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ChristianEyeOfProvidence

He maketh kings to sit in soverainty;
He maketh subjects to their powre obey;
He pulleth downe, he setteth up on hy:
He gives to this, from that he takes away;
For all we have is his: what he list doe he may.
(Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene (1589-96), Book V, Canto II, Stanza 41)

A timeline of Cromwell the Great and events of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Two Lords

(1658-1718, 9th to 69th Year of the Commonwealth)

1658

Cromwellfuneral

The funeral of Oliver Cromwell

Henry Cromwell

Henry Cromwell 2nd Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1658-1696)

1659

  • Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
  • First Esopus War (Sept 1659-July 1660 war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe)
  • Northern War (1655-1660 Wars between Sweden and its adversaries)
  • Founding of the debate society The Rota Club
  • 14 January – Battle of the Lines of Elvas: The Portuguese beat the Spanish in the Portuguese Restoration War.
  • 31 May – The Netherlands, France and the Commonwealth sign the Treaty of The Hague.
  • Summer - Campaign and elections of the Third Protectorate Parliament. MPs to the House of Commons results in a solid majority of Cromwellian, followed by Presbyterians and an important minority faction of republican Commonwealthmen. Also elected representatives of extreme sects (such as Fifth Monarchists) and crypto-cavaliers, Catholics (from Ireland), and Episcopalians.
  • July - Henry Cromwell nominates missing members needed to complete the total of 70 in the Other House.
  • August - Henry Cromwell's first address to Parliament. The House of Commons by a large majority recognizes proclamation and proceeds to call for the formal installation and oath.
  • November - Establishment of the Rota Club as a republican debate society founded and dominated by James Harrington.
  • 7 November - Treaty of the Pyrenees between France and Spain ending the Franco-Spanish War (1635–59).

1660

  • Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60).
  • Northern War (1655-1660 Wars between Sweden and its adversaries).
  • First Esopus War (Sept 1659-July 1660 war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe).
  • Inauguration of Loftus College of the University of Dublin.
  • Publication of The Use and Manner of the Ballot by James Harrington.
  • March - Fendall's Rebellion, against Lord Baltimore. Establishment Commonwealth of Maryland.
  • 23 April / 3 May – Treaty of Oliva: peace made between Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Habsburgs and Brandenburg-Prussia.
  • August - Failed mutiny of army officials and troops in Jamaica.
  • August - Return of Prince Rupert to England.
  • 28 November - At Gresham College in London, twelve men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray meet after a lecture by Wren and decide to found "a College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning". Later to be known as the Society for Promoting and Improving Knowledge (SPIK).
  • Hopkins Grammar School is founded in New Haven Colony.
  • Navigation Act of 1660.

1661

  • The Irish Common Prayer Book (Leabhar na hUrnaí Coitinne) is published.
  • April - The Post Office introduces postmarks.
  • April - Easter, and later in the same year Christmas, officially celebrated. They were suppressed between 1647-1660.
  • 6 August – Portugal and the Dutch Republic sign the Treaty of The Hague, whereby New Holland (in Brazil) is formally ceded to Portugal by the Dutch Republic.
  • Commonwealth Charter given out to Society of London for Promoting and Improving of Natural Knowledge (Society for Promoting and Improving Knowledge, SPIK).
  • Tenures Abolition Act. Abolishes all feudal obligation to landlords, Churches and the State throughout the Commonwealth. Establishes a new taxing system for land tenure and new excise duties. It also dissolves the Court of Wards and Liveries already in recess since 1659 by Order of Council.

