of Cordoba proclaims himself Caliph and inaugurates a golden age of Al-Andalus.
- Count Robert of Paris leads a revolt of lords and knights against the Frankish Emperor, Charles the Simple. Robert and his loyal vassals establish what becomes the Kingdom of Neustria. They attack Angelania.
- The Syllanine Order is established as the ruling institution of the Isles of Scilly.
- 931: Emperor Charles is captured in battle and imprisoned in Paris.
- Emperor Charles the simple dies in prison. His son Arnulf comes to power in Lotharingia and is crowned Emperor.
- King Dyfnwal of Strathclyde dies. Constantine's nephew Máel Coluim (Malcolm), his tanist or heir, becomes king.
- 934: Louis, last Carolingian king of East Francia, dies. The German dukes choose one of their own instead of another Carolingian. The Frankish Empire fractures.
- 935: After years of military experience in Ireland and Spain, Haakon leaves England to unseat his brother Erik "Bloodaxe" as King of Norway. Erik amasses followers in Orkney and Eastanglia and conquers Dublin.
- 938: Erik Bloodaxe is proclaimed High King of Ireland at Tara.
- 939: Abd ar-Rahman attacks the Christian kingdom of Leon. Leonese forces are divided between the border and the coasts, so the Caliph easily defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Simancas.
- 940: Abd ar-Rahman begins a long seige of Leon.
- Muslim armies attack Tolosa in Aquitania, but fail to gain any lasting conquest. Count Raymond IV of Tolosa grants marcher fiefs to English chieftains still inhabiting parts of the coast - the beginning of the Aquitanian Marches.
- Leon falls to the Caliph.
- 943: Constantine abdicates, succeeded by his nephew Malcolm, now King of Strathclyde, Northumbria, the Picts, and the Scots.
- 944: Count Raymond IV of Tolosa claims the vacant title of Duke of Aquitania.
- 946: Erik the Mariner, son of Erik Bloodaxe, sails on a mission of conquest from Dublin to Østangeln, conquering the Isles of Man and Anglesey along the way. King Vilhalmer of Kernow submits to Erik's overlordship.
- Arnulf, the titular Emperor of the West, dies. His son Lothair inherits the Kingdom of Lorraine but is not named Emperor. End of the Carolingian Empire.
- Raymond IV of Tolosa, also Duke of Aquitania, claims the title of King.
- 949: A great army from England lands in Galicia under Olaf the Hairy, son of the deposed King Eirik of Eastanglia and one of the Descendants of Ragnar. Olaf conquers the kingdom and establishes his capital at Santiago de Compostela. He acknowledges the King of Jórvík as overlord. Galisja attracts many immigrants from England and Ireland.
- 950: At the Battle of Lena, an army of Asturians and Castilians fend off an attack by Abd Ar-Rahman. Count Fernán González secures his position as King of Asturias and Castile, effective ruler of the strongest remaining Christian forces in Spain.
- 952: Godefroy inherits the Duchy of Burgundy through his wife.
- 953: Erik of Østangeln marries his daughter Halla to Thorkell, a nephew of Thorvald, King of Jorvik.
- 954: Thorvald of Jorvik dies unexpectedly. Erik the Mariner intervenes to secure the election of his son-in-law Thorkell. Olaf the Hairy returns from Spain to fight for the crown. He is unsuccessful and goes back to his kingdom in Galisja.
- 955: Olaf, Jarl of Kent, allows Canterbury Cathedral to be rebuilt.
- 956: In Iceland, the many chieftains try to stop their feuding by establishing an Icelandic Commonwealth, with the Althing as its ruling body. The attempt fails, and the Althing soon falls apart.
- 958: Death of Olaf the Hairy. His son Hrut comes to power in Galicia.
- Harald Bluetooth of Denmark is the first Scandinavian king to convert to Christianity.
- Death of King Vilhalmer of Kernow/Cornwall. Donyarth becomes king. He allows Erik the Mariner to use Cornwall as a base during the war.
- 961: Death of Abd Ar-Rahman. Al-Hakam succeeds his father as Caliph.
- 963: Thorkell of Jorvik leads a raid on Galisja, hoping to regain his kingdom's suzerainty over the Spanish state. Santiago de Compostela is attacked and many treasures taken.
