He maketh kings to sit in soverainty;
He maketh subjects to their powre obey;
He pulleth downe, he setteth up on hy:
He gives to this, from that he takes away;
For all we have is his: what he list doe he may.
(Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene (1589-96), Book V, Canto II, Stanza 41)

A timeline of Cromwell the Great and events of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.



The funeral of Oliver Cromwell


  • Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
  • First Esopus War (Sept 1659-July 1660 war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe)
  • Northern War (1655-1660 Wars between Sweden and its adversaries)
  • Founding of the debate society The Rota Club
  • 14 January – Battle of the Lines of Elvas: The Portuguese beat the Spanish in the Portuguese Restoration War.
  • 31 May – The Netherlands, France and the Commonwealth sign the Treaty of The Hague.
  • Summer - Campaign and elections of the Third Protectorate Parliament. MPs to the House of Commons results in a solid majority of Cromwellian, followed by Presbyterians and an important minority faction of republican Commonwealthmen. Also elected representatives of extreme sects (such as Fifth Monarchists) and crypto-cavaliers, Catholics (from Ireland), and Episcopalians.
  • July - Henry Cromwell nominates missing members needed to complete the total of 70 in the Other House.
  • August - Henry Cromwell's first address to Parliament. The House of Commons by a large majority recognizes proclamation and proceeds to call for the formal installation and oath.
  • November - Establishment of the Rota Club as a republican debate society founded and dominated by James Harrington.
  • 7 November - Treaty of the Pyrenees between France and Spain ending the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59).


  • Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60).
  • Northern War (1655-1660 Wars between Sweden and its adversaries).
  • First Esopus War (Sept 1659-July 1660 war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe).
  • Inauguration of Loftus College of the University of Dublin.
  • Publication of The Use and Manner of the Ballot by James Harrington.
  • March - Fendall's Rebellion, against Lord Baltimore. Establishment Commonwealth of Maryland.
  • 23 April / 3 May – Treaty of Oliva: peace made between Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg-Prussia.
  • August - Failed mutiny of army officials and troops in Jamaica.
  • August - Return of Prince Rupert to England.
  • 28 November - At Gresham College in London, twelve men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray meet after a lecture by Wren and decide to found "a College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning". Later to be known as the Society for Promoting and Improving Knowledge (SPIK).
  • Hopkins Grammar School is founded in New Haven Colony.
  • Navigation Act of 1660.


  • The Irish Common Prayer Book (Leabhar na hUrnaí Coitinne) is published.
  • April - The Post Office introduces postmarks.
  • April - Easter, and later in the same year Christmas, officially celebrated. They were suppressed between 1647-1660.
  • 6 August – Portugal and the Dutch Republic sign the Treaty of The Hague, whereby New Holland (in Brazil) is formally ceded to Portugal by the Dutch Republic.
  • Commonwealth Charter given out to Society of London for Promoting and Improving of Natural Knowledge (Society for Promoting and Improving Knowledge, SPIK).


  • Campaign and elections of the Fourth Protectorate Parliament. Results in similar majority of Cromwellian followed by Presbyterians, a strong republican Commonwealthmen minority and others as in the previous election.
  • Council of State statute the creation of two new permanent bodies: Council for Foreign Plantations and Council of Trade.
  • Establishment of county commissions for keeping public peace in England and Wales
  • Poor Relief Act 1662.
  • The Senate Act of 1662.
  • Meeting at the Savoy Palace of the main factions: Presbyterians, Independents and Episcopalians.
  • Common Prayer Book and the Book of Reformed Liturgy are published.
  • 10 March Death of Samuel Hartlib.
  • April - Protector-in-Council issues commonwealth charter for Connecticut, that provides the absorption of New Haven Colony, and self government.
  • 17 October - Sale of Dunkirk to France.
  • Theaters allowed to stage all sorts of plays. This was banned between 1642 to 1661.
  • October - Henry Cromwell's opening speech to the Parliament Principles of our Government of the Commonwealth that sketches out the Constitutional Framework of the Commonwealth.


  • First gathering of electors and nominations of the Senate, second chamber of the Parliament that replaces the Other House.
  • March - Iroquois and Dutch West India Company (WIC) envoys meet at Fort Orange to sign the North River Treaty.
  • 24 March - Approval of the Act of Union of Ireland, which regularizes the island's status within the Commonwealth.
  • March - Amended Westminster Confession of Faith for England, Wales and Ireland. Does not included Chapters 30 and 31 on Church discipline.
  • April - Act on certain measures on doctrine and organization given to the Church in Ireland to dictate. Gives to the Church of Ireland authority in a synod to establish its canons and modify the Irish Act of Faith.
  • April - First issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the SPIK.
  • July - September - Second Esopus War (war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe).
  • September - Freeholders rebellion ousts Governor Berkeley of Virginia.
  • November - Second Act of General Pardon and Oblivion.


