- Rodrigo Borja is elected Pope, adopting the name of Alexander VI.
- Christopher Columbus is rejected in the court of Castile with his idea to reach the Indies by sailing west.
- King John II of Portugal dies. His cousin Manuel I is crowned as king of Portugal.
- Italian explorer John Cabot lead an English expedition to Asia and disembarked in the land currently known as Cabotia, and claimed it to England.
- Pedro Álvares Cabral led an expedition which disembarked on Brasil, claiming the land for Portugal.
- Arthur Tudor, prince of Wales, and Catherine of Aragon get married.
- Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini is elected Pope, adopting the name of Pius III.
- Queen Isabella I of Castile dies. Her daughter Joanna I is crowned as queen of Castile.
- Joanna I of Castile's husband Phillip, is crowned as king of Castile.
- Phillip I of Castile dies. His father-in-law, Ferdinand II of Aragon, assumes as regent of Castile. Phillip's son Charles of Ghent, inherits the Low Countries and Franche-Comté.
- Giuliano della Rovere is elected Pope, adopting the name of Julius II.
- King Henry VII of England dies. His son Arthur Tudor, is crowned as king of England as Arthur I of England.
- Somebody different than Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici is elected Pope, adopting the name of Julius III.
- Ferdinand Magellan, discovered the strait that bears his name and explored the Pacific coast of Brasil and southern Cabotia.
- Charles of Ghent, is declared of age and assumes power in the Low Countries.
- Magellan discovers the Manuelinhas, so called after king Emanuel I of Portugal.
- Ferdinand II of Aragon dies. His daughter Joanna is proclamed Queen of Castile and Aragon. Joanna's son Charles, is crownd in Flandes as king of Castile and Aragon. Charles becomes also king of Navarre, Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia.
- Martin Luther publishes his 90 Theses, motivated by the corruption of the church. After a great deal of controversy, Rome begins adopting these theses.
- Holly Roman Emperor Maximilian I dies, his grand son, Charles (king of Aragon, Naples and Castile), is crowned as King of Germany, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, and Count of the Tyrol.
- The war of Communities starts in Castile against king Charles and his pretensions to nominate Flemish people in the Castilian courts.
Europeans begin dealing with some advanced cultures in Cabotia and Brasil, like the Tawantinsuyo and the Meshicas, while less advanced cultures begin disappearing under European colonization.
- Belgrade falls to the Ottomans, lead by Suleiman I.
- King Manuel I of Portugal dies. His son John III is crowned as king of Portugal.
- Charles I of Castile wins the War of the Communities in Castile. He punish the Castilians by including even more Flemish in the Castilian administration.
- Charles I of Aragon, make efforts to unite the Crown of Aragon as one kingdom, including the Kingdom of Aragon, Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Valencia, Sicily, Naples and Sardinia. The Capital is set at Valencia.
- Emperor Suleiman I of the Ottomans, and King Louis II of Hungary, sign the Treaty of Budapest, granting the Turks control on the whole Balkans.
- Magellan discovers the New World Isthmus, founding the Portuguese colony of Istmo.
- François, Dauphin of France, marries Mary Tudor, heir of the English Crown.
- John Chauvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion is published in Latin.
- François, Dauphin of France, dies.
- Charles I of Aragon abdicates the Crown of Aragon to his son Phillip.
- Charles V abdicates his Austrian positions and as Holy Roman Emperor to his brother Ferdinand. He also abdicates as king of Castile to his bastard son John, with Philip as regent until John comes to age.
- King John III of Portugal dies. He is succeeded by his two years old grandson Sebastian (regented by his Aragonese grand mother Catherine of Habsburg).
- King Arthur I of England dies. He is succeeded by his daughter Mary Tudor as Mary I of England
- Pope Paul IV condemns the Reformist and Purist movement of the Church.
- Pope Adrian VII revokes the ban on the Reformist and Purist movements. Many Purist bishops do not recognize the authority of Rome, though.
- King John III of Castile is declared of age and assumes as John III of Castile, and John I of the Low Countries.
- John III of Castile and I of the Low Countries, married Mary I of Scots.
- King Sebastian of Portugal dies. His uncle Cardinal Henry, is crowned as king Henry I of Portugal.
- Cardinal King Henry I of Portugal dies. The crown is disputed between Antony, grandson of Manuel I, Catherine of Braganza, and Philip I of Aragon. Catherine of Braganza was crowned as Queen Catherine I of Portugal.
- King John IV of Castile and II of the Low Countries converts to Puritanism. He abdicates the Castilian crown to his brother Charles.
- The Parliaments of Scotland and the Low Countries issue an Act of Union.
- The 30 Years War or War of Germanic Succession starts, after the last Austrian Hapsburg dies. The Habsburg related houses from Low Countries, Castile, and Aragon, where opposed by some of the other German principates.
- End of the War of Germanic sussession. The Hohenzollern from Brandenburg became elected as Roman Emperors, and allied William of Orange-Hapsburg (brother of the king of Low Countries) is recognized as the new King of Austria.
- Martin Luther is cannonized. St Martin Luther, Doctor and Reformer of the Church.
- Crimean War. A long time allied of the Ottoman Empire the Khanate of Crimea, in alliance with the Dual Commonwealth, Aragon, England, Moravia and Russia fight the Ottomans to get full sovereignty and control of the Crimean Peninsula.
- First Partition of Russia between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden and the Ottoman Empire.
- Second Partition of Russia between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Ottoman Empire, Crimea, Kazachstan, and Sibiria.
- New England declares independence from England.