- Death of Erik Bloodaxe, a surprisingly long life for so warlike a king. The conflict between his sons, Harald Greycloak and Erik the Mariner, ignites the Bloodaxe War.
- Hrut counterattacks the English in Galisja. Thorkell is forced to return to England.
- 965: Bernard IV of Tolosa, King of Aquitania, invades Provence and Italy at the Pope's request.
- 966: Galisja throws back a Cordoban attack.
- King Thorkell of Jórvik joins his father-in-law Erik in the Bloodaxe War.
- The Pope crowns Bernard of Tolosa King of the Lombards, extending his realm to northern Italy.
- 969: King Dub of Alba joins the Bloodaxe War on Harald's side.
- 970: Dub is arrested and executed by his cousin, King Cuilen. He has Alba switch sides and join Erik and Thorkell.
- 971: Harald Greycloak receives aid from Harald Bluetooth, King of Denmark.
- 972: Harald Bluetooth arrives in England and conquers Lundun.
- The Bloodaxe War ends with Denmark the real victor, gaining both Orkney and Østangeln as vassals.
- King Garcia of Castile expands the knighthood of his kingdom, increasing his strength against the Umayyads.
- Al-Hakam dies. Power passes nominally to Caliph Hisham, but Al-Andalus is effectively ruled by his vizier Al-Mansur. Al-Mansur attacks and sacks Barcelona.
- Al-Mansur leads a campaign into the Pyrennes. He forces the submission of the Aragonese kingdom, as well as several of the counts of the Spanish Marches. A mosque and gubernatorial palace are built at Al-Dara.
- Hugh of Tolosa is crowned Emperor by the Pope, restoring the Western Imperial title after a lapse of several decades.
- King Hrut of Galisja converts to Christianity, apparently after a vision.
- Hrut restores the bishopric of Compostela and renounces his allegiance to the King of Jórvík. His kingdom begins to be referred to as Sant Jakob. He improves the port at Ferrol to encourage pilgrims from across Christian Europe.
- The Isle of Man revolts against Scottish rule, led by King Godfred. Godfred and his men ravage the coast of Strathclyde. The Scottish King, Kenneth, ruthlessly puts down the revolt. He places a relative on the Manx throne and tightens his control over the island. The war is something of a final step in the consolidation of the Kingdom of Alba.
- 984: Olaf Trygvasson, son of a minor Norwegian king, flees to England after losing a battle. He does not convert to Christianity in this pagan country.
- 985: The Caliph's army again burns Barcelona.
- 986: Erik the Red leads settlers from Iceland to Greenland.
- 990: Sancho, son of King Garcia of Castile, rebels against his father with the aid and blessing of Al-Mansur. He seizes control of much of the kkingdom and confines his father to Asturias.
- 992: The last meeting of the Icelandic Althing ends violently.
- Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark arrives in Østangeln. He leads an army into the Kingdom of Jorvik.
- Emperor Hugh I dies and the throne passes to his brother Raymond I.
- 995: Garcia, still rightful king of Castile, dies, and his son Sancho takes over the entire kingdom. Sancho repudiates his patron, Al-Mansur.
- Most of the jarls of southern England switch allegience to Sweyn.
- Emperor Raymond I dies in Italy. His son Hugh II succeeds him.
- 997: Al-Mansur lays seige to Burgos. King Sancho is forced again to accept Umayyad overlordship of Castile.
- 998: Sweyn captures the city of Jorvik, defeating the united kings of Jorvik and Dublin. He makes the city his capital of a new Kingdom of England.
- 999: Sweyn crowned King of Dublin/Dyflin.
- 1000: Leif Eriksson leads the first expedition to Vinland. He is impressed by its trees and its currants.
- 1001: Pact of friendship between England/Denmark and Alba.
- Sweyn Forkbeard returns to Denmark and reconquers it from the Swedes.
- Al-Mansur dies, and without his singular presence, the Umayyads are unable to control their Christian vassals.
- 1003: Emperor Hugh II puts down a rebellion by the Aquitanian nobility.
- 1008: Hugh II dies and is succeeded by his son, the youthful Raymond II.
- 1009: Norwegian Prince Olaf Haraldsson arrives in England and quickly goes to Ireland, where he joins in some of the warefare between Dyflin and the surrounding kingdoms.
- Emperor Raymond II makes gains in the Spanish March against the Moors.