  • Foundation of the French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies.
  • Act of Settlement (of 1664 for Ireland), it also creates land registries for Ireland.
  • Act for Leeward Caribbee Island Government
  • March - Act on the Organization of the Churches of England, Wales and Ireland. Creates the conjoined polity or Ussher scheme, a via media of church governance.
  • April - Venner's Rising in London, Bristol and Belfast against the questionable government of Henry Cromwell. Rebels subdued and imprisoned. Hanging of Thomas Harrison, Thomas Venner, John Carew, and others. The following months purge of Fifth Monarchist from the British Army and militias. Ejectors advised to expel preachers associated with extreme sects.
  • June - Licensing of the Press Act (of 1664).
  • July - The Sedition Act (of 1664) and Blasphemy Act (of 1664). The last Act punishes severely independent preachers wherever they are public or unlicensed.
  • August - First Joint annual session of the Trustees, Triers and Ejectors for England, Wales and Ireland.
  • December - British Army and British Navy came into being with the unification of the army and navy of England, and the armies and militia of Scotland and Ireland.


  • Campaign and elections of the Fifth Protectorate Parliament.
  • Creation of the Commissioners for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge in Wales.
  • Act for matters of government of the Church of Scotland of 1665.
  • The University of Durham (founded in 1656) receives its Commonwealth Charter, giving it powers to grant its own degrees.
  • The revision of The Irish Common Prayer Book (Leabhar na hUrnaí Coitinne) is published
  • Company of Adventurers Trading to Africa chartered by the Commonwealth Council of State.
  • February - Outbreak of the Great London Plague.
  • August - First Joint annual session of the Trustees, Triers and Ejectors for Scotland.
  • September - Peak of the Great London Plague, over 7000 deaths per week.
  • November - State funerals of Elizabeth Cromwell (née Bourchier), window of Oliver and mother of Henry.


  • Establishment of shire guardians in Scotland.
  • Act for the organization of the courts in Ireland.
  • Act of the Government and Discipline of the National Churches of England, Wales and Ireland.
  • Act of Public Monies and Endowment for Religious Observance in Scotland.
  • Publication of Court Maxims by Algernon Sidney.
  • Meeting the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. There were no General Assemblies between 1653 and 1665.
  • February - End of the Great London Plague, city considered safe.


Great Fire London

The Great Fire of London

  • Star of the War of Devolution (1667–68) saw Louis XIV's French armies overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté. The Triple Alliance of the Commonwealth, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic formed and secured a combined army to defend the Spanish Netherlands from the French.
  • Judicature Acts of 1667.
  • Parish Register Act that mandates the record of births, marriages and burials in the Civil Registers and issue marriage certificates.
  • By Quinquennial Act, the House of Commons of the Parliament is to elected every five years.
  • May - first meeting of the reformed General Synod of the Church of Ireland. Its Bishop-President is appointed Archbishop of Armagh.
  • 2-5 September - The Great Fire of London.
  • October - First meeting of the reformed General Synod of the Church of England at London. Its Bishop-President is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Archbishop of York. Also approves alternately meetings of the General Synod at London and York.


  • War of Devolution (1667–68) Louis XIV is forced to give back Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté, by Spain and the Triple Alliance in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (2 May 1668) that allowed the French to maintain their minor gains and required a monetary compensation to the Spanish in return.
  • Campaign and elections of the 6th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons).
  • Publication of revised latin edition of Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes in Amsterdam to avoid the Blasphemy Act of 1664.
  • Publication of An Account of the Trial of Charles I by Algernon Sidney.
  • 12 August - Act organizing the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
  • 14 August - Death of Robert Lilburne. His funeral marked the first public rally of the Levellers since 1649.
  • October - Start of the legal year of the recently created High Judicial Committee.


  • Election and nominations of Senators.
  • The Isle of Man and Channel Islands Constituencies Act. It allows for the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands to elect MPs and Senators. First elections are held in spring of 1670.
  • Act of parliament that establishes land registries for England and Wales. Scotland and Ireland already had theirs respectively in 1617 and 1664.


  • Establishment of county commissions for keeping public peace in Ireland.
  • Public Worship Regulation Act of 1670.
  • Acts strengthening the East India Company. Rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.
  • Establishment of the second Danish East India Company[1]
  • 2 May - Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) is chartered by Parliament granting the company a monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay (Borealia[2]) in northern Canada.
  • July - Treaty of Madrid. Spain recognized English possessions in the Western Indies and Western Hemisphere. Spain also agreed to permit English ships freedom of movement in the Caribbean. Each country agreed to refrain from trading in the other's territory, and both countries agreed to limit trading to their own possessions. England agreed to suppress piracy in the Caribbean.