- The Great War of 1795, which is actually a series of almost unrelated conflicts. The Dual Commonwealth, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire (with support of Crimea, Kazachstan, Sibiria and France) wave war against Russia who was nominally supported by Germany, Denmark, and Scotland and Low Countries; while Austria (in alliance with Helvetia and Hungary) fight against France for the control of Northern Italy.
- Third Partition of Russia between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden, the Ottoman Empire, Crimea, Kazakhstan, and Sibiria. Russia ceases to exist as an independent entity for the next century.
- Egypt falls under Aragonese control.
- Robertia declares independence from England.
- Second Franco-Austrian war for the control of Northern Italy. Hungary and Helvetia follow the call of the Pope to remind neutral.
- New Sweden declares independence from Robertia.
- France and Hungary declare war against Austria for the control of northern Italy. In a course of five weeks between February and March, Austria surrenders all possessions in Italy.
- Massive uprise in Italy begins in March against Hungary and France and in demand of an independent national state. Austria give military support to the Italians but avoids direct war against Hungary and France. The uprisings soon extend also to the Papal states.
- Octuber: Italy is proclaimed as a kingdom, soon recognized by Austria, Bavaria, Helvetia and Aragon. Hostilities against France and Hungary cease by November with the Hungarians keeping Venice.
- Hungary recognizes the Kingdom of Italy.
- France recognizes the Kingdom of Italy.
- Netongo declares independence from Robertia.
- United Kingdom Succession War starts: After the death without heir of King William of Scotland and the Low Countries, a succession war started between the English and German pretenders.
- United Kingdom Succession War ends: the Union is preserved but the monarchy is abolished. Scotland and the Low Countries becomes a Republic.
- Guyana declares Independence from Scotland and Low Countries.
- England grants independence to Newfoundland.
- Riots begin in the Novgorodian provinces of Sweden.
- Accused of corruption and mishandling of the Novgorodian crisis, the king of Sweden is forced to abdicate. The Novogorodian crisis escalates as a full Civil War inside the kingdom of Sweden.
- Patagonia declares Independence from Scotland and Low Countries.
- Borinken declares Independence from Scotland and Low Countries.
- England grants independence to Hudson.
- Royalists in Sweden surrender but the civil war continues between Unionists and Federalists.
- Peace of Copenhagen to end the Swedish Civil War. The former kingdom of Sweden divided in four sovereign republics: Sweden, Estonia, Finland and Novgorod, all grouped on a loose federation called the Swedish Commonwealth with a tariff union and common defense pact.
- Each Republic of the Swedish Commonwealth sanction their own constitution.
- England establishes the Dominion of St Lawrence.
- The Holy Roman Empire ceases to exist. The Roman Emperor becomes the king of Germany, recognized by all independent electors but Austria and Bavaria, who, otherwise, do not oppose the situation which had actually been the de facto situation for the last century.
- England grants independence to Cooba.
- King Alfonso XIII was deposed by a military coup, and a junta assumed the government in Castile.
- The Great War of 1912 erupts in Europe. France, Austria, Aragon and the Dual Commonwealth, with their colonies and other minor states, are in war against an alliance of England, Germany, Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
- Chamaïca declares independence from France.
- Civil War erupts in the Dual Commonwealth. Nationalist movements in Lithuania and Ruthenia show sympathy to the Allied Powers.
- England grants political independence to New South Wales under a military alliance. Complete independence is promised at the end of the Great War.
- Turkey invade Aragonese controlled Egypt in January and annexes the territory.
- The Dual Commonwealth Surrenders in May, soon followed by France and Austria in July. Without allies, Aragon seeks a conditional armistice which is granted in August.
- The Frankfurt conference begin soon after the recognition of the Aragonese armistice.
- In April, following separate negotiations, Austria, Italy, Lombardy, Bavaria and Helvetia agree to form a federation called Austrian-Italian Union. Favoured by referendum in each nation, the Union is ratified at Frankfurt.
- In December, the Frankfurt Pact is signed. The Dual Commonwealth is divided in four different nations: Poland, Lithuania, Russia and Ruthenia. Turkey is recognized full control of Arabia and Egypt. New South Wales's independence is recognized.
- Russia invades Ruthenia in January, and get some territorial concessions.
- Russia invades Novogorod in April. All the Swedish Commonwealth repeals the attack and by late July they had invaded Russia. Situation in Russia could not be legally resolved for the neutrality clauses of the Swedish Commonwealth constitutions, and the de facto occupation of Russia would last until November when the Czar of Russia accepted a surrendering without abdication.
- Lithuania: the White Ruthenian Massacre takes place; near 1000 non-combatant ethnic Ruthenians in Lithuania are killed by the Lithuanian government. Ruthenia declares war to Lithuania.
- The Lithuanian-Ruthenian war ends with the Peace of Warsaw. Several White Ruthenian provinces of Lithuania are incorporated to Ruthenia, but Lithuania keeps Vilnius.
- Second Russian-Ruthenian War and first Crimean-Ruthenian War. Basically a series of skirmishes to fix some pending border disputes.
- First Ruthenian Civil War. The National Government was soon overthrown.
- Polish-Ruthenian War. A small shooting war for a border dispute.
- Russian-Crimean War. A small shooting war triggered by ethnic Russians seeking independence from Crimea. Status quo was preserved.
- Second Polish-Ruthenian War (February-March) and third Russian-Ruthenian War (May-July).
- Portugal grants independence to Istmo.
- Hungary-Ruthenia War.
- Second Ruthenian Civil War.
- Castile is transformed in a parliamentary republic with a functional democracy.
- Second Crimean-Ruthenian War.
- Third Ruthenian Civil War (or Ruthenian secession war).
- Third Crimean-Ruthenian War.