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Timeline (Bolivar's Dream)

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This is a timeline for the Bolivar's Dream ATL.

Independencia Grita el Mundo Americano!; Independence Struggles

1810

  • Caracas, Cali, Antioquia, Mompós and Santa Fe declare their independence from Spain.
  • Several Colombian provinces band in the United Provinces of Nueva Granada.
  • July 20: José Miguel Pey is chosen president.

1811

  • March: Jorge Tadeo Lonzano is chosen president.
  • August: Antonio Nariño, a Centralist, becomes president.
  • Fights between centralist Cundinamarca and federalist Antioquia, Cartagena and Tunja begin. Each wants the capital.

1812

  • The War of 1812 between the US and Great Britain occurs.
  • October 4: The General Congress of the United Provinces takes place. It intends for a compromise. Camilo Torres, the delegate of Pamplona and the president, supports a loose federation with the state only taking care of customs, the army, mail and international position, while Bernardo Álvarez from Santa Fe supports an unitary, French-modelled republic. It came to naught.

1813

  • January 9: In San Victorino Square there's a fight between the Free State of Cundinamarca (the centralists) and the United Provinces of Nueva Granada (federalists)

1816 (POD)

  • Camilotorres

    Camilo Torres, leader of the Federalist position, was imprisoned instead of killed as in OTL.

    May 26: The United Provinces of Nueva Granada cease to exist after Pablo Morillo's reconquest of Santa Fe. Simón Bolívar is exiled to Jamaica, while Antorio Nariño is imprisoned.
  • October 5: Instead of being put to death, Camilo Torres is imprisoned in Cartagena.

1817

  • July 8: The Third Venezuelan Republic is established.
  • November 14: Policarpa Salavarrieta is executed.

1818

more to come...

1819

  • February 15: A congress planning the independence of Colombia begins.
  • June 4: General Bolívar crosses the Arauca River.
  • July 25: Bolívar wins in the Pantano de Vargas.
  • August 7: Morillo's campaign is destroyed in Boyacá.
  • Bandera de Francisco Miranda (1806)

    Colombia's first flag was based on that described by Francisco de Miranda, an early fighter for independence.

    August 10: Bolívar enters Santa Fe and declares the Republic of Colombia (República de Colombia).

1820

  • January 1: Spain's parliament is summoned.
  • October 10: Guayaquil declares independence and requests Colombian aid, beginning Colombia's process of expansion south.


La Libertad Sublime Derrama las Auroras; First Years, Establishment of Stability and Expansion

1821

  • May 6: General Antonio José de Sucre lands in Guayaquil.
  • June 24: Spain is defeated in western Venezuela.
  • August 12: Sucre defeats Spanish Francisco González in Yaguachi.
  • August 30: A congress is inaugurated in Cúcuta.
  • September 12: Sucre is almost entirely destroyed in Santa Rosa.
  • General Santander

    Francisco de Paula Santander was chosen as the first president of Colombia.

    October 3: The congress ends with the establishment of the Republic of Colombia and the drafting of Colombia's constitution, a compromise between federalists and centralists. The federalists take the civil government, with Francisco de Paula Santander as president and Camilo Torres as vice-president. Centralists are compensated with a military influence, with the inherited title of Lord Marshall (Señor Mariscal), leading the land army, held by Bolívar and the naval equivalent of Lord Admiral (Señor Admiral) led by Antonio Nariño.

1822

  • February 23: Sucre and San Martín-sent troops defeat the Spanish at Riobamba.
  • May 24: In Pichincha, the Spanish host is devastated. Quito is taken and joins Colombia.
  • May 30: San Martín leaves Perú and Bolívar and Sucre march south to take it.
  • July 15: Bolívar meets Spanish troops at the Battle of Tacna, smashing them and annexing Tacna to Guayaquil.

1823

  • May 10: Santander accords a deal with the United Kingdom and the United States, who bring in troops. This is the first time since American independence both nations have co-operated in any way.
  • July 3: Colombian troops meet a large Spanish contingent at Junín. The Spanish are crashed.
  • October 20: Colombian troops once again meet Spaniards off Lima, which also fail to stop the Colombians. Santander sends his address, the A las Gentes del Perú (to the Peoples of Perú), requesting them to join Colombia. They offer the aristocrats power as long as there is democratic representation.
  • Flag of Gran Colombia (1819)

    Colombia's second flag was first flown in the taking of Lima.

