Alternate History

Timeline (Empires of Freedom and Liberty)

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Empires of Freedom and Liberty is a timeline wherein the British Empire continues to exist, in a modified form, to the present, while the United States grew larger, and Germany also grew larger.


  • 1740: Admiral Vernon captures Havana, Cuba, and the island soon falls, instead of heading towards Cartagena de Indias. Most of the Spanish population deports itself.
  • 1763: The British Empire wins the Seven Years' War, securing its hold on Cuba. The United Kingdom petitions for 5000 settlers from Hanover and Prussia to settle Cuba.
  • 1765: Preußisches Cuba-Siedlungsverein formed, with charter from King George, to settle any British American colony in possession of the crown, with promise of free land in exchange for loyalty to the British Crown. From 1765 to 1775, about 8,000 Prussians, Hessians, and Hanoverians move into Cuba, creating enclaves or "mini-Germanies" in towns with the British. Their industry and skill bring a boost to the Cuban economy.
  • 1774: Quebec Act is much harsher due to a conflated report of a bar fire turning into attempted arson by papists in Quebec. The new Quebec Act bans use of French in government, removes French common law with English common law, and requires oaths of loyalty to the crown. Outraged Quebeckers turn to the nascent patriot cause, against government intrusion into their own internal affairs.
  • 1776: Declaration of Independence signed by the Thirteen Colonies and Quebec. Quebec's Patriots create a Quebec Congress in Montreal, attempting to oust Guy Carleton's government.
  • 1779: Bermuda captured by Americans; British Captain Cook leaves Hawaii without incident, his foremast not breaking, and does not die in a fight with Hawaiian natives.
  • 1780: Bahamas captured by Americans
  • 1783: Treaty of Paris signed, recognizing the United States of America as independent, as well as Nova Scotia and Quebec. Newfoundland Island and a portion of the eastern side of the continent remain in British hands, along with Rupert's Land. Quebec's new border is Lac St. Jean into Saguenay river into the St. Lawrence on the east, the Hudson Bay watershed to the north, and Lake Nipigon into Nipigon Bay. The United States maintains its border at the Mississippi north to the Lake of the Woods, thence emptying out into the Great Lakes. This gives Rupert's Land valuable lakefront territory for its fur trappers.
  • 1784: Captain Cook of the Royal Navy returns to New Caledonia, claiming the territory for the British Empire. He builds a fortification and sets down 20 men in a makeshift town in the southwest, a settlement named New Aberdeen (OTL Noumea).
  • Parliament shifts policy in the colonies to create a series of new settler colonies; New Caledonia becomes one, along with New Zealand, Australia, South Africa, British Honduras, Cuba, and Jamaica. Loyalists currently residing in Newfoundland are resettled in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Cuba, and British Honduras.
  • 1785: 2,000 Loyalists arrive in New Caledonia with their families. Five thousand arrive in Cuba, 7,000 to the United Kingdom, 5,000 to British Honduras, 10,000 to Australia, and 8,000 to New Zealand over the course of the next three years. By the end of 1799, the Loyalist population from North America will have settled around the British Empire.
  • 1791: Vermont joins the Union as the 14th state.
  • 1792: Nova Scotia joins the Union after signing the Constitution.
  • 1795: Dundee is founded in New Caledonia (OTL Thio) by William Howe. New Caledonia, New Zealand, and Australia are governed as part of one colony.
  • 1798-9: French-American War: Quebec and American citizens were being harassed by French naval forces from St. Pierre et Miquelon, leading to several minor skirmishes, and landing naval forces on the two small islands. Quebeckers and Americans worked together, seeing the value of pooling resources. President Adams did not manage to secure a second term, however, due to his Alien and Sedition Acts, but he did leave the next President two things: a larger, more experienced navy, and Quebec, signing to be the 16th state.
  • 1806-8: War of Argentina: The United Kingdom captures Rio de la Plata, starting with Buenos Aires, then Montevideo, before Spain cedes all territory south of the Salado River
  • 1812: The Dutch settlers call Havana "Koningshavene." A popular name for the town becomes Kingshaven, and is the name of one of the Dutch neighborhoods in the town.
  • War of 1812: US and UK fight over impressment and trade harassment.
  • 1814: the British-American War ends, with not much to show for it on either side. In Britain, faced with no real expansion in North America, begins a drive to settle its other colonies, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Guyana, Cuba, and South America. Incentives to settle include tax exemptions, low fares, and free land.