1662

  • Campaign and elections of the Fourth Protectorate Parliament. Results in similar majority of Cromwellian followed by Presbyterians, a strong republican Commonwealthmen minority and others as in the previous election.
  • Council of State statute the creation of two new permanent bodies: Council for Foreign Plantations and Council of Trade.
  • Establishment of county commissions for keeping public peace in England and Wales
  • Poor Relief Act 1662.
  • The Senate Act of 1662.
  • Meeting at the Savoy Palace of the main factions: Presbyterians, Independents and Episcopalians.
  • Common Prayer Book and the Book of Reformed Liturgy are published.
  • Koxinga's army expels Dutch from Formosa
  • 10 March Death of Samuel Hartlib.
  • April - Protector-in-Council issues commonwealth charter for Connecticut, that provides the absorption of New Haven Colony, and self government.
  • 17 October - Sale of Dunkirk to France.
  • Theaters allowed to stage all sorts of plays. This was banned between 1642 to 1661.
  • October - Henry Cromwell's opening speech to the Parliament Principles of our Government of the Commonwealth that sketches out the Constitutional Framework of the Commonwealth.

1663

  • First gathering of electors and nominations of the Senate, second chamber of the Parliament that replaces the Other House.
  • March - Iroquois and Dutch West India Company (WIC) envoys meet at Fort Orange to sign the North River Treaty.
  • 24 March - Approval of the Act of Union of Ireland, which regularizes the island's status within the Commonwealth.
  • March - Amended Westminster Confession of Faith for England, Wales and Ireland. Does not included Chapters 30 and 31 on Church discipline.
  • April - Act on certain measures on doctrine and organization given to the Church in Ireland to dictate. Gives to the Church of Ireland authority in a synod to establish its canons and modify the Irish Act of Faith.
  • April - First issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the SPIK.
  • July - September - Second Esopus War (war between Dutch settlers of New Netherland against Esopus tribe).
  • September - Freeholders rebellion ousts Governor Berkeley of Virginia.
  • November - Second Act of General Pardon and Oblivion.

1664

  • Foundation of the French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies.
  • Act of Settlement (of 1664 for Ireland), it also creates land registries for Ireland.
  • Act for Leeward Caribbee Island Government
  • March - Act on the Organization of the Churches of England, Wales and Ireland. Creates the conjoined polity or Ussher scheme, a via media of church governance.
  • April - Venner's Rising in London, Bristol and Belfast against the questionable government of Henry Cromwell. Rebels subdued and imprisoned. Hanging of Thomas Harrison, Thomas Venner, John Carew, and others. The following months purge of Fifth Monarchist from the British Army and militias. Ejectors advised to expel preachers associated with extreme sects.
  • June - Licensing of the Press Act (of 1664).
  • July - The Sedition Act (of 1664) and Blasphemy Act (of 1664). The last Act punishes severely independent preachers wherever they are public or unlicensed.
  • August - First Joint annual session of the Trustees, Triers and Ejectors for England, Wales and Ireland.
  • December - British Army and British Navy came into being with the unification of the army and navy of England, and the armies and militia of Scotland and Ireland.

1665

  • Campaign and elections of the Fifth Protectorate Parliament.
  • Creation of the Commissioners for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge in Wales.
  • Act for matters of government of the Church of Scotland of 1665.
  • The University of Durham (founded in 1656) receives its Commonwealth Charter, giving it powers to grant its own degrees.
  • The revision of The Irish Common Prayer Book (Leabhar na hUrnaí Coitinne) is published
  • Company of Adventurers Trading to Africa chartered by the Commonwealth Council of State.
  • February - Outbreak of the Great London Plague.
  • August - First Joint annual session of the Trustees, Triers and Ejectors for Scotland.
  • September - Peak of the Great London Plague, over 7000 deaths per week.
  • November - State funerals of Elizabeth Cromwell (née Bourchier), window of Oliver and mother of Henry.

1666

  • Establishment of shire guardians in Scotland.
  • Act for the organization of the courts in Ireland.
  • Act of the Government and Discipline of the National Churches of England, Wales and Ireland.
  • Act of Public Monies and Endowment for Religious Observance in Scotland.
  • Publication of Court Maxims by Algernon Sidney.
  • Meeting the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. There were no General Assemblies between 1653 and 1665.
  • February - End of the Great London Plague, city considered safe.

