At the negotiations in Cheb, all Hussite groups reject the idea that the Council of Basle should settle their dispute. Instead, the negotiations focus on war and peace in the worldly sphere.
While the Hussite representatives preserve unity among themselves, divisions weaken their enemies. While Emperor Sigismund and Duke Albrecht of Habsburg are bent on resuming the war after the Hussites` intransigent stance, Frederik II., Prince-Elector of Saxony, John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt, as well as Wladislaw II. King of Poland conclude separate peace treaties with the Hussites. Under these circumstances, Sigismund and Albrecht postpone their plans, too.
Two polities form within the Coniuratio Bohemica: the (peasant- and common craftsmen-dominated, theologically radical) United Brotherhood with its capital at Tabor, and the Bohemian Republic (dominated by a bourgeois urban elite and petty Bohemian nobility, theologically moderate and with its capital at Prague; its other members being Litomerice, Melnik, Roudnice and Chrudim).
Over 75 % of the Bohemian countryside is controlled by the Coniuratio. The only major towns in Bohemia which did not belong to the Coniuratio Bohemica were Ceske Budejovice, Plsen and Jihlava.
Everywhere, the peaceful year is used for an agricultural and infrastructural restart.
The Calixtian Church, the Taborite Community and the Orebite Community create more formalised inner rules and constitutions, too. Taborites outside Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia are represented under the umbrella term of "New Tabor"; strategies of co-operation with other groups (mostly Waldensians) and clandestine work in non-liberated countries are decided upon together, and the leaders chosen by these foreign groups and trained at Tabor or Zatec na Moravé divide "dioceses" among themselves.
Progress is made in the projects of Czech, German, Polish and Hungarian Taborite translations of the New Testament, while at Prague`s University, the entire Bible is being translated into Czech and German.
Jan Rokycana becomes Chancellor of the University of Prague.
Upon the free decision and vote of its town council, the city of Pilsen joins the Bohemian Republic.
Proselytisation by Taborites among the Chody is successful - almost all the villages and communities of these guardians of the Bohemian-Bavarian order are aligned with the Brotherly Union now.
On August 15th, delegates of the Prague Alliance and the Brotherly Union meet again at Domazlice to renew their vows. They declare the present borders as eternally inviolable, formalise the existing exchange of liaison officers, and elect two Treasurers and two Bailiffs to take care of common infrastructure (four overland roads and three major waterways at first).
A great number of Hussite leaders not only from Bohemia is present at Domazlice, too. Envoys from Poland`s King Wladislaw II. ask for assistance in the fight against the Teutonic Order. While the Republicans decline, the Union, which has become the safe haven of thousands of serfs, impoverished craftsmen and oppressed Waldensians - more immigrants and asylum-seekers than its workshops and fields can absorb -, decides to spread the call for help.
A New Taborite and a Sirotci batallion of 5,000 men each is mobilised and marches Northwards, plundering lands of the Order and destroying many of its castles. The batallions of this "beautiful ride" are a very international mixture. Not all of them return: They conquer Lebus and its surrounding area, badly defended by the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg, and 1,500 New Taborites settle there, under complete autonomy and with the promise of protection by Wladislaw II. Immediately, they begin to build local alliances for a final destruction and eliminiation of all castles and clerical strongholds in the region, and commence a democratic reshaping of the Lebusian Land after the Bohemian model of the Brotherly Union.
Hussite groups gather in Trnava and, from there, move to Zilina, which they secure for the Hussite side. In October, Likava Castle falls, and the Hussites have established control over Northern Slovakia.
Troops of the Prague Alliance, the Brotherly Union, Sigismund Korybut, Spytko of Melsztyn and Boguslaw IX. of Slupce defeat a Magyar and imperial Catholic army at Bohunice.
Wladislaw II. dies and is succeeded by his minor son Wladimir III. The administration of his kingdom is taken over by Bishop Olesnicki, who does not respect Wladislaw`s treaty with the Hussites and begins to persecute Hussite communities in Lesser Poland. A rebellion of miners, peasants and craftsmen, supported by some nobles and led by Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, breaks out in Sweden.