-Treaty of Paris (1814) is signed: Guadalupe and Martinique are ceded to Sweden permanently. Trinidad and Tobago become Prussian islands, while the Seychelles and Mauritius are jointly administered by Hanover and Prussia. French Guiana is jointly administered by Britain and Portugal till 1817, where it is ceded to Prussia in compensation for its losses during the war. -London confirms control of Saint Lucia within the British Empire -Convention of London: Britain takes control of Cape Colony from the Dutch, with the provision that the Dutch are allowed to settle there without restriction. This begins a period of increased and steady Dutch settlement, the larger waves of which come after the first and second World Wars. Their settlement prevents the development of Afrikaans as a separate language, but rather, it develops as a slight dialect of Dutch. Some upper class Dutch historians amongst the settlers revive the pronouns "du, dijns, dij" in the colony, becoming a minority dialect feature. Dutch Guiana also sees a higher settlement of Dutch speakers over the next century and a half.

  • 1815-16: Second Argentinian War: Britain and Spain clash over the treaty's use of the Salado River as the border to the Pacific. Spain contends the southern river by the name, while the British contend the northern river was meant. British and Spanish armies fight in South America, and in Central America, at British Honduras, with the encroachment of the loyalists from the United States. With the shelling and capture of Panama City and Caracas, however, Spain capitulated. It set the border for British South America at the Bermejo River at the north, emptying into the river plate via the Parana River, then due west to the Pacific; Montevideo surrounded by the Uruguay River would become British Southeast America territory. All Spanish were ordered deported if they didn't want to become British citizens, which most did not.
  • 1816: Part of the Napoleonic War, Britain secures from the Netherlands settlers for South Africa at a rate of 5,000 per annum, providing free land for whomever would settle there. With the declining Dutch Empire, approximately 8,000 leave the Netherlands in 1817, and between 5 and 10,000 for the next 20 years. Most go to South Africa, while some go to British South America, and others to Australia, New Zealand, Cuba, New Caledonia, British Guyana, and British Honduras.
  • 1817: Mauritius is negotiated solely to Hanover for settlement by George III, looking to bring profit to his kingdom in Europe. He begins settlement of several thousand Hanoverians per year to the island with the promise of free land. Prussia sends Junkers and other settlers, including Polish from Posen, to the Seychelles. Prussia is sold the Portuguese share of former French Guiana, looking to profit from the venture. Prussia sends troops to occupy the land, who also arrive with their families.
  • 1819: Britain cedes control of former French Guiana, recognizing it as Prussian Guiana, with the provision of establishment of a trade monopoly for 20 years.
  • 1820: The first Brewery is opened in Prussian Guiana, Preußisch-Guiana Hofbräuhaus
  • 1824: Central American War: British Honduras and the Central American Republic fight over the border of British Honduras. Reinforcements from Cuba mean the Central Americans have to yield in short order. British Honduras extends its border straight across to Mexico. Additional British settlers and troops join in the colony.
  • 1835: Orlando Savages Rees, from South Carlina, who married Johanna von Bismarck, a distant relative of future Chancellor Bismarck of Germany, (through Ernst Friedrich Alexander von Bismarck, who here moved first to Bonnaire in 1808 through invitation of the British crown for land, had three children there, including Johanna and Victoria, both of whom left for South Carolina during the second Argentinian War)
  • 1836: Texas declares independence from Mexico
  • 1840: Republic of Rio Grande declares independence from Mexico with Texan aid, in exchange for fixing their mutual border at the Rio Grande river. Yucatan declares independence, and with aid of British colonists from British Honduras, the Mexican government grudgingly cedes the territory, lest they bring the British Empire's fleets to their shores.

