He maketh kings to sit in soverainty;
He maketh subjects to their powre obey;
He pulleth downe, he setteth up on hy:
He gives to this, from that he takes away;
For all we have is his: what he list doe he may.
(Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene (1589-96), Book V, Canto II, Stanza 41)
12 November - Major-General John Lambert named President of the Protector's Privy Council.
23 November - State Funeral of Oliver Cromwell at Westminster Abbey.
Tea first arrived in England, exported from China via Holland.
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
First Esopus War (Sept 1659-July 1660 war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe)
Northern War (1655-1660 Wars between Sweden and its adversaries)
Founding of the debate society The Rota Club
14 January – Battle of the Lines of Elvas: The Portuguese beat the Spanish in the Portuguese Restoration War.
31 May – The Netherlands, France and the Commonwealth sign the Treaty of The Hague.
Summer - Campaign and elections of the Third Protectorate Parliament. MPs to the House of Commons results in a solid majority of Cromwellian, followed by Presbyterians and an important minority faction of republican Commonwealthmen. Also elected representatives of extreme sects (such as Fifth Monarchists) and crypto-cavaliers, Catholics (from Ireland), and Episcopalians.
July - Henry Cromwell nominates missing members needed to complete the total of 70 in the Other House.
August - Henry Cromwell's first address to Parliament. The House of Commons by a large majority recognizes proclamation and proceeds to call for the formal installation and oath.
November - Establishment of the Rota Club as a republican debate society founded and dominated by James Harrington.
7 November - Treaty of the Pyrenees between France and Spain ending the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59).
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60).
Northern War (1655-1660 Wars between Sweden and its adversaries).
First Esopus War (Sept 1659-July 1660 war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe).
Inauguration of Loftus College of the University of Dublin.
Publication of The Use and Manner of the Ballot by James Harrington.
March - Fendall's Rebellion, against Lord Baltimore. Establishment Commonwealth of Maryland.
23 April / 3 May – Treaty of Oliva: peace made between Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg-Prussia.
August - Failed mutiny of army officials and troops in Jamaica.
28 November - At Gresham College in London, twelve men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray meet after a lecture by Wren and decide to found "a College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning". Later to be known as the Society for Promoting and Improving Knowledge (SPIK).
Hopkins Grammar School is founded in New Haven Colony.
Navigation Act of 1660.
The Irish Common Prayer Book (Leabhar na hUrnaí Coitinne) is published.
April - The Post Office introduces postmarks.
April - Easter, and later in the same year Christmas, officially celebrated. They were suppressed between 1647-1660.
6 August – Portugal and the Dutch Republic sign the Treaty of The Hague, whereby New Holland (in Brazil) is formally ceded to Portugal by the Dutch Republic.
Campaign and elections of the Fourth Protectorate Parliament. Results in similar majority of Cromwellian followed by Presbyterians, a strong republican Commonwealthmen minority and others as in the previous election.
Council of State statute the creation of two new permanent bodies: Council for Foreign Plantations and Council of Trade.
Establishment of county commissions for keeping public peace in England and Wales
Poor Relief Act 1662.
The Senate Act of 1662.
Meeting at the Savoy Palace of the main factions: Presbyterians, Independents and Episcopalians.
Common Prayer Book and the Book of Reformed Liturgy are published.
10 March Death of Samuel Hartlib.
April - Protector-in-Council issues commonwealth charter for Connecticut, that provides the absorption of New Haven Colony, and self government.
17 October - Sale of Dunkirk to France.
Theaters allowed to stage all sorts of plays. This was banned between 1642 to 1661.
First gathering of electors and nominations of the Senate, second chamber of the Parliament that replaces the Other House.
March - Iroquois and Dutch West India Company (WIC) envoys meet at Fort Orange to sign the North River Treaty.
24 March - Approval of the Act of Union of Ireland, which regularizes the island's status within the Commonwealth.
March - Amended Westminster Confession of Faith for England, Wales and Ireland. Does not included Chapters 30 and 31 on Church discipline.
April - Act on certain measures on doctrine and organization given to the Church in Ireland to dictate. Gives to the Church of Ireland authority in a synod to establish its canons and modify the Irish Act of Faith.
April - First issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the SPIK.
July - September - Second Esopus War (war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe).
September - Freeholders rebellion ousts Governor Berkeley of Virginia.