    December 13: With a triumphal entry in Lima, Perú is admitted as the provinces of Perú, Alto Perú and Acre.


1824

  • May 5: Colombia decides to try to get the Cono Sur nations (Paraguay, the United Provinces of Río de la Plata and Chile) into the federation, and arranges a congress with the governments there (going as far as inviting representatives from Walmapu [the Mapuche], both the Congress of Tucumán and the League of Free Peoples' Argentinian factions and a representative from the Brazilio-Hispanic Cisplatina province) so to arrange a possible joining of the nations. The League and Paraguay are eager to join in the federation, as they had attempted a slightly more disunited state a few years back; the Cisplatinan government agrees to joining the coalition as long as it is freed from Brazil in any way possible, Chile's president Ramón Freire is initially hesitant but convinced of slowly joining into Colombia after promises of helping stop inland fighting.
  • May 20: The Congress ends with all nations agreeing to eventually join Colombia excepting the Mapuche and the Congress of Tucumán government. Both nations wearily leave garrisons in border troops.
  • June 1: Colombia's main host marches north from Perú and concentrates in Cartagena, where it begins training. The navy also concentrates there.
  • July 5: Noticing the armup, Havana's huge fortresses begin remilitarisation, as does the government of Haiti.

1825

  • March 2: Almost overnight, troops land near to Santiago de Cuba and lay siege and naval blockade to it.
  • June 10: A small group of patriots in Santiago revolt and take the keys to the city, surrendering it to Bolívar. Soon afterwards, the fortress at Guantánamo does the same without even the troops approaching.
  • July 14: The army begins moving west, while two smaller armies land in the Bay of Pigs and the Isla de la Juventud respectively.
  • October 2: A huge amount of land, including most of Puerto Rico and is occupied by Bolívar. Even then, Bolívar dared not seize Havana, which was at the time the most fortified city in the Americas.
  • October 10: Camilo Torres is chosen as president, and José María del Castillo as vice-president. It is the only ex-United Provinces of New Granada government and the oldest one to date,
  • November 10: Torres negotiates with fellow Liberals in Central America, who feel threatened by Mexico, into joining Colombia. President Manuel José Acre and the states of Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras agree, while Guatemala, Los Altos, El Salvador and most of the Conservatives reject vehemently.
  • December 2: José María Córdova is sent east into Great Britain so to request help in taking Havana. The aid is granted.

1826

  • February 15: A huge part of the Royal Navy, together with a quite large Colombian army, invades Havana. With heavy bombing of some fortifications, the fortress falls.
  • May 20: Córdova travels to Spain to sign a peace treaty. In it, Spain is forced to hand up Cuba and Puerto Rico, in return for Gibraltar. Colombia will pay Spain and Britain both 15 million dollars worth in silver and copper so to pay the losses.
  • June 15: Uruguayans rebel in Montevideo and seize the fortifications, declaring the nation part of Colombia. Brazil sends troops south.
  • August 10: Troops once again embark and march south, where they at last are allowed to rest for half a year in the border with Brazil.



1827

  • May 10: After an exceptionally prolonged leave of absence, the armies are once again placed into activity. They begin patrolling the Paraná and Uruguay rivers.
  • June 15: José María Córdova at last returns from Spain and moves on for diplomatic conferences to the remaining Central American states.
  • August 10: After Córdova's conference results fruitless, he returns to Colombia.

1828

  • May 10: After four Colombian Uruguay River patrols are killed in the bombing of an Uruguayan resistance holdout near the border, tensions begin to rise. Soon it is added to Uruguay claims for the lands Paraguay, Nueva Granada and Venezuela claim.
  • June 4: Córdova, Santander, Castillo and Torres attend a conference with Pedro I of Brazil. However, Pedro is soon angered and leaves the Conference. The liberals leave it to the army to sort the problem out.
  • July 12: Colombian troops in Acre accidentally shoot Brazilian ones. A state of war is declared.
  • August 4: Colombian troops march into Brazilian territory: General Páez, leading an Indian and llanero army into the Amazonia, Bolívar, with mountain men leads into Acre and Mato Grosso, and Sucre in the south leads infantry into Transplatina.
  • August 20: It soon becomes clear that while the Brazilians outnumber the Colombians almost two to one, the Colombians have far better fighting tactics. They begin bitterly fighting amongst the borders. In the south, Sucre decides to use guerrilla tactics to destroy the large Brazilian army.
  • October: A bitter stalemate occurs as Colombian troops have tried to use tactical superiority to attack Brazilian forces. However, as news of Sucre's guerrilla tactics success in the south spread, they start to adopt the way. In the north, Páez starts advancing down the Amazon, seizing Manaos in the 19th.U
  • Boldream Uruguay Flag

    The flag of the Uruguayan Province after declaring allegiance to Colombia.

