In 1209, a shipment of elite soldiers from Cordoba arrived in England. Over the next few months, John went on a rampage, using his own mercenaries and his new soldiers to virtually destroy the English nobility. Huindreds of tousands of people fled northward into the arms of the invading Scots. The Scots set up a variety of new countries, for the people who had fled, like the Principality of New Wales. In the south, the French invaded Cornwall and set up the Kingdom of Upper Britanny as a vassal. But John, now crowned Emir dominated Wales and Southern and Central England as well as the Emirate of Ireland. With his forces he could have easily crushed the Scots and French, but for one thing. The money he had to pay the Caliph of Cordoba every year, maintained a status quo for centuries. No one nation grew powerful enough to attack any other.
From Emir to Caliph
Over time the overlord of England changed. The Caliph who ruled over the Emirs of England decreased in power over the centuries. The great Almohad dynasty who ruled Morocco as well as most of Iberia, was weakening by 1248, only a small rump state remained. The Emirate of Granada. The Emir of Granada claimed the title of Caliph over the Emir of England and so John and his descendants served as the vassal of a much weaker state. Granada itself was a vassal of Castille. This meant that England became a vassal of Castille. When it became the Christian Kingdom of Granada in 1492, England cut off ties with Granada, avoiding the possibility of becoming a direct vassal to Spain. The Emirate became the Caliphate of England and Ireland remained a Emirate. The huge amount of money it had sent of Granada every year, that had prevented anyone country from getting above the others in the British Isles, they could now keep. England rapidly became extremely rich. Scotland and her allies were just exploring the coast of America when the invasion came. Well-equipped, well-trained soldiers from England invaded the Kingdom of Upper Britanny and later, the whole of Britain. By 1640, their conquest was complete. The various monarchs, driven from their lands, lead an exodus to France, Spain and various other European nations with interests overseas.
The Great Exodi
The Caliphate of England wanted to secure power and so expelled everyone they suspected of rebellion, namely most of New Wales and Scotland as well as much of Free England and the entire population of Upper Britanny. They then began settling Arabs from North Africa as well as Moors transported from Spain. The refugee groups made their way to France, Spain and the Netherlands. With their respective monarchs leading them, the refugee populations made it clear to their new overlords that they were willing to claim and settle lands in the West for them in return for their freedom.
The Spanish were more than happy to allow the Welsh to settle in newly conquered areas of the former Aztec Empire. They hoped to break the power of Cortes and so strengthen their hold over the domain. So doing, they created the Colonial Duchy of New Wales, and allowed the Prince to take on the title Duke.
The Kingdom of Upper Britanny had been a vassal of France anyway so they turned to France. This Celtic population with their English lineage would cause trouble in France it was believed, so they were sent to settle in the burgeoning settlements of New France.
Scotland was lucky. They already had a colony overseas, the island of Nova Scotia. This became the core of a new Scottish empire.
There were, unfortunately, no takers for the English refugees. They had no king to intercede and no hierarchy to look to. But over the following years, a company was formed to accommodate for them. The New England Company. The populace was ferried across the Atlantic to settle next to Nova Scotia, and provide one another for much needed support.
Following the first settlements, England encouraged the non-Muslims in its populace to emigrate to these new nations and colonies overseas. This meant that the populations of New England for example tripled in seven years.