1667

Great Fire London

The Great Fire of London

  • Star of the War of Devolution (1667–68) saw Louis XIV's French armies overrun the Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté. The Triple Alliance of the Commonwealth, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic formed and secured a combined army to defend the Spanish Netherlands from the French.
  • Judicature Acts of 1667.
  • Parish Register Act that mandates the record of births, marriages and burials in the Civil Registers and issue marriage certificates.
  • By Quinquennial Act, the House of Commons of the Parliament is to elected every five years.
  • May - first meeting of the reformed General Synod of the Church of Ireland. Its Bishop-President is appointed Archbishop of Armagh.
  • 2-5 September - The Great Fire of London.
  • October - First meeting of the reformed General Synod of the Church of England at London. Its Bishop-President is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the Archbishop of York. Also approves alternately meetings of the General Synod at London and York.

1668

  • War of Devolution (1667–68) Louis XIV is forced to give back Habsburg-controlled Spanish Netherlands and the Franche-Comté, by Spain and the Triple Alliance in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (2 May 1668) that allowed the French to maintain their minor gains and required a monetary compensation to the Spanish in return.
  • Campaign and elections of the 6th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons).
  • Publication of revised latin edition of Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes in Amsterdam to avoid the Blasphemy Act of 1664.
  • Publication of An Account of the Trial of Charles I by Algernon Sidney.
  • Dutch regain Island of Formosa
  • 12 August - Act organizing the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
  • 14 August - Death of Robert Lilburne. His funeral marked the first public rally of the Levellers since 1649.
  • October - Start of the legal year of the recently created High Judicial Committee.

1669

  • Election and nominations of Senators.
  • The Isle of Man and Channel Islands Constituencies Act. It allows for the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands to elect MPs and Senators. First elections are held in spring of 1670.
  • Act of parliament that establishes land registries for England and Wales. Scotland and Ireland already had theirs respectively in 1617 and 1664.
  • Reopening of City of London Exchange[1] in new building after the old one destroyed by the Great Fire.
  • Test Acts, a series of penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics.

1670

  • Establishment of county commissions for keeping public peace in Ireland.
  • Public Worship Regulation Act of 1670.
  • Acts strengthening the East India Company. Rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.
  • Establishment of the second Danish East India Company[2]
  • 2 May - Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) is chartered by Parliament granting the company a monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into Hudson Bay (Borealia[3]) in northern Canada.
  • July - Treaty of Madrid. Spain recognized English possessions in the Western Indies and Western Hemisphere. Spain also agreed to permit English ships freedom of movement in the Caribbean. Each country agreed to refrain from trading in the other's territory, and both countries agreed to limit trading to their own possessions. England agreed to suppress piracy in the Caribbean.
  • Edward Somerset’s Water-commanding Engine that uses steam

1671

  • March - First Charter of the Danish West India Company or Danish West India–Guinea Company[4] a Dano-Norwegian chartered company for the exploitation of the colonies in the Danish West Indies.
  • 12 November - Death of Sir Thomas Fairfax, Lord General of the British Army. His state funeral at Westminster Hall, the national day of mourning and the highly emotional public sorrow that was expressed by all, marked for many the end of an era of the English Revolution.
  • An Act to restrain Foreign Education, prohibiting Catholics from sending their children to be educated abroad.
  • First Letters patent that grants titles and honours to North Americans. It Also created the titles of landgrave and cassique [5] and new baronies for its use in the American colonies.

1672

1673

  • Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678).
  • Catholic Exclusion Act. Expels Jesuits from the Commonwealth and confiscates their properties. Establishes severe penalties for public and private worship. Denies public rights to Catholics.

1674 (25th Year of the Commonwealth Era[6])

  • Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678).
  • First Anglican or Episcopalian Toleration Act (1676). Allows private worship, convincles and religious assemblies for Episcopalians in England
  • 14th to 20th May (Old Style)- Week of Celebration of the 25 years of the Declaration of the Commonwealth[7].
  • June 1674 – April 1678 King Philip's War (war of the New England Confederation against the Native Americans).
  • December - Death of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon.