In Rüsdorp op de Heyde, the Peasant Republic of Dithmarschen is founded.
Orebites support their Hussite brethren in Lesser Poland; about a dozen towns and hundreds of villages join the Brotherly Union.
Aided by contingents of the Brotherly Union stationed at Otmuchow, radical Hussites take over in Gliwice in join the Brotherly Union.
The Diet of the Bohemian Republic legislates a body of common laws and regulations, which basically leave the different bodies of law of Prague, Litomerice, Melnik, Roudnice and Chrudim untouched, but institutionalise the co-operation. Supreme judicial and religious authority are moved from the King of Bohemia and the Pope to the new Utraquist Bishop of Prague and the federal court of arbitration.
Jan Rokycana becomes the first Bishop of the Utraquist Church. As Chancellor of the University of Prague, he is succeeded by the Florentine scholar Giannozzo Manetti.
Following the Prague Alliance, the Brotherly Union gives itself a sort of constitution, too. In contrast to the Prague Alliance, though, traditional laws are significantly modified here, with a new military regime, the abolition of serfdom and equal voting rights for all adult men in the communal assemblies.
In the Orebite-controlled town of Trnava, armourers developed a significantly improved hand-held firearm with a serpentine matchlock. It is called piscal.
In Sweden, Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson is assassinated. Erik Puke takes his place as rebel leader. After heavy losses in the Battle of Hällaskogen, Karl Knutsson Bonde and his knights retreat. Puke, imbued with the new confidence of a leader of a revolution of commoners, for which the successful Hussites in Bohemia and Moravia serve as a political (if not religious) role model, waits patiently until support comes in from the North. The rebels capture Västeras.
Karl Knutsson Bonde offers Erik Puke and his supporters several castles. Erik Puke accepts the deal, which outrages his low-born supporters who take up the fight again, but are dispersed by knights.
Hungarian and Romanian peasants revolt in Transilvania and Szabolcs. After defeating an army of the voivod Laszlo Csak, their collegium of six leaders (Budai Nagy Antal and five other captains) forges an alliance with the Brotherly Union. Jan Jiskra of Brandys leads a batallion of new Taborites in support of the newly established "Universitas Hungarorum et Valachorum" against Csak, who has forged an alliance with six Szekely and five Saxon towns against the peasants.
In Sweden, rebellions flare up in various parts of the kingdom. King Eric VII. revokes the deal between Karl Knutsson and Erik Puke and has Erik Puke abducted, imprisoned, tried and executed. This causes even greater unrest. A group based in Västeras backs the election of Karl Knutsson as King of Sweden, in violation of the Kalmar Union, while nobles centered in Stockholm want to preserve the union with Denmark.
In December, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary (and nominally also Bohemia) Sigismund dies. The Hungarian magnates quickly elect Albert of Habsburg as his successor as King of Hungary. In Bohemia, only a handful of nobles and three towns are left outside the Coniuratio, and these also elect Albert in Plauen.
Albert of Habsburg becomes Roman German King and Emperor of the HRE.
Kolosvar / Cluj withstands a siege of Laszlo Csak`s troops. The revolting Transilvanian peasants and their Hussite allies defeat a larger army of Hungarian magnates in the Battle of Szatmar.
In the meantime, an Ottoman army accompanied by Vlad II. Dracul conquers Smeredewo and invades Transilvania from the South. All royal Magyar troops are ordered to the South, and the "Universitas Magyarorum et Valachorum" has some time to breathe.
Karl Knutsson Bonde secures his powerbase with nobility and clergy with cruel retaliations against insurgent peasants and a revocation of their traditional rights. He is de facto sovereign of Sweden. Despite brutal persecution, leaders of the popular revolt manage to escape to Norway and Denmark.
Ceske Budejovice joins the Bohemian Republic.