    November 4: Cisplatina is entirely freed thanks to Sucre's guerrilla warfare. In Acre, Bolívar forces the Brazilians out of the plain lands while Páez continues to go on in his campaign through Amazonia.
  • December 4: Troops cross and fully occupy parts of the Mato Grosso, with Bolivarian troops founding the town of Puerto Bello in the Madeira River. In New Granada, tensions between centralists and federalists briefly resurge after a duel between prominent Federalist José Fernández Madrid and Centralist Antonio Nariño, in which Madrid results defeated and almost dead. This rises up concerns among the Federalist populace that a Centralist revolt would lead to full control by the Centralists of all the Colombian Government.


1829

End of the War of Brazil Boldream

The end of the War of the Brazil proved a crushing victory for the Colombians.

  • April 1: An end to the War of the Brazil is accorded after the fall of more of the Amazonia as well as the Misiones Orientales.
  • April 3: Colombian troops begin to retreat from Brazil. Those which are not permanent recruits of the quickly-solidifying army are allowed to return to their homes for the first permanent time since 1821.
  • June 5: A large Centralist rally occurs in Bogotá, something which continues worrying off Colombians fearing for a civil war.
  • José María Córdova

    José María Córdova, the architect of a stable Colombian government.

    October 10: Torres loses in favour of José María Córdova (aged only 30), who brings around his plans to reform Colombia into more of a compromise. To start this, he places Sucre (34), a Centralist and Bolivarianist, as vice-president so to show his support over military matters as well as political ones, and about how he wishes for a compromise to be established.
  • November 4: A new Constitutional Congress is established in Medellín and begins its plans of drafting a new constitution for the nation.

1830

  • February 14: The new Constitution-with some influence from both the USA and France-is established, with several new changes; instead of a civil-military rule compromise, it is established as a bipartisan (with room open for new political parties to open) system, with two parties, the Federalist Party and the Centralist Party in rule, a far easier and more established way so to create new established provinces and a proper political rights.
  • March 10: Guatemala, Los Altos and El Salvador join Mexico. Colombia and Mexico both plan congresses amongst themselves to unite the last Hispanic American colonies. The Liberals, supporting the federal structure of Colombia's and realising the huge political gain they might have with the strong liberal bases in New Granada and the northern Rio de la Plata go in favour, while the staunchly nationalistic Conservatives oppose in both sides.
  • March 26: The Book of Mormon is published.
  • April 14: The first slaves are imported by Texians into northern Mexico.
  • May: in the US, the Indian Removal Act is passed.


1831

  • January 1: A small Colombian (mostly Rioplatense) navy led by corsaire Hippolyte de Bouchard departs from Buenos Aires so to explore the Pacific.
  • April 4: the navy visits the Kingdom of Hawai'i, once again establishing relationships with it. A diplomat, Conservative and Mexican Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide (late Emperor Agustín's firstborn son) is left behind in Honolulu with a small corps under the protection of King Kamehameha III.
  • May: Slave expansion from the southern US into Texas and California continues despite demands from the government.
  • May 21: Pedro I of Brazil abdicates in favour of his son Pedro II.
  • August 26: A slave preacher, Nat Turner, rebels, as do the Seminole and Creek tribes. The Mexican government, disgruntled over slave immigration, sends secret support over.
  • August 30: José María Córdova, an Antioquian, begins development of Antioquia and its connections to the rest of Colombia. Similar enterprises are launched by the vice-president in his homeland of Venezuela and by the Peruvian and Chilean governors José de la Riva Agüero and José Joaquín Prieto Vial.
  • December 27: Charles Darwin embarks in the HMS Beagle in his expedition to the Galapagos (also Darwin) Isles.