1675

  • Scanian War (1675-1679)
  • Franco-Dutch War 1672-1678).
  • Establishment of the Dominion of New England with Charles Fleetwood as its first Governor-general.
  • May to June - Election and nominations of Senators.
  • Promulgation of the Habeas Corpus Act (or Shaftesbury's Habeas Corpus)
  • November - start construction of new St Paul's Cathedral.
  • Foreign Religious Orders Act. Expels Catholic orders that do not register to local authorities, prohibits their employment as teachers and dissolves Catholic seminaries.

1676

  • Scanian War (1675-1679)
  • Franco-Dutch War 1672-1678).
  • Second Anglican or Episcopalian Toleration Act (1676). Allows the establishment of Episcopalian seminaries and use of property for religious services (church). The seized Catholic seminaries and properties were to be given out to the Episcopalian church and reconsecrated. Extends First Act to Scotland and Ireland.

1677

1678

1679

  • Scanian War (1675-1679)
  • Treaties of Fontainebleau, Lund (both between Denmark-Norway and the Swedish Empire) and Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France and the Electorate of Brandenburg)
  • 22 May - The steam digester (a high-pressure cooker with a safety valve.) built by Denis Papin is presented to members of the SPIK and general public.
  • October - Death of Thomas Hobbes.

1680

  • Publication of Discourses Concerning Government by Algernon Sidney.
  • Publication of The English Liberties and the Commonwealth by James Harrington.
  • Rupertine boring machine used in gun making.

1681

Sunken garden kensington

The Dutch Flower Garden built in honor of the State visit of Stadtholder Willem III

.
  • May to June Election and nominations of Senators.
  • July - State visit of Stadtholder Willem III (widely known afterwards as the Dutch Summer)
  • Posthumous publication of Behemoth: the history of the causes of the civil wars of England by Thomas Hobbes printed in Amsterdam to avoid the Blasphemy Act of 1664.
  • Papin develops and builds first safety-valve

1682

Papin cooking pot-CnAM 1630-1-IMG 6614-black

Papins pressure cooker with safety valve (cooking digester Mark III 1690 Model)

  • May to June - Campaign and elections of the 9th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons).
  • Papin's pressure cooker, an improved steam digester is manufactured. The Board of Ordnance and the Commissariat put orders for pressure cookers, becoming a standard cooking equipment of the British Armed Forces.
  • Episcopalian Services and Indulgence Act (Third Episcopalian Act 1676). Allows full autonomous church governance and equals rights as the rest of national churches in the Commonwealth.
  • New Netherland becomes a Generality Land of the Dutch Republic, gained full autonomy.

1683

  • Signing of the Anglo-Dutch Concord (Engels–Nederlandse Eendracht).
  • Scottish Jacobite rebellion of 1683.
  • Representation and Seats of Scotland in Commonwealth Parliament (1683). The Act gives one seat to all scottish counties, with the exception Orkney and Shetland that share MP.
  • Representation and Seats of Ireland in Commonwealth Parliament (1683). The Act gives one seat to Irish counties or neighboring group of counties and creates MP for the City of Dublin.
  • Samuel Morland’s steam powered water-pump. He states the size of the cylinders required in his machine to raise given quantities of water per hour, and gives very exactly the relative volumes of equal weights of water and of steam under atmospheric pressure.

1685

  • 22 October - Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes, making Protestantism illegal in France. Exodus of French Huguenots most moving to the British Commonwealth and its colonies, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Dutch Cape Colony, New Netherland, Norway and Denmark.

1687

1688

  • Nine Years' War (1688–1697).
  • Jacobite War in Ireland (1688-1690)
  • Episcopalian Colonies Act (1688). Extends previous rights, privileges and toleration of Anglicans to the colonies of the Commonwealth, specifically North America. Removes various civil disabilities on Anglicans.