-Prussian Guiana's population is about 28,000, of which 18,000 are Prussian, Bavarian, and other German ethnicities. Mild intermingling with the natives occurs, though the records are spotty.

  • 1841: The United Kingdom creates a separate Colony of New Zealand and Colony of New Caledonia
  • 1846: New Zealand and New Caledonia Constitutional Acts pass, but are refused due to their use of European and native districts; Oregon Country is ceded to the United States at the 52° parallel; British wanted the 49°, Americans wanted 54°40', and a few small skirmishes were fought, though the British thought it wasn't worth the effort, with the small number of settlements in Rupert's Land, and the ready availability of settlers and space elsewhere in the Empire.
  • 1846-48: Mexican American War fought over annexation of Texas and Rio Grande.
  • 1848: US defeats Mexico, annexing California, Baja California, New Mexico, Texas, Rio Grande, Sonora, and Chihuahua. Rio Grande and Texas become states. Yucatan becomes independent.
  • 1849: Mexico creates a settler company in Europe, bringing in new settlers for the north, including Spaniards, French, Belgian, Dutch, and Austrians into the northern border regions.
  • 1852: Yucatan becomes British protectorate from British Honduras when Mexican aggression spikes. Second Constitutional Acts for NZ and NC are passed.
  • 1854: New Caledonia's Parliament meets for the first time, along with New Zealand, essentially becoming self-governing in all domestic matters aside from Native Affairs and immigration.
  • 1860: United States fights Civil War.
  • 1862: Mexico becomes an Empire under Emperor Augustine I., who requests any able and willing Austrian to settle in the already densely European states of Durango and Sinaloa (in comparison to the rest of Mexico). From across Austria, around 40-60,000 arrive in Durango/Sinaloa, on promise of new opportunities and vast rich lands over the next four years.
  • 1867: Emperor Augustine is deposed and the Mexican republic is restored
  • 1868-9: Mexican-Durangan War: Durango/Sinaloa declares independence as a reserve of sentiment towards the emperor, declaring itself independent of Mexico. The US is too embroiled in its own reconstruction to notice. In the next 50 years, however, Durango faces immigration mostly from Austria, then Hungary, then the Slavic portions of Austria-Hungary, and finally from the other German states. President Joseph Duguay, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln's, is elected to his own first term as President, handling Reconstruction of the USA, and recognizes Durango as a sovereign state, sending an ambassador and a military detachment, a subtle 'daring' Mexico to attack them like they did in the Mexican-American war.
  • 1871: The German Empire is formed after the Franco-Prussian War
  • 1878: Kaiser Wilhelm I is assassinated on June 2 by Karl Nobiling. As the Emperor drove past in an open carriage, the assassin fired a shotgun at him from the window of a house off the "Unter den Linden". William was wounded and was rushed back to the palace where he died only a few hours later. Nobiling shot himself in an attempt to commit suicide. The assassin died from his self-inflicted wound three months later. Ferdinand is crowned as Kaiser Ferdinand III shortly thereafter.
  • 1879: A ship of 300 Hanoverians and Saxons arrive in Jacksonville, settling in what was South Jacksonville, renamed as 'New Hanover' neighborhood when Jacksonville consolidated in 1963.
  • 1880: Prussian Guiana has a population of 42,000. Bismarck's colonial laws seek to prevent intermarriage with natives or non-German-citizens.