1832

  • February 17: The Galapagos Isles are officially annexed by Colombia.
  • May: Two Indian brigades, the British and Mexican Bands, revolt against the United States in Illinois and Michigan Territory.
  • October 1: A Texian convention takes place. The Mexican government is able to appease the Texans.
  • November 4: Great Britain accords in a compromise with Colombia, handing up the Falklands in return for unique trading and fishing rights.


En Surcos de Dolores, El Bien Germina Ya; Problems with Anglo-America, Costly expansion north

1833

  • April 2: Three-year old Isabella of Castile becomes Queen Isabella II of Spain.
  • June 1: South Carolina revolts against the federal taxes. In Colombia, infrastructure development in certain areas continues.
  • July 4: Hippolyte's navy reaches Tahiti after a resting period in Hawai'i, where a process similar to that what happened to Kamehameha II occurs. The navy begins to return to Santiago.


1834

  • January 10: Sam Houston is imprisoned. Texians are outraged.
  • March 2: The Texian population demands more autonomy for their area, something which the US begins to openly support. Afraid of possible troubles, Mexico at last agrees to a congress so to join Colombia.
  • July 4: Mexico at last declares its allegiance to Colombia, expanding the nation by almost five million km. Troops are stationed in Northern Mexico.
  • October 10: Córdova (nowadays considered amongst the greatest presidents of Colombia) steps down. Peruvian José de la Riva Agüero (in a new, third party advocating more power for the military yet more federalism) is elected.


1835

  • Come And Take It Mural

    The Battle of Gonzales begun the revolution in Texas

    February 13: Texians rebel, demanding the ability to bring in slaves. The Colombians begin to mobilise near the borders with Texas. Agüero begins to consolidate his power by starting to slowly strip the rest of government of rights.
  • April 10: Agüero threatens the Congress of Tucumán with war if they do not immediately surrender their independence. They are forced to do so. The Mapuche, however, remain unruly.
  • May 15: Yucatán rebels against the centralised Mexico. It is granted autonomy in return for the relief of Mexican debts by the growingly-rich Colombian government.
  • October 2: Texians rebel and defeat a small Colombian garrison in Gonzales.
  • November 5: Texian troops move south and take a Colombian army in San Antonio by surprise, forcing them to retreat.


1836

  • January 5: A far larger Colombian army marches up into Texas, and defeat them near Mathis, and then re-take San Antonio. However, a large amount of Texians flee into the Alamo, nearby.
  • February 10: The Mexican army storms the Alamo, with many killed. The rest are deported into Louisiana and Mississippi States.
  • May 15: The final troops of the Texan Republic are rounded up and destroyed near OTL Houston, Texas.
  • June 10: Sam Houston, in captivity, is about to agree to a surrender when something surprising happens; the United States demands Colombia leave Texas. While Colombia is willing to continue to fight, the British Consul advises the Colombians it will be better to evade a war, and reluctantly, after the treaty was modified to include an independent Texan Republic east of the Nueces, plus most of the Comancheria, established as a buffer state. Texas would also allow whatever number of Colombian immigrants and set no taxes when trading with Colombia; it also vowed never to join the USA.
  • August 2: In one of the few instances of Americo-Colombian cooperation, America agrees to deport its Indians to the Texan Republic's Comancheria. With the area reaching 85,000 Indians, approximately the same as the Texian population, it is agreed the Comancheria will be split apart from Texas into An independent Indian nation, Indiana. In compensation, Mexico agrees to give up the land between the Rio Grande in return for payment and a say in Texas' and Indiana's governments.
  • July 2: The US, dissatisfied, sends troops planning to eventually take both Texas and Indiana by force, led by General Robert E. Lee. Tensions begin to rise.
  • August 1: Colombia makes a claim against the US, demanding troops to leave the borders with Texas and Indiana. The US refuses. Tensions continue.
  • August 10: With Colombia in open hostility against the US and most eyes focused on Washington and not within, Agüero stages a coup d'etat against the legislative branch of the government. He becomes Dictator of Colombia.

1837

  • February 7: Since the Mayans noticed the large amount of support Colombia gave in favour of the Indianan state being established, they request autonomous status of their own. However, Agüero (rather bluntly) declines their idea, stating that "any help to the Indians was only made to stop them [the United States]".

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