November - Second Act of General Pardon and Oblivion.
Foundation of the French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies.
Act of Settlement (of 1664 for Ireland), it also creates land registries for Ireland.
March - Act on the Organization of the Churches of England, Wales and Ireland. Creates the conjoined polity or Ussher scheme, a via media of church governance.
April - Venner's Rising in London, Bristol and Belfast against the questionable government of Henry Cromwell. Rebels subdued and imprisoned. Hanging of Thomas Harrison, Thomas Venner, John Carew, and others. The following months purge of Fifth Monarchist from the British Army and militias. Ejectors advised to expel preachers associated with extreme sects.
June - Licensing of the Press Act (of 1664).
July - The Sedition Act (of 1664) and Blasphemy Act (of 1664). The last Act punishes severely independent preachers wherever they are public or unlicensed.
August - First Joint annual session of the Trustees, Triers and Ejectors for England, Wales and Ireland.
December - British Army and British Navy came into being with the unification of the army and navy in England, and the armies and militia in Scotland and Ireland.
Creation of the Commissioners for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge in Wales
Act for matters of government of the Church of Scotland of 1665.
The University of Durham (founded in 1656) receives its Commonwealth Charter, giving it powers to grant its own degrees.
The revision of The Irish Common Prayer Book (Leabhar na hUrnaí Coitinne) is published
February - Outbreak of the Great London Plague.
August - First Joint annual session of the Trustees, Triers and Ejectors for Scotland.
September - Peak of the Great London Plague, over 7000 deaths per week.
November - State funerals of Elizabeth Cromwell (née Bourchier), window of Oliver and mother of Henry.
Establishment of shire guardians in Scotland.
Act for the organization of the courts in Ireland.
Act of the Government and Discipline of the National Churches of England, Wales and Ireland.
Act of Public Monies and Endowment for Religious Observance in Scotland.
Publication of Court Maxims by Algernon Sidney
Meeting the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. There were no General Assemblies between 1653 and 1665.
February - End of the Great London Plague, city considered safe.
Star of the War of Devolution (1667–68) saw Louis XIV's French armies overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté. The Triple Alliance of the Commonwealth, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic formed and secured a combined army to defend the Spanish Netherlands from the French.
Judicature Acts of 1667.
Parish Register Act that mandates the record of births, marriages and burials in the Civil Registers and issue marriage certificates.
By Quinquennial Act, the House of Commons of the Parliament is to elected every five years.
May - first meeting of the reformed General Synod of the Church of Ireland. Its Bishop-President is appointed Archbishop of Armagh.
2-5 September - The Great Fire of London
October - First meeting of the reformed General Synod of the Church of England at London. Its Bishop-President is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Archbishop of York. Also approves alternately meetings of the General Synod at London and York.
War of Devolution (1667–68) Louis XIV is forced to give back Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté, by Spain and the Triple Alliance in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (2 May 1668) that allowed the French to maintain their minor gains and required a monetary compensation to the Spanish in return.
The Isle of Man and Channel Islands Constituencies Act. It allows for the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands to elect MPs and Senators. First elections are held in spring of 1670.
Act of parliament that establishes land registries for England and Wales. Scotland and Ireland already had theirs respectively in 1617 and 1664.
Establishment of county commissions for keeping public peace in Ireland.
Public Worship Regulation Act of 1670.
Acts strengthening the East India Company. Rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.
Establishment of the second Danish East India Company
2 May - Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) is charted by Parliament. Granting the company a monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay (Borealia) in northern Canada.
July - Treaty of Madrid. Spain recognized English possessions in the Western Indies and Western Hemisphere. Spain also agreed to permit English ships freedom of movement in the Caribbean. Each country agreed to refrain from trading in the other's territory, and both countries agreed to limit trading to their own possessions. England agreed to suppress piracy in the Caribbean.
March - First Charter of the Danish West India Company or Danish West India–Guinea Company a Dano-Norwegian chartered company for the exploitation of the colonies in the Danish West Indies.
12 November - Death of Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lord General of the British Army. His state funeral at Westminster Hall, the national day of mourning and the highly emotional public sorrow that was expressed by all, marked for many the end of an era of the English Revolution.
Publication of A System of Politics by James Harrington.
April - On John Wilkins' proposal the SPIK establishes a commission for the creation of a universal standard of measure and report its implementation. Newton named Fellow of the SPIK (FSPIK).