In the Battle of Grotniki on May 4th, Lesser Polish and Silesian Hussites as well as New Taborites thoroughly defeat the troops of Bishop Zbigniew Olesnicki (nominally under the banner of Polish King Wladislaw III.). It is the first battle in which great numbers of foot soldiers fought with piscals - one of the reasons for their military success. After their victory, the Hussites besiege Krakow in late May. After nine days, the Hussite-dominated bakers` guild opens the gates for the invaders. Their cooperation spared most of the town from the fate of being sacked. Churches and the residence of archbishop Olesnicki were plundered, though, and there is no trace of Olesnicki after Grotniki and the Hussite conquest of Krakow. The young Polish King Wladislaw III. and his entourage hide in the Wawel. On June 13th, five captains of Hussite Malopolskien peasants, the Utraquist mayor of Bielcz, Count Spytko of Melsztyn, the heads of Krakow`s craft guilds and the Jewish Av Beth Din of Kazimierz swear an oath to respect each other`s full independence, to keep peace with each other and assist each other against foreign aggression. According to some sources, emissaries of Svitrigaila participated in the Oath of Krakow, too.
On June 26th, Wladislaw III. capitulates and signs the Treaty of Krakow with the allied Hussites. He accords full independence to Krakow, Bielcz and the other Lesser Polish towns and rural districts controlled by Hussites and condones the destruction of all knightly castles in the border lands and the redistribution of all clerical land in the region. Wladislaw and his court are allowed a free passage Northwards to Plock, which becomes the new capital of the shrunk Kingdom of Poland.In the Battle of Zelenice, the united Bohemian Republic and Brotherly Union, supported by Transilvanians, defeat a numerically superior army under the leadership of Emperor Albert. After this success, hundreds of German-speaking nobles are held as hostages by both Hussite federations, threatened with execution, should their dynasties ever attack the free Bohemians again. Riding on the wave of success, the Bohemian Hussite confederal armies lay siege and conquer the remaining Catholic towns in Moravia. Now, they also control the silver mines at Banska Hodrusa. Jihlava joins the Brotherly Union, while Banska Stiavnica and Banska Hodrusa become common possessions of Bohemian Republic and Brotherly Union.
Ottomans plunder Southern Transilvania.
Peasants revolt against the rule of Swedish nobles in Finland.
The Danish privy council meets in Lübeck and elects Christopher of Palatine Neumarkt as new King of Denmark.
Emperor Albert dies. The Kingdom of Hungary, threatened by Hussites, peasant revolts and Ottomans, sinks into a war of de facto succession. Albert`s heir, if there is to be one, is not yet born (Ladislaus Postumus).The Hungarian Magnates, gathered in Buda, decide that a Council of Seven Stewards should govern in his stead, but Fredrick of Habsburg and the Counts of Celje have other plans.
At the beginning of a new decade, the Hussites are at an early height of power, having celebrated successes in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Lesser Poland and Transilvania.
Theologically, the various sects have consolidated their separate structures: the Utraquists have founded a church and control the Charles University; on Mounts Tabor and Oreb, monastic communities of the spiritual elite of the more radical groups have established themselves. The New Testament is translated into Czech, Slovakian, Polish, Hungarian and German. Taborites and Calixtians have established friendly and cooperative connections with the Waldensians. Taborites and Waldensians together form a clandestine underground network which prepares a revolution in the German-speaking lands and the Alps: the Pious Brothers. Matthew of Hagen serves as their "bishop" leading the proselytisation and mobilisation in Brandenburg, Frederic Reiser does the same in Southern Germany, Nicolas Schneider in Saxony and Stephen of Basle in the Alps. Radical and moderate Hussite groups also establish contacts with English groups as well as with Orthodox Christianity.
Militarily, their new model of an army - masses of peasants fighting with innovative firearms instead of trained heavy cavalry - has so far proven extremely successful. Some years of peace have restored the economy in the Bohemian heartland of the reformation / revolution.