1689

  • Jacobite War in Ireland (1688-1690)

1690

  • Nine Years' War (1688–1697).
  • Jacobite War in Ireland (1688-1690)
  • Promulgation of the Act and Declaration of Indulgence. It established complete freedom of religion and suspends or lessens punishment to Catholics in Ireland. However system of registration of Catholic clergy upheld.
  • Papin constructs a working model of an engine, consisting of a steam-cylinder with a piston which was raised by steam-pressure, and which descended again when the condensation of the steam produced a vacuum beneath it.

1692

1693

1694

  • Nine Years' War (1688–1697).
  • Scottish Jacobite rebellion of 1694.
  • 27 July - Establishment of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England (Bank of England) as government lender.

1695

  • Nine Years' War (1688–1697).
  • Seven ill years (1695, 1696 and 1698–99) of famine in Scotland in the 1690s. It resulted from an economic slump created by French protectionism and changes in the Scottish cattle trade, followed by four years of failed harvests.
  • Posthumous publication of Edmund Ludlow's Memoirs.
  • 17 July - Establishment of The Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland (Bank of Scotland) as government lender and commercial bank (deposit-taker and credit institution) to assists and promote Scottish business and lend to the government, subject to parliamentary approval.

1696

James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch by William Wissing

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth 3rd Lord Protector (March 1696- July 1718)

1697

1699 (50th Year of the Commonwealth)

  • Seven ill years (1695, 1696 and 1698–99).
  • January - Louis XIV gives Royal Academy of Sciences its firsts statues. Until then it was as an informal small group of scholars that held weekly working meetings in the King's Library (1666).
  • May to June - Election and nominations of Senators.

1701

  • Great Northern War (1700–12)
  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • Coinage Union of England, Scotland and Wales making the pound sterling the sole currency.

1702

1703

  • Great Northern War (1700–12)
  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • July-August - Election of 14th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons) (1703-1708), previous House od Commons dissolved in April and earlier elections called by Lord Protector.
  • 7 December - Great Storm of 1703. A a destructive extratropical cyclone that struck central and southern England. The British Navy was badly affected, losing thirteen ships including the entire Channel Squadron.

1705

1708

1709

  • Great Northern War (1700–12)
  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • June - Battle of Poltava. Death of King Charles XII of Sweden. His sister Ulrika Eleonora elected Queen by the Riksdag of the Estates (July).

1710

  • Great Northern War (1700–12)
  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • The Dutch Republic provide full citizens rights to Huguenot immigrants. The Spanish Netherlands already tolerated their residence.
  • First diplomatic visit of Iroquois and Mahicans representatives (known incorrectly as the Four Mohawk Kings) to Dutch Republic and Britain.
PSM V12 D463 Papin marine engine 1707

Schematic of Papin's piston steam engine.

  • Papin's piston steam engine. A modified Somerset’s Water-commanding Engine with a safety valve and piston. Papin’s engine though more efficient than the Savery-Newcomen engine was costlier to build and accident prone due to the lack of machine boring tools to build and seal precise metal parts.

1711

  • Great Northern War (1700–12)
  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • Election and nominations of Senators.
  • Promulgation of the Act on Liberty of Religion Consciousness. It established complete freedom of religion in the Commonwealth for all Protestant and Catholics. It would by several judiciary challenges also include Judaism, Socinianism and Islam. The Act was supported by William Penn, who was widely perceived to be its instigator. It also marked the downfall of his presidency of the Council after the elections of the following year.
  • Ulrika Eleanor Queen of Sweden marries Prince Charles brother of Frederick IV King of Denmark-Norway.

1712

Newcomen6325

Savery-Newcomen atmospheric engine (1712). The first practical steam engine

1713

  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • Peace of Utrecht. France cedes territories in dispute with Hudson's Bay Company (surroundings of lakes Winnipegosis and Winnipeg).
  • Swiss Jean Maritz invents a vertical drilling machine for cannons while in France.