-Princess Marie (full name: Prinzessin Marie Viktoria Feodore Leopoldine von Hessen und bei Rhein) is away with her elder sister Elisabeth, and does not catch diptheria. She goes on to marry into the British royal family. -Russo-Turkish War:

  • 1886: Prince Henry marries Princess Elisabeth Alexandra Louise Alice, and will have seven children by her.
  • 1892: Kaiser Ferdinand III succumbs to old age and dies in October, succeeded by his son as Kaiser Wilhelm II.
  • 1901: Great Fire in Jacksonville, burns down a large number of buildings on the north side of the St John's River. A number of poorer residents leave the city, amongst the now 10,000 homeless.
  • 1904: Princess Marie Victoria marries Prince Alexander John of Wales, becoming Princess of Wales.
  • 1908: Camelots du Roy are founded as the youth wing of Action française.
  • 1912: President James Fischer is inaugurated President of the United States. He was educated in a private Methodist school in Georgia, of mixed Scottish, Irish, English, Welsh, and German ancestry, with a deep knowledge of history and love of languages. He spoke French, German, and Spanish fluently by the time he was 18. He believed in the traditions of the United States, its republican virtues, and eschewed many acquired trappings of 'royalty' he felt had begun to cling to the President. He would go on to veto several pieces of legislation that he felt were unconstitutional, coming from the Progressive movement, which fizzled out at the time.
  • 1914: World War I begins after Archduke Ferdinand is assassinated. The United States stays out until 1915, when Germany attacks an American naval vessel. Mexico joins the Central Powers, marking the first attack on American soil in 66 years.
  • 1916: Fischer is re-inaugurated on winning the war.
  • 1918: Germany's monarchy collapses when it realizes it cannot win the war. Prince Henry entreats the British and American governments, over the heads of the French, to leniency towards Germany. His cousin, Princess Marie of Wales, also entreats for Germany, swaying President Fischer towards territorial integrity, but insisting of some reparations.
  • 1919: Treaty of Versailles: Germany and Austria accept war guilt, and pay massive reparations. Germany loses Alsace-Lorraine, North Schleswig, and a majority of its African colonies, but keeps Prussian Guiana, Mauritius, Seychelles, Kiautschou Bay, and Namibia, with the enclave of Walvis Bay under direct control of the British. German's various monarchs abdicate their thrones and republics are declared across Germany. Germany caps its army at 100,000, and is forbidden from Anschluß with Austria for 20 years.
  • A few tens of thousands of Germans and Austrians leave Europe over the next four years, with about 25% settling in Namibia and South Africa, 25% settling in Australia, British South America, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, and 50% settling in the southern United States, especially Georgia and Florida. 'Little Bavaria' becomes the affectionate nickname of Miami.
  • 1919-21: Greco-Turkish War: Greece is aided by higher British presence, and
  • 1920: Fischer's VP John Carl Williams is elected President on Fischer's popularity, and the promise of a return to normalcy. America leaves Europe behind, and chooses not to join the League of Nations.
  • Germany experiences a turbulent period of instability, with numerous extremist groups attempting to gain power
  • 1924: Pierre Taittinger founds the Jeunesses patriotes on imitation of the Boulangist Ligue des patriotes, and believes that Germany got off too easy after the Great War. With Boulanger, the two form a 'stab in the back' myth on the part of Germany, the UK, and the Americans, that only Romans and Latin-speaking people are worthy of trust. Their parties begin radicalizing and they swear vengeance on Germany and her betrayal.
  • 1927: Germany has a constitutional reform preventing any party from being seated unless they gain 5% of the vote. This keeps out many of the fascist and communist parties.
  • 1929: Great Depression hits across the world. Various far-right parties gain power in France, including Croix-de-Feu. Many Germans seek to escape the depression in the colonies, which hold some job opportunities and much lower cost of living.
  • 1931: France's President dies in office and is succeeded by Pierre Taittinger of Cartel de Droites. Le Fascieau and Francisme become part of the governing coalition, increasing majorities in 1932's elections.