- The first Norse settlement is established on Vinland by Thorfinn Korisefni.
- 1011: Olaf leads a raiding party to Spain.
- Winter: Thorfinn's settlement is abandoned after a defeat by "Skraelings" (Beothuk). Greenlanders continue to make regular trips to Vinland for slaves, wood, fruit, and trade.
- Autumn: Olaf is baptized at Santiago de Compostela.
- Olaf II becomes king of Norway, the country's first Christian king.
- Emperor Raymond II dies childless. Hugh III, the younger brother of Raymond's grandfather, becomes emperor. Hugh passes decrees against the unruly Aquitanian marcher lords and the Norse merchants of Bordeaux.
- Pope Benedict VIII confirms the Syllanines as an independent order.
- Cnut becomes King of England. He initiates several reforms designed to harmonize
- 1019: Upon the death of his brother, Cnut also becomes King of Denmark and Jarl of the Isles.
- Olaf decrees that the pagan temples of Norway be suppressed. Offended, the large part of the Norwegian nobility invites Cnut of Denmark to come and be their king. Cnut easily defeats Olaf, who flees to the court of the Kievan king. Cnut, a Christian himself, does not attempt to Christianize Norway. The Danish empire now includes Ireland, Ongellsey, England, Orkney, Shetland, and Norway.
- While Cnut is in Norway, his regent in Denmark, Ulf Jarl, joins with the King of Sweden in defying Cnut's rule. Cnut leaves Norway in the hands of loyal commanders and departs for England to raise another army.
- 1025: Cnut invades Sweden with a great army of English, Norwegians, and loyal Danes.
- 1027: Emperor William dies, and the Western throne passes to his nephew Hugh IV. In OTL Cnut used an imperial coronation this year as a fine opportunity to present himself as an enlightened Christian ruler. In TTL this does not happen because Cnut is at war in Sweden, and because the Empire is based not in Germany, but far to the south in Provence and Burgundy.
- 1028: Ulf Jarl, Cnut's regent in Denmark, is killed.
- Cnut's war against Sweden ends in a stalemate.
- An expedition of English, Faroese, and Icelandic settlers establishes a palisaded settlement in northern Vinland.
- 1031: The Cordoban Caliphate of Al-Andalus splinters into independent taifas. Among the more powerful taifas are Leon in the northwest and Al-Darra in the Pyrenees, two strong regional centers that maintain Muslim control over much of the North. Darra begins the first of a series of attacks against the remaining marcher lordships and Aquitania to the north.
- 1032: The Norse win a victory over some Beothuk. The northernmost part of the island is now dominated by Norse.
- 1032: Cnut makes a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela.
- 1033: War begins between Castile-Santiago and the Emirate of Nawar.
- Cnut the Great dies.
- Moorish troops loyal to the Emir of Nawar (Pamplona) conquer Castile and tear down the walls of Burgos.
- King Alfonso of Castile and Santiago is captured and dies soon after. End of the Kingdom of Castile.
- Death of Emperor Hugh IV, beginning of the reign of Emperor Pons.
- 1042: A new settlement on the peninsula of Avalon. Its leader, of noble extraction, takes the title of "Jarl of Vinland".
- 1044: Emperor Pons is killed in battle against the Moors. His son Raymond III is deposed by his cousin, who claims the throne as Hugh V. The lords of Aquitania and much of Provence reject Hugh's rule and support another member of the Tolosa family, Arnulf of Albi.
- 1045: Santiago recaptures Leon from the Navarran Moors.
- 1046: Emperor Hugh V is assassinated in Provence while raising troops to fight in the Pyrenees. Arnulf is acclaimed as the new emperor.
- 1047: Al-Darra besieges and captures the city of Tolosa. Emperor Arnulf is captured during the siege. His ransom bankrupts the Kingdom of Aquitania. The Aldarran army advances into Provence, which is successfully defended by Godfrey, King of Burgundy. The Pope recognizes Godfrey as the new Emperor of the West.
- 1054: The Almoravids begin their conquest of Morocco. They espouse an austere, puritanical version of Sunni Islam.
- 1059: Death of Emperor Godfrey I. Start of a major revolt by Italian nobility.
- 1063: Emperor Godfrey II puts down the revolt of his Italian vassals. The nobility lose privileges and a great deal of land to the Crown, the Church, and the cities.