Politically, the Hussite realm is a patchwork of democracies, oligarchies and counties of pro-Hussite nobles, in which various Czech, Moravian, Lachic and Silesian dialects are spoken alongside German and Hungarian - not to mention Romanian in Transilvania.
Economically and socially, the Hussite realm has seen the emancipation of the peasantry and an increased power of craft guilds as compared to long-distance trading patrician families, and greater participation of Slavic-speaking people in the political processes. Bohemia is recovering from the war, and Moravia, Silesia and Lesser Poland continue to thrive, but in Transilvania, civil war and Ottoman plunderings have brought misery upon the population. Since Holy Roman Emperors Sigismund and Albert have decreed boycots of Bohemian and Moravian products, trade has shifted towards Poland, Lithuania and the Black Sea.
Hungary is destabilised, can Janos Hunyadi keep the Ottomans at bay under these circumstances? Will a weakened Frederick of Habsburg manage to get himself elected and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor? The Catholic Church is not only split between Counciliarists and Popists, with two popes contending for supremacy, but also increasingly threatened by all the anticlerical sects. Nowhere is the influence of victorious Hussites felt so strongly in Central and Western Europe than in the religious domain. How will the Catholic Church react?
The strife between the twin cities of Berlin-Cölln and Prince-Elector Fredrick II. begins.
Petty craftsmen overthrow Patrician rule in Breslau / Wroclaw / Vratislava and install their own town council in May, which joins the Bohemian Republic in September.
The 24 towns of Spis, both the Bohemian ones and those pawned to Poland, collectively decide to send representatives to the Diet of the Bohemian Republic, acknowledging the succession of supreme political power from the King of Bohemia and the formerly aristocratic Diet to the new Republican Diet.
Danish peasants revolt not only in Fynen and Jylland. but also in Sjaelland. In several places, exiled Swedish rebels lead the masses. Inspired by the Bohemian model, rebels in both regions successfully through coordinated efforts. Under the military leadership of Henrik Reventlow, the Jutlandish peasants achieve a victory over an army of knights led by Eske Brok at St Jorgen`s Hill. Dozens of manors are plundered and taken over by peasants, who also bring weaponry under their control.
The Imperial Diet in Frankfurt awards the Archduchy of Austria with the electoral privilege, in substitution for the Kingdom of Bohemia, which had been lost to the Holy Roman Empire and dissolved. Archduke Frederick V. of Habsburg is elected as Roman German King Frederick III.
An Ottoman siege of Belgrade fails.
The Danish peasants triumph over a badly led royal Danish army. At Husby Hole, King Christopher is lethally wounded in battle. Several days later, he dies.
The victorious rebel leader Henrik Reventlow secretly negotiates with the Hanseatic League and with Swedish rebel groups and an emissary of Hans Martensson of Dalarna. The Conspirators of Odense convene on an agenda of deep-reaching economic, political, social and military reforms under a King Henrik, and on a concerted effort to crush their enemies. In the meantime, Bogislaw of Slupce forges an alliance with Karl Knutsson, promising him the continuation of far-reaching autonomy for Sweden under Karl`s regency, should he mobilise support for Bogislaw`s claims for the triple throne. Bogislaw`s alliance is supported by the Dutch towns, various Pomeranian dukedoms, and Burgundy. The Kalmar Civil War begins.
The town and county of Opole / Oppeln and the towns of Neumarkt, Bautzen / Budysin and Görlitz / Zgorzelec send representatives to the Diet of the Bohemian Republic. Only a handful of nobles and a few Lusatian towns hold out as Bohemian royalists. Calixtians only make up a narrow-margin majority among the significantly expanded Bohemian Republic now, many of the newly participating towns are Catholic and German-speaking. Nevertheless, their elected representatives faithfully renew the Solemn Oath with the Brotherly Union in Domazlice at the tenth anniversary of their victory over the Fifth Anti-Hussite Crusade.
In the Kalmar Civil War, the rebels around Henrik Rewentlow have built a modern mass army: peasants as light infantry and Hussite-inspired mobile defenses endowed with heavy artillery. At sea, they rely on Hanseatic support. They achieve their greatest victory in Denmark with the fall of Kalö Castle. Bogislaw, on the other hand, operates with classical medieval heavy cavalry. The knights under his command react to the series of defeats with punitive campaigns against peasant populations supportive of Henrik and the rebellion, and with scorched earth tactics against the mass armies. The great numbers of victims, the military systems of both sides and the class allegiances of each side`s supporters foreshadow the Great Revolution and the Union Wars, although in the Kalmar Civil War, the rebels are not reformationists or Hussites.
Regular Magyar armies led by Janos Hunyadi desperately fight to keep the Ottomans out of Transilvania. Spared by attacks from feudal lords for a while, the Universitas Magyarorum et Valachorum gives itself a (bilingually) written constitution and elects various officers and administrators who take over roles formerly played by feudal lords. Efforts are made to establish a nation-wide fiscal system. Towns and villages are fortified to the extent that their inhabitants are able to accomplish this task. The Assembly of the Universitas begins working on a reformed Law of the Land.
A Taborite-induced conspiracy among Eastern Austrian peasants, who were preparing a revolt on Candlemas Day, is betrayed to a high-ranking prelate. Eighteen conspirators are hunted down, tortured, condemned to death and burned alive.
Finnish peasants join Henrik`s side in the Kalmar Civil War, too, and help in the conquest of a number of castles held by nobles who support Bogislaw. His Swedish supporters march on Stockholm and lay siege to the town, but must abandon the siege when no seaborne artillery support arrives because Hanseatic warships cannot pass the Öresund, still held by the aristocratic fronde which supports Bogislaw. In Pomerania, mercenaries on both sides engage in a battle near Wolgast with heavy casualties and no conclusive result.
The Pious Brothers in Brandenburg, Saxony, Southern Germany and the Alps take additional measures of caution and secrecy to prevent leaks in their revolutionary plans like the one which had had such catastrophic consequences in Austria.
Skanderbeg declares his independence from the Ottoman Empire.
Janos Hunyadi leads Magyar mercenaries and foreign crusaders against the peasant republic. Kolosvar withstands his siege again, but in the countryside near Marosvasarhely / Targu Mures, the peasant republicans are defeated and decimated by Hunyadi`s armies.
Hunyadi stops his crusade against the insurgent peasants and resumes the one against the Ottomans. At the Battle of Varna, he suffers a defeat, in which Polish King Wladislaw III. is killed. His succession in Poland is fiercely disputed.
The Kalmar Civil War ends with the Peace of Torun after Henrik Rewentlow`s armies and the Hanseatic navy have taken Stockholm and important Danish castles, among them Castle Kronborg. Bogislaw must renounce to his claim on the thrones. The Hanse is granted exemption from the Öresund toll. The defeated alliance of the nobility must cede most of its castles, most fiefs are withdrawn, but many of those who accept the deal are offered positions in the new standing Army of the Union (in which infantry plays the central role, though) or in the increased royal administration. Henrik Rewentlow is elected King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway, including Greenland, Iceland, Finland and the Faeroes, by a haphazard "Diet" of his supporters from all parts of Scandinavia. Several counts and bishops and foreign rulers do not recognise his kingship yet and consider him a usurper and an upstart. Henrik, though, has far-reaching plans to make his countries the spearhead of modern developments in Europe.
The Great Revolution in the German-speaking lands begins with a refusal of Frankish peasants to pay increased taxes, and a largescale revolt against brutal measures aimed at extorting the payments from the peasantry. Dozens of castles are stormed, and the Bavarian dukes and counts and the bishopric of Würzburg are brought into an unfavourable starting position. The Pious Brothers play a leading role in the revolt, and they also organise coherence between different groups and the demands of peasants and those of townsfolk. The town councils of Nürnberg and Bamberg are sympathetic with the revolt and offer the rebels refuge when the army of Würzburg`s Bishop Gottfried arrives.