1714

  • War of the Spanish Succession.
  • First Newcomen atmospheric engine installed in the Dutch Republic by Savery and Newcomen Engine Company and used to assist windmills in draining polders. Ten years later several more are built in France, Flanders, parts of Germany, Austria, Hungary and Sweden.

1715

1716

  • Desaguliers introduces an improved version of the Savery-Newcomen engine, which includes safety valves and a two-way valve that operated both the steam and cold water (as opposed to two separate valves).

1717

Whig Hegemony

(1718-1761, 69th to 112th Year of the Commonwealth)

1718

William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt

William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire 4th Lord Protector (July 1718-June 1729)

1720

  • Jacob Leupold starts to work on the manuscript of Theatrum Machinarum Generale ("The General Theory of Machines"). Leupold includes and describes the design of a high-pressure non-condensing steam engine.

1722

  • Irish coinage crisis due to shortage of circulation, debased coins, inflation and rise in food prices. Previous year unusual cold weather produce crop failure in some areas.
  • Riots in Belfast, Dublin and Cork. Units of the British Army called to control Ireland.
  • May to June Election of 18th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons) (1722-1727).
  • Johan Willem Friso Prince of Orange-Nassau is appointed Stadtholder of the majority of provinces of the Dutch Republic

1723

  • Election and nominations of Senators.
  • 25 June - The Irish coinage crisis of 1722 leads to the establishment of the Bank of Ireland as government lender and commercial bank (deposit-taker and credit institution). Opens for business in 1725.

1724 (75th Year of the Commonwealth)

Britannia Somerset House

Inauguration of the first statue of Britannia, as an allegory of the Commonwealth. Part of the celebrations of the 75th Year of the Commonwealth (1724)

  • Celebrations of the 75th Year of the Commonwealth in the British Isles and North America.

1725

  • June - Comes into effect the incorporation of Ireland to the Coinage Union. Also the Dublin Mint reopens to provide quality coinage instead of the copper tokens.

1729

Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (2)

Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend 5th Lord Protector (June 1729- June 1738)

1730

  • Joseph Hornblower starts to work in an operational Leupold engine. In part an improvement of Papin’s piston steam engine.
  • Death of Frederick IV, his son Christian VI becomes King of Denmark-Norway,

1732

1734

  • JSwiss Jean Maritz further developed a method for the horizontal drilling of cannons

1735

1736

  • Act on the Election of Lord Protector by Parliament, passed with votes of Whig Radicals, Tories, Reformist and Country MP after proposal of the Senate is approved.
  • Joseph Collingwood patents an improved Rupertine horizontal boring machine used in gun making. A shaft holds the cutting tool extended through the cylinder and is supported on both ends, unlike the cantilevered borers then in use.

1737

1738

John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville by William Hoare

John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville 6th Lord Protector (June 1738-June 1752)

  • June - Death of Lord Protector Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (89th Year of the Commonwealth).
  • July - First joint meeting of both chambers of Commonwealth Parliament as electoral assembly. John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville is elected Lord Protector.
  • Charles XIII, King of Sweden on the abdication of his mother Queen Ulrika Eleanor.

1740

  • War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48)
  • Irish Famine of 1740–1741 (Irish: Bliain an Áir[8]).
  • Joseph Hornblower's steam engine[9] is marketed. Establishment of Hornblower and Sons Co.

1741

  • War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48)
  • Russo-Swedish Baltic War (1741–43)
  • Irish Famine of 1740–1741 (Bliain an Áir)
  • Election and nominations of Senators.

1742

  • Russo-Swedish Baltic War (1741–43)
  • War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48)
  • Death of Christian VI, his son Frederick V becomes King of Denmark-Norway.

1743

  • War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48)
  • Russo-Swedish Baltic War (1741–43)
  • May to June Election of 22th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons) (1743-1748).
  • At the siege of Riga Charles XIII King of Sweden is hit and killed by an enemy bullet.
  • Treaty of Åbo between Russian and Sweden ending Russo-Swedish Baltic War.
  • Frederick Christian I, son of Christian VI of Denmark-Norway, is elected and crowned King of Sweden.

