January 1 – The monarchy of China is disestablished and is replaced by the Republic of China.
January 4 – The Scout Association is incorporated throughout the British Commonwealth by Royal Charter.
January 5 – Prague Party Conference: Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party break away from the rest of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
January 5 – Moscow Art Theatre production of Hamlet opens.
January 6 – New Mexico becomes the 47th state of the United States.
January 8 – The African National Congress is founded as the South African Native National Congress at the Waaihoek Wesleyan Church in Bloemfontein to promote improved rights for black South Africans, with John Langalibalele Dube as its first president.
January 17 – British polar explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott and a team of four become the second expeditionary group to reach the South Pole.
January 21 – Sarin is discovered by Fritz Haber.
January 22 – The Overseas Railroad opens and the first train arrives in Key West with Henry M. Flagler, the railroad's creator and owner, aboard.
January 23 – The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.
February 14 – Arizona becomes the 48th U.S. state and the last of the contiguous United States which pushed the American frontier to the brink.
February 24 – Battle of Beirut: Italy makes a surprise attack on the Ottoman port of Beirut, when the cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi and the gunboat Volturno bombard the harbour, killing 97.
February 29 – Serbia and Bulgaria secretly sign a treaty of alliance for a term of eight years, with each pledging to come to the defense of the other during war.
March 1 – Albert Berry is reported to have made the first parachute jump from a flying airplane.
March 6 – Italian forces became the first to use airships in war, as two dirigibles dropped bombs on Turkish troops encamped at Janzur, from an altitude of 6,000 feet.
March 7 – Roald Amundsen in Hobart, Tasmania, announces his success in reaching the South Pole the previous December.
March 12 – The Girl Scouts is founded by Juliette Gordon Low in Savannah, Georgia.
March 16 – Lawrence Oates, dying member of Scott's South Pole expedition, leaves the tent saying, "I am just going outside and may be some time."
March 22- State of Bihar is formed out of the erstwhile State of Bengal in British India.
March 27 – Mayor Yukio Ozaki of Tokyo gives 3,000 cherry trees to be planted in Washington, D.C., to symbolize the friendship between the two countries.
March 29 – The remaining members of Robert Falcon Scott's South Pole expedition die.
March 30 – The French Third Republic establishes the French protectorate in Morocco.
April 15 – The RMS Titanic sinks.
April 16 – Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly across the English Channel.
April 17 – 500 striking gold miners in Siberia are killed or wounded by troops in the Lena massacre.
April 18 – Cunard Line vessel RMS Carpathia arrives in New York with the 708 RMS Titanic survivors.
April 20 – Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts, opens.
April 30 – Carl Laemmle founds Universal Studios as the Universal Film and Manufacturing Company in the United States.
May 5 – The Olympic Games open in Stockholm, Sweden.
May 11 – Alaska becomes a territory of the United States.
May 13 – In the United Kingdom, the Royal Flying Corps is established.
May 23 – The Hamburg America Line's SS Imperator is launched in Hamburg and is the world's largest ship.
May 30 - Wilbur Wright dies with a case of typhoid fever.
June 6 – The Novarupta volcano (290 miles (470 km) southwest of Anchorage) experiences a VEI 6 eruption; the largest eruption in the 20th century.
July 1 – Harriet Quimby, who set the record as the first woman to fly the English Channel only 2 months before, dies in Squantum, Massachusetts after her brand-new two-seat Bleriot monoplane crashes, killing both Quimby and her passenger.
July 12 – United States release of Sarah Bernhardt's film Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth is influential on the development of the movie feature. Adolph Zukor, who incorporates Paramount Pictures on May 8, 1914, launches his company as the distributor. Paramount celebrates its centennial in 2012.
July 30 – Emperor Meiji of Japan dies. He is succeeded by his son Yoshihito who becomes Emperor Taishō. In Japanese History, the event marks the end of the Meiji era and the beginning of the Taishō era.
August 4 – United States occupation of Nicaragua: U.S. Marines land from the USS Annapolis in Nicaragua to support the conservative government at its request.
August 12 – Sultan Abd al-Hafid of Morocco abdicates.
August 21 - First Eagle Scout.
August 25 – The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.
September 28 – William Christopher Handy's "Memphis Blues" is published.
October 8 – The First Balkan War begins: Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.
October 10 – The Maternity Allowance Act goes into effect in Australia, but excludes minorities.
October 14 – John Flammang Schrank attempts to assassinate Theodore Roosevelt.
October 16 – Bulgarian pilots Radul Minkov and Prodan Toprakchiev perform the first bombing with an airplane in history, at the railway station of Karaagac near Edirne against Turkey.
October 17 – Krupp engineers Benno Strauss and Eduard Maurer patent austenitic stainless steel.
October 18 – Italy and the Ottoman Empire sign a treaty in Ouchy near Lausanne ending the Italo-Turkish War.
October 24 – First Balkan War: Battle of Kumanovo: Serbian forces defeat the Ottoman army in Vardar Macedonia.
November 5 - Governor of New Jersey Woodrow Wilson wins U.S. presidential election
November 11 – William Lawrence Bragg presents his derivation of Bragg's law for the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice, creating the field of x-ray crystallography, and making possible the eventual imaging of the double helix of DNA
November 28 – Albania declares independence from the Ottoman Empire.
December 18 – Piltdown Man, thought to be the fossilized skull of a hitherto unknown form of early human, presented to the Geological Society of London. It is revealed to be a hoax in 1953.
December 24 – Merck files patent applications in Germany for synthesis of the entactogenic drug MDMA (Ecstasy), developed by Anton Köllisch.
December 30 – The First Balkan War ends temporarily: Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League countries) sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the two-month-long war.
January 1 – The British Board of Film Censors receives the authority to classify and censor films.
January 23 – General election in Tasmania.
January 23 – In the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, Ismail Enver comes to power.
January 30 – The British House of Lords passes the Irish Home Rule Bill
Start of the Mexican Revolution.
Russia's House of Romanov celebrate their 300th anniversary to the rise of the throne.
Woodrow Wilson succeeds Taft as president of the United States.
George I of Greece is assassinated. His son, Constantine becomes king.
The First Balkan War is brought to a close with the Treaty of London.
The Greek-Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.
Second Balkan War begins.
Construction of the Panama Canal ends
Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the first Balkan War, is annexed by Greece.