  • 1934: France and Italy sign a secret alliance; Chancellor Dollfuß survives an assassination attempt, with his 'austrofascism' growing in power; daughter groups spring up in Bavaria, Baden, and Württemburg.
  • 1936: France and Italy sign an alliance with Spain's fascist government, forming the Roman Europe Axis, later increased with Japan in 1937.
  • 1937: A Polish-German riot occurs in Posen city between Polish and German citizens, nearly sparks an international incident between Poland and Germany; Poland sends tanks to the borders. It becomes the first of several riots in Posen. Bavarian fascist groups begin rioting in southern Bavaria, and begin agitating for Anschluß with Austria. The German government attempts to quell the groups, which go underground.
  • 1938: Chancellor Dollfuß of Austria sees a moment of weakness in Germany after the third Posen riot, where Germany sends the majority of its 100,000 man military to Silesia, Posen, and West Prussia to guard against the riots. He launches an attack on Bavaria, catching Germany off-guard, and hoping that his support there among fascists is as great as he was led to believe. Home-spun fascists in Bavaria assist the Austrians in entering Bavaria. German military response is slow with their outdated equipment and lack of manpower, but Bavarian nationalists rise up against the Austrians. Germany asks the League of Nations for assistance, which France blocks, to which the German President resigns in frustration, leaving the LoN in Geneva, and asks the Reichstag for increased military action. Most of 1938-9 is spent quelling the Austrian problem.
  • 1939: Austrian-German War: war ends in June, with the armistice, when Dollfuß commits suicide in his field headquarters, and his successor Kurt Schuschnigg meets with the German generals to discuss surrender. In August, Salzburg asks to be annexed to Germany, followed in late August by Tirol and Vorarlberg. By November, a number of Austrians are asking for annexation; a referendum near the end of the month in the Austrian states ends with a majority in favor of annexation. France's government, fearing a resurgent Germany, mobilizes its military at the border of Baden and Alsace-Lorraine; Britain, desiring an end to the war in Europe, partly to protect its market in Germany, sends Neville Chamberlain to negotiate peace, returning to Britain declaring 'peace in our time!'
  • 1940: France declares war on Germany; it is quickly followed by Poland and Czechoslovakia. Neville Chamberlain resigns as Prime Minister of the UK; Winston Churchill takes his place. France's military marches into the Rhineland, through a willing Walloon region of Belgium, and through Baden. Italy declares war on Austria, sending troops to Tirol, Vorarlberg, and Carinthia. Austria cannot coordinate a coherent response due to the collapse of its government, and three states fall to Italy. President William Roosevelt loses his attempt for a third term in the United States, due to his court-packing scheme, his mis-management of the Depression, and the discovery of pro-French spies in his administration. Republican James William Taft of Toronto wins with 59% of the vote.
  • 1941: Japan strikes Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7. The UK demands France cease its war on Germany, which did not attack; France responds by withdrawing its ambassadors and declaring war on the UK. Denmark initially declares neutrality, as does Scandinavia. The USSR does not respond as its interests mean it doesn't need to. Attacking from Africa, Asia, and Europe, it is a true world war. Mexico declares neutrality but begins negotiating selling produce and arms to France and her colonies in Africa. Durango declares itself on the side of the UK and agrees to send materials to the British.
  • 1942: Doolittle's Raid sends a message to the Japanese that the Americans are in the war to win. Americans gear up for war on two fronts. Spain openly allies with France.
  • 1943: Italy falls to the Allies partly, with the Italian Republicans aiding the allies in exchange for restoration of their pre-WW1 borders (Savoy, Nice, Küstenland) and Corsica. Spanish Morocco falls to the British-German forces in Africa; Ceuta and Melilla are placed in German jurisdiction until cessation of hostilities.
  • 1944: D-Day at Cartagena and Normandy leads to success on two Fronts in the war;
  • 1945: January: Spain falls to the Allies.

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