1744

  • War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48)
  • First Carnatic War (1744–1748). Proxy conflict between France and Britain for the control of the South of India
  • August- Louis XV king of France and Navarre dies. His sons Louis XVI enthroned as king.

1745

  • Jacques de Vaucanson’s first completely automated loom enters in production at the Royal silk plant of Lyon. Vaucanson’s automated loom is based on the work of Basile Bouchon and Jean Falcon.

1746

  • Death of Frederick V after a long sickness leaving no immediate heir to the crown. The Riksråd elects his uncle Frederick Christian I of Sweden as King of Norway.

1747

  • War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48)
  • First Carnatic War (1744–1748). Proxy conflict between France and Britain for the control of the South of India
  • Election and nominations of Senators.

1748

  • War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48)
  • First Carnatic War (1744–1748). Proxy conflict between France and Britain for the control of the South of India
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia.
  • May to June Election of 23th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons) (1748-1753).

1749 (100th Year of the Commonwealth)

National Cockade of the United Kingdom

The British Cockade, widely worn and used in the celebrations and events of the Centenary of the Commonwealth

  • Second Carnatic War (1749–1754)
  • April – The first official performance of Handel's Music for the Centennial Fireworks of the Commonwealth in London. The performance marked the start of a month long celebration.
  • Willem IV is appointed Stadtholder of the majority of provinces of the Dutch Republic.

1752

3rdDukeOfArgyll

Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll 7th Lord Protector (June 1752-April 1761)

  • Second Carnatic War (1749–1754)
  • July - Joint meeting of both chambers of Commonwealth Parliament as electoral assembly that elects Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll as Lord Protector.

1753

1756

SevenYearsWar (CtG)

All the participants of the Seven Years' War (1756-1763)

  British Commonwealth, Dutch Republic, Flanders, Prussia, Portugal, with allies
  France, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden with allies

  • The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
  • French and Indian War (1756-1760)
  • Third Carnatic War (1756–1760)
  • The Conference of Boston attended by delegates from Virginia, Maryland, New England and observer from New Netherlands to discuss better relations with the Native American tribes and common defensive measures against the French threat from Canada in the opening stage of the French and Indian War.

1757

  • The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
  • French and Indian War (1756-1760)
  • Third Carnatic War (1756–1760)
  • Due to the poor results of the Dominion Militia the Governor General of New England replaces it with the seven New England Militia Regiments with better payment and established its own officers staff separate from the one of the British Army.
  • Maryland and Virginia follow the example of New England and established their own permanent Provincial Regiments and officers corps, separate from the already existing Colonial Militia.
  • October - Death of Stadtholder Willem IV.
  • December - The Dutch States General name Maurits II of Orange-Nassau General Stadholder.

1758

  • The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
  • French and Indian War (1756-1760)
  • Third Carnatic War (1756–1760)
  • May to June Election of 25th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons) (1758-1763).
  • Indian Affairs Department established by Protector-in-Council order.
  • Joint meeting of the generals of the British Army, Provincial Regiments of New England, Virginia and Maryland to coordinate actions. Attempts for equal participation of the colonies fail as British Army assumes direct command of military campaigns.

1759

  • The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
  • French and Indian War (1756-1760)
  • Third Carnatic War (1756–1760)
  • Election and nominations of Senators.

1760

  • The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
  • French and Indian War (1756-1760)
  • Third Carnatic War (1756–1760)
  • New England, Virginia and Maryland send colonial agents to protest creation of Indian Affairs Department, new taxes on the colonies and demand de-establishment of Navigation Acts for North American trade.
  • William Pitt's budget calls for new taxes, customs and excise duties to be applied in North America to finance loans and debts from the Seven Years' War. Approved by Parliament against opposition and lobby of the colonies.

