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Timeline (Breitenfeld and Luetzen)

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6 November 1632

  • Gustav Adolph was grazed by a bullet, lost consciousness, and was evacuated from the field. He was reported dead to Bernhard Saxe-Weimar. His troops, hearing of his death, rallied and carried the day. It was in the evening as they camped that Gustav Adolph recovered consciousness, and the troops were overjoyed.

1633

  • Albrecht von Wallenstein enters negotiations with Sweden, France, and the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg. Through the negotiations he secures the Kingdom of Bohemia, under provision that he remain neutral for the remainder of the war.
  • This separate peace with Sweden and her Allies results in the Battle of Tabor and the subsequent Battle of Pisek. Sweden came to Wallenstein's aid, and together lead the Sack of Vienna. Despite this temporary abrogation of Bohemia's neutrality, Wallenstein remained true to his word.

1634

The Habsburgs scrambled to protect their hinterland, as an emboldened Ottoman Empire pushed up from the Balkans.

With half the Habsburgs distracted, England and the Netherlands moved against Belgium, and in a series of battles stripped away the jewel from Spain. Viewed with distrust, France made no move, as it eliminated some of the threat from the Bourbon's borders. Charles I happily returned these newly conquered lands to his son-in-law, William II

1641

Pope Urban VIII refused to recognize Cardinal Richelieu of France as a Papal legate, and likewise refused to elevate Jules Mazarin, and instead found an obscure relative of his own to appoint the post. This affront to Richelieu and France resulted in a breach with Rome, resulting in the War of French Excommunication.

1643

Rome was sacked by French forces, and the treasures of the Vatican plundered. Richelieu declared himself Patriarch of the French Catholic Church in schism with Rome, and appointed loyal bishops and Cardinals to positions in the French Church. The liturgy remained unchanged, but this was not to last long.

1644

Bavaria sues for peace with Sweden and Bohemia.

1648

Thirty Years War declared closed with a peace agreement drafted between the newly formed Netherlands, the Habsburgs, Sweden, Bohemia, Poland-Lithuania, France, England and what remained of Rome.

1649

Oliver Cromwell establishes the Commonwealth of England. He receives immediate support from France and Sweden, until he becomes a regicide.

Cardinal Jules Mazarin declares the schism between Paris and Rome irrevocable, and declares the French Catholic Church to be the Gallican Church, and institutes a liturgical reform, making France effectively a protestant nation.

In an effort to "exterminate the Catholic menace", Mazarin and Gustav Adolph committed troops and leadership to Cromwell's Irish campaign.

1650

Cromwell and Parliament offer a return to all Jews who had been exiled by Edward I. This strips the economic strength of the Spanish Netherlands.

1659

Cromwell is installed as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England.

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