  • March - First Charter of the Danish West India Company or Danish West India–Guinea Company[3] a Dano-Norwegian chartered company for the exploitation of the colonies in the Danish West Indies.
  • 12 November - Death of Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lord General of the British Army. His state funeral at Westminster Hall, the national day of mourning and the highly emotional public sorrow that was expressed by all, marked for many the end of an era of the English Revolution.



1674 (25th Year of the Commonwealth Era[4])

  • Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678).
  • 14th to 20th May (Old Style)- Week of Celebration of the 25 years of the Declaration of the Commonwealth[5].
  • June 1674 – April 1678 King Philip's War (war of the New England Confederation against the Native Americans).
  • December - Death of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon.






  • 22 May - The steam digester (a high-pressure cooker with a safety valve.) built by Denis Papin is presented to members of the SPIK and general public.
  • October - Death of Thomas Hobbes.


  • Publication of Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney.
  • Publication of The English Liberties and the Commonwealth by James Harrington.


Sunken garden kensington

The Dutch Flower Garden built in honor of the State visit of Stadtholder Willem III

  • May to June Election and nominations of Senators.
  • July - State visit of Stadtholder Willem III (widely known afterwards as the Dutch Summer)
  • Posthumous publication of Behemoth: the history of the causes of the civil wars of England by Thomas Hobbes printed in Amsterdam to avoid the Blasphemy Act of 1664.


Papin cooking pot-CnAM 1630-1-IMG 6614-black

Papins pressure cooker with safety valve (cooking digester Mark III 1690 Model)

  • May to June - Campaign and elections of the 9th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons).
  • Papin's pressure cooker, an improved steam digester is manufactured. The Board of Ordnance and the Commissariat put orders for pressure cookers, becoming a standard cooking equipment of the British Armed Forces.



  • 22 October - Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes, making Protestantism illegal in France. Exodus of French Huguenots most moving to the British Commonwealth and its colonies, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Dutch Cape Colony, New Netherland, Norway and Denmark.





  • May to June - Election and nominations of Senators.


  • 27 July - Establishment of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England (Bank of England) as government lender.


  • Seven ill years (1695, 1696 and 1698–99) of famine in Scotland in the 1690s. It resulted from an economic slump created by French protectionism and changes in the Scottish cattle trade, followed by four years of failed harvests.
  • Posthumous publication of Edmund Ludlow's Memoirs.
  • 17 July - Establishment of The Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland (Bank of Scotland) as government lender and commercial bank (deposit-taker and credit institution) to assists and promote Scottish business and lend to the government, subject to parliamentary approval.



1699 (50th Year of the Commonwealth)

  • Seven ill years (1695, 1696 and 1698–99).
  • May to June - Election and nominations of Senators.


  • Coinage Union of England, Scotland and Wales making the pound sterling the sole currency.






  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • The Dutch Republic provide full citizens rights to Huguenot immigrants. The Spanish Netherlands already tolerated their residence.




Newcomen atmospheric engine (1712). The first practical steam engine


  • Peace of Utrecht. France cedes territories in dispute with Hudson's Bay Company (surroundings of lakes Winnipegosis and Winnipeg).


  • First Newcomen atmospheric engine installed in the Dutch Republic by Savery and Newcomen Engine Company. Ten years later several more are built in France, Germany, Austria, Hungary and Sweden.





  • Irish coinage crisis due to shortage of circulation, debased coins, inflation and rise in food prices. Previous year unusual cold weather produce crop failure in some areas.
  • Riots in Belfast, Dublin and Cork. Units of the British Army called to control Ireland.
  • May to June Election of 18th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons) (1722-1727).


  • Election and nominations of Senators.
  • 25 June - The Irish coinage crisis of 1722 leads to the establishment of the Bank of Ireland as government lender and commercial bank (deposit-taker and credit institution). Opens for business in 1725.


  • June - Come into effect the incorporation of Ireland to the Coinage Union. Also the Dublin Mint reopens to provide quality coinage instead of the copper tokens.




  • Act on the Election of Lord Protector by Parliament, passed with votes of Whig Radicals, Tories, Reformist and Country MP after proposal of Senate approved.



  • Irish Famine of 1740–1741 (Irish: Bliain an Áir, meaning the Year of Slaughter).


  • Irish Famine of 1740–1741 (Irish: Bliain an Áir, meaning the Year of Slaughter).
  • Election and nominations of Senators.

  1. Danish: Ostindisk Kompagni
  2. OTL Rupert's Land
  3. Danish: Vestindisk kompagni / Det Vestindisk-Guineisk kompagni
  4. Act Declaring 1674 the Year of Our Lord as the 25th Year of the Commonwealth as of public observance in all the Commonwealth and its territories (1674)
  5. Act Declaring and Constituting the People of England to be a Commonwealth and Free-State, 19 May 1649

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.