British Enlightenment

(1761-1790, 112th to 141th Year of the Commonwealth)

1761

4thDukeOfBedford

John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford 8th Lord Protector (June 1761-June 1768)

  • The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
  • April - Death of Protector Campbell. Parliament passes Act of Regency that establishes the Council of Regents (i.e. Commissioners of the Great Seal) to carry out part of the duties of the Protectorship until election of June.
  • June - Joint meeting of both chambers of Commonwealth Parliament as electoral assembly that elects John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford as Lord Protector.
  • Clive-Dupleix Agreement that ends East Indian proxy wars between France and Britain. Originally a private communication the revelation of its contents provokes uproars and criticism against the private diplomacy of the East India Company.

1763

1764

Union Jack of Sweden and Denmark

Union flag of the United Kingdom of Denmark-Norway and Sweden

1765

1766

  • Establishment of the British Colony of Ohio.

1767

  • Parliament extends mandate of Protector to ten years.

1768

1stMarquessOfStafford

Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford 9th (June 1768-June 1775) and 11th (June 1788-June 1798) Lord Protector

1769

  • Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot builds a small version of his three-wheeled fardier à vapeur ("steam dray" or steam-tractor).

1770

  • Louis XVI of France assumes the title of Emperor of India[10].
  • The Inclosure Act[11] created standard legal procedures that enabled enclosure of land, at the same time removing the right of commoners' access. The Act called for the appointment of Inclosure Commissioners who could enclose land without submitting a request to Parliament, thereby removing private members inclosure acts. Historically considered one of the major land reforms of the Tory-Country Coalition.
  • Falklands Crisis, diplomatic standoff between Britain and Spain over possession of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean.
  • Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot's full-size version of the fardier à vapeur. Initial lack of small and effective engine curtails further development until adoption of a newer and smaller high-pressure steam engines.


1771

1773

1777

1778

Grafton3

Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton 10th Lord Protector (June 1778-June 1788)

1779

  • Death of Frederick Christian I his son Adolf Frederick crowned King of the United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

1780

  • Representation of the People Act (1780).
  • Ascension of the Grand Duchess Anne-Charlotte of Flanders.

1783

1788

1789

The Age of Reforms and Revolutions

(1790-1840, 141th to 191th Year of the Commonwealth)

1stMarquessOfStafford

Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford 9th (June 1768-June 1775) and 11th (June 1788-June 1798) Lord Protector

1793

1795

1797

  • June - Pitt's Council of All Talents, ruling coalition of Radical and National Reformists.

1798

George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer

George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer 12th Lord Protector (June 1798-June 1808)

1801

1803

1804

  • Death of Adolf Frederick his son Christian Gustav I crowned King of the United Kingdom of Denmark, Sweden and Norway.

1806

  • January - Death of William Pitt the Younger (1759–1806), President of the Council of State (1788-1806).
  • May - Council Crisis after the disaster of the North Sea. Fall of Council of All Talents
  • June-July -Dissolution and call for election of 35th Protectorate Parliament (House of Commons) (1806-1811).
  • September - Grand Court Martial for the disaster of the North Sea starts its sessions.

1807


  1. Called Royal Exchange until 1650
  2. Danish: Ostindisk Kompagni
  3. OTL Rupert's Land
  4. Danish: Vestindisk kompagni / Det Vestindisk-Guineisk kompagni
  5. Landgrave/Landgravines (equivalent to Earl), and Cassique/Cassica (equivalent to Viscount).)
  6. Act Declaring 1674 the Year of Our Lord as the 25th Year of the Commonwealth as of public observance in all the Commonwealth and its territories (1674)
  7. Act Declaring and Constituting the People of England to be a Commonwealth and Free-State, 19 May 1649
  8. The Year of Slaughter
  9. ATL equivalent of James Watt’s steam engine.
  10. In French: Empereur des Indes, in Persian: بادشاہِ ھندوستان (Badshah-e-Hind), In Hindi: भारत के सम्राट in Farsi: امپراتور هند
  11. An Act for the better Cultivation, Improvement, and Regulation of the Common Arable Fields, Wastes, and Commons of Pasture in this Commonwealth

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