- 1066: Godfrey II sails from Masilia and captures Moorish strongholds in Corsica.
- 1067: Norse establish a settlement on Notre Dame Bay, location of the largest Beothuk villages.
- Yusuf ibn Tashufin establishes the Almoravid capital at Marrakush (Marrakech) and assumes the title "Amir Al-Muslimin", Commander of the Muslims.
- Godfrey II conquers Sardinia from the Moors.
- 1071: Seljuk forces defeat the Eastern Romans decisively at Manzikert and begin to occupy the whole of Asia Minor.
- 1075: The Notre Dame Bay settlement is destroyed.
- 1077: Seljuk forces capture Nicaea from the Eastern Roman Empire, completing their conquest of Asia minor.
- 1081: The Almoravids conquer Algiers and clash with the Banu Hilal, a Bedouin Shi'ite tribe from Arabia acting in the name of the Shiite Caliph at Cairo (the Fatimid Caliphate). A long conflict between the Almoravids and the Bedouin begins.
- 1089: First Norse settlement on Nutisku Island. The little village, mostly Manxmen, subsists mainly on fish and the wood trade.
- 1090: Death of Godfrey II. William II acclaimed as Emperor of the West.
- Most of the residents of the western and middle settlements on Greenland relocate to Vinland. The main eastern settlement survives but continues to lose people to the more pleasant colony to the southwest.
- William II leads a campaign into Asia Minor to assist the Eastern Empire - the Anatolian War. Somewhat begrudgingly, he takes along several large contingents of knights and their retainers from Neustrie, Lorraine, and Germany. After securing major gains in Asia Minor, disagreement breaks out among the non-imperial troops over whether to remain in Anatolia with the emperor, or press on toward the Holy Land. The forces divide, and the force bound for Jerusalem is atrophied by Turkish raids before being routed near Antioch. The emperor and his officers obtain land in the Aegean, and connections between these lands and Italy do much to foster trade.
- Foundation of the Cantuaric Order and the Order of Glastenborg, two crusading orders of knights in England.
- Alfredssaga composed in South England.
- c. 1100: The Hammadid kingdom of Algeria is mostly conquered by the Almoravids. The easternmost part is occupied by Bedouin Arabs loyal to the Fatimids in Cairo.
- Introduction of sheep, cattle, and horses to North America. They reach the Hashitamahan state late in the century.
- Hashitamaha is devastated by European disease. The king is deposed by a priestly oligarchy.
- Maize, beans, and squash reach Europe and the Mediterranean.
- Evolution of the Kentish language in Norman-controlled England.
- German traders found the Osthansa in the Baltic.
- Beginning of the decades of talks aimed at healing the Great Schism, later called the Great Reconciliation - the coming together of Eastern and Western Christendom.
- Consolidation of the Kingdom of Vinland.
- Norse traders reach Great Lakes, establishing the Måmi Principality on Lake Erie.
- The use of livestock spreads outward from Hashitamaha, reaching Mesoamerica within a few decades.
- The Black Death infects China (1330s), Central Asia, the Middle East, and Europe (1340s), East Africa and North America (1350s), and Mesoamerica (1360s).
- The Hansa expands: mainly German trading guilds create the Mittelhansa in the North Sea and the Westhansa in North America.
- The Caunterbory Tales composed in London.
- England gradually re-gains suzerainty over the Norman south. The Cantuaric Order remains in actual control, however.
- Prosperity caused by expanded trade along the Bifrost (St Lawrence).
- Hashitamahan territorial expansion.
- Growth of Måmi principality.
- Height of Vinlandic power: The kingdom controls most of the land around the Bifrost's wide mouth, and Greenland becomes a vassal state.
- Inuit (Thule) people capture the Western Settlements of Greenland, restricting Norse control of the island to the southern tip, around Julianehaab. This small colony remains a crucial trade link between Vinland and Europe, however.
- Union of the Crowns: in an effort to counter Hanseatic domination, the Six Kingdoms of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, England, Iceland, and Vinland create some sort of unity.
- England takes all Norman lands north of the Channel except Wight and Kent.
- Scotland becomes a Hanseatic satellite.
- Growth of Masjamutic Empire.
- Breakup of Hashitamahan Empire into successor states.
- Måmian colony established at Chicago.
|Century Pages for Ethelred the Pious|