This is meant to list the possible alt-histories arising away from OTL, rather than being coherent of itself.
Additions to the list and ideas for development are welcome, as are links to althistories.
Prior to 1917
- Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels create a coherent Theory of Communism.
- Various groups take up communist ideas and get into positions of political authority in the late19th/early 20th century with varying degrees of success.
- Like Wilfrid Voynich, Lenin and other future communist leading figures are diverted into other fields of operation.
- Early 20th century Tsar Nicholas II's son Alexis does not have haemophilia or it is so mild that it can be controlled without recourse to Rasputin.
Russian Revolution and after
- 1913-1919 In Albania both Otto Witte (a German) and CB Fry (UK) are offered, and accept, the monarchy, with Zogu (of local extraction) following suit: the situation is resolved through a series of cricket games (Fry being a noted cricketer).
- 1917 Russia: Lenin and other Communists do not take over the Russian state:
- The "Sealed Train" is not sent or
- The various Communist leaders do not get a chance to take power.
- 1917 Russia: The Communist leaders decide to play the long game, and persuade the population to develop towards socialism and Communism.
- Sidney Reilly succeeds in his plan to overthrow the fledgling Soviet state, and killing its leaders.
- 1918-19 Communist takeovers in Europe are successful in at least the middling term - Bela Kun in Hungary, the Spartakists, various parts of Germany etc: a mosaic of political structures emerge.
- 1918-20s The Russian Civil War develops differently - the Communists are ousted, or forced to compromise; the Czech troops on the Trans Siberian Railway establish a semi-permanent entity etc; different regional entities emerge in the former Russian Empire.
- The assassination attempt on Lenin is successful, and a power struggle among the various Communist leaders ensues, with White Russians, "Greens" (being a party name, rather than an ecological association), other local groups, some of them of a nationalistic or state-creationist intent, and outside forces intervening, making use of the situation.
- Early-mid 1920s As Lenin becomes increasingly ill (possibly not dying in 1924), the power struggle among the Soviet leadership develops differently - Stalin gets marginalised (whether or not as a result of Lenin's "last testament").
- In one variant, Leon Trotsky becomes head of the Soviet entity and promotes 'permanent revolution'/the export of the revolution (as against Stalin's 'Socialism in one Country'). *The Soviet Union (as we would now call it) becomes a more federal entity.
- 1920 State of Tannu Tuva established: becomes an actually independent state, rather than a puppet state which is absorbed into USSR as in OTL.
- 1922 On the death of Karl, sometime Emperor and King of Austria-Hungary, his son Otto is made ruler of some of the territories following various negotiations (and various possibilities for Otto thereafter).
- 1926 The General Strike, UK is successful in some manner (likewise equivalents elsewhere).
- One of the assassination attempts on Benito Mussolini is successful.
- Adolf Hitler and associates remain a marginal group - other groups achieving a dominance.
- Adolf Hitler does not achieve power in Germany, or if he does, moderates his policy. A Europe with three different political systems emerges - right-wing dictatorships, democracies, and communist, which develops further when the dictators die due to the leadership cults and absence of political heirs.
- 1936-9 The Republicans win the Spanish Civil War.
- The Great Purges and Great Famine lead to denunciations of Stalin's policies, and he is ousted.
The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact is not signed.
- Stalin is ousted as a result of military defeats.
- Late WWII/post-war period Communist control spreads over more of Europe (Greece and Italy being the most obvious candidates).
- Alternatively the Communists are prevented from gaining the dominance across Eastern Europe that they did in OTL - whether excluded totally or joining in 'mixed' governments.
- Neutral Germany - or North Germany and South Germany (the fault line being much clearer than between East and West) - established.
- The Berlin Blockade is not challenged, and it falls wholly under Communist rule: alternatively the Western Powers attempt to reach Berlin by land/challenge the Soviets.
- In China the Communists are unsuccessful - or at most remain only regionally powerful.
- Effects of Stalin's death are different.
- 1951 In the wake of the Burgess-Maclean defections in the UK, Moura Budberg's comment on Anthony Blunt (that he is a member of the Communist Party) is believed and he becomes the Third Man.
- Senator Joseph MacCarthy is challenged earlier.
- The Korean War develops in a different manner.
- The Hungarian Uprising leads to successful seccession from the Warsaw Pact
- Sputnik is unsuccesful - or only after a Western equivalent is put into orbit.
- Fidel Castro and associates are unsuccessful in Cuba.
- The Berlin Wall is not built.
- The Vietnam War develops differently
- Nikita Khrushchev stays in office, or is replaced by someone else.
- The Prague Spring leads to a more general political reform
- Detente does not happen.
- 1970-3 The Salvador Allende Government is allowed to continue in Chile/is succeeded by a different regime
- 1976 Different succession in the PRC.
- Late 1978 John Paul II is not Karol Wojtyla.
- Solidarity does not emerge.
- Mikhail Gorbachev does not become Soviet leader, or is not seen as someone whom business can be done with.
- Rudolf Hess lives two years longer, until mid-1989, resulting in different perceptions of German reunification.
- The events of 1989 proceed differently.
- The end of the Soviet Union - does not occur, or happens in a different form - possibly more overt power struggles at the top, civil war etc. The August Coup manages to hold on for a while; Shevardnadze rather tha Yeltsin emerges as the leading figure in the collapsing Soviet Union.
- The wars of the former Yugoslavia proceed differently (including the relationship between Greece and Yugoslav Macedonia).
- Czecholovakia does not break up (but political tensions increase).
- The wars of the former Soviet Union proceed differently.
- 2000 There is a service to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Katyn massacre similar to the 70th anniversary event in our timeline: as with that event there is a plane crash disaster killing a number of notables on the Polish and/or Russian sides: and/or Pope John Paul II
- More or different countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and Former Soviet Union join EU and/or NATO (or separate regional entities emerge).
- The 2010 Katyn plane crash does not occur, or different people are killed (eg the Russian side) - or it leads to increased tension